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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927250/gut-microbiota-and-the-liver
#1
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Giuseppe G Caprio, Vittorio M Ormando, Carmela Loguercio
Nowadays liver diseases represent one of major healthy problems in the world in terms of morbidity and mortality. The high prevalence of liver pathologies represents the key point to understand the necessity to identify the pathogenetic mechanisms that support these disorders in order to nurse them. Alterations of intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of liver damage progression, in addition to direct injury resulting from different causal agents. Gut microbiota is considered both as a promoting factor and as a potential therapeutic target of a large number of liver pathologies due to the connection between intestine and liver: the gut-liver axis...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927249/gut-microbiota-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders
#2
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Rosa DI Sarno, Valentina Giorgio, Luca Miele
Obesity, diabetes and metabolic disorders represent hugely significant problems concerning the health in Western countries and the study of gut microbiota in metabolic pathologies is part of this framework. Diet effects on intestinal microbial composition and its role in pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for both obesity and systemic, hepatic and adipose tissue inflammation, represent at the moment one of this mostpromising topic in gastroenterology research. Gut health safety is essential, but it needs to be further explored in order to understand and interrupt the pathogenetic mechanisms, which support a large number of diseases...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925102/continued-alcohol-misuse-in-human-cirrhosis-is-associated-with-an-impaired-gut-liver-axis
#3
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, Derrick Zhao, Hajime Takei, Andrew Fagan, Phillip Hylemon, Huiping Zhou, William M Pandak, Hiroshi Nittono, Oliver Fiehn, Nita Salzman, Mary Holtz, Pippa Simpson, Edith A Gavis, Douglas M Heuman, Runping Liu, Dae Joong Kang, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis and alcohol can independently affect the gut-liver axis with systemic inflammation. However their concurrent impact in humans is unclear. AIM: Determine the effect of continued alcohol misuse on the gut-liver axis in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Age and MELD-balanced cirrhotic patients who were currently drinking (Alc) or abstinent (NAlc), and healthy controls underwent serum and stool collection. A subset underwent upper endoscopy and colonoscopy for biopsies and duodenal fluid collection...
September 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923247/effects-of-plant-and-animal-based-high-fat-diets-on-lipid-storage-and-distribution-in-environmental-bacteria-colonized-gnotobiotic-mice
#4
Yi-Hsun Chen, Chien-Chao Chiu, Shao-Wen Hung, Ju-Yun Liu, Yu-Chih Wang, Qiang Lv, Cheng-Chih Hsu, Yi-Wen Huang, Wen-Ching Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Ter-Hsin Chen
Different edible oils such as lard and soybean oil have been reported to interact with the gut microbiota, affecting host lipid metabolism. However, whether bacteria derived from the environment influence host lipid metabolism remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the roles of environmental bacteria in host lipid storage and distribution with various edible oils. Gnotobiotic C57BL/6JNarl mice were inoculated with Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus and Paenibacillus azoreducens and then fed either a normal diet (LabDiet 5010, control group) or a diet containing 60% lard (L-group) or soybean oil (S-group) for 18 months...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921469/microbial-factors-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancers
#5
Hong Sheng Ong, Howard Chi Ho Yim
The intestinal microbes form a symbiotic relationship with their human host to harvest energy for themselves and their host and to shape the immune system of their host. However, alteration of this relationship, which is named as a dysbiosis, has been associated with the development of different inflammatory diseases and cancers. It is found that metabolites, cellular components, and virulence factors derived from the gut microbiota interact with the host locally or systemically to modulate the dysbiosis and the development of these diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#6
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906444/short-term-intake-of-a-fructose-fat-and-cholesterol-rich-diet-causes-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-effect-of-antibiotic-treatment
#7
Annette Brandt, Cheng Jun Jin, Katja Nolte, Cathrin Sellmann, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Bergheim
Intestinal microbiota and barrier functions seem to play an important role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether these changes are an early event in the development of NAFLD or are primarily associated with later stages of the disease, has not yet been clarified. Using a pair-feeding model, we determined the effects of a short-term intake of a fat-, fructose- and cholesterol-rich diet (FFC) on the development of early hepatic steatosis and markers of intestinal barrier function in mice treated with and without non-resorbable antibiotics (AB)...
September 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895246/influence-of-indigenous-microbiota-on-experimental-toxoplasmosis-in-conventional-and-germ-free-mice
#8
Bruna B Nascimento, Christiane T Cartelle, Maria de L Noviello, Breno V Pinheiro, Ricardo W de Almeida Vitor, Danielle da G Souza, Simone de Vasconcelos Generoso, Valbert N Cardoso, Flaviano Dos S Martins, Jacques R Nicoli, Rosa M E Arantes
Toxoplasmosis represents one of the most common zoonosis worldwide. Its agent, Toxoplasma gondii, causes a severe innate pro-inflammatory response. The indigenous intestinal microbiota promotes host animal homoeostasis and may protect the host against pathogens. Germ-free (GF) animals provide an important tool for the study of interactions between host and microbiota. In this study, we assessed the role of indigenous microorganisms in disease development utilizing a murine toxoplasmosis model, which includes conventional (CV) and GF NIH Swiss mice...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892150/hepatic-inflammation-caused-by-dysregulated-bile-acid-synthesis-is-reversible-by-butyrate-supplementation
#9
Lili Sheng, Prasant Kumar Jena, Ying Hu, Hui-Xin Liu, Nidhi Nagar, Karen M Kalanetra, Samuel William French, Samuel Wheeler French, David A Mills, Yu-Jui Yvonne Wan
Dysregulated bile acid (BA) synthesis or reduced farnesoid x receptor (FXR) levels are found in patients having metabolic diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis or cancer. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between butyrate and dysregulated BA synthesis-induced hepatitis as well as the effect of butyrate in reversing the liver pathology. Wild type (WT) and FXR knockout (KO) male mice were placed on control (CD) or Western diet (WD) for 15 months. In the presence or absence of butyrate supplementation, feces obtained from 15-month-old WD-fed FXR KO mice, which had severe hepatitis and liver tumors, were transplanted to 7-month-old WD-fed FXR KO for 3 months...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888875/imazalil-exposure-induces-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-hepatic-metabolism-disorder-in-zebrafish
#10
Cuiyuan Jin, Ting Luo, Zhihong Zhu, Zihong Pan, Jiajing Yang, Wenchao Wang, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
The fungicide imazalil (IMZ) is used extensively to preserve freshness, prevent decay and control fungal infections in fruits, vegetables or other plants. Recently, some studies have reported that the real in aquatic systems have reached very high levels. Here, male adult zebrafish were exposed to 100 and 1000μg/L IMZ for 1, 7, 21days, and the gut microbiota and hepatic metabolism were evaluated. Exposure to a high concentration of IMZ for 21days decreased mucin secretion in the gut. Sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed a significant increase in the diversity of gut microbiota in male zebrafish...
September 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880885/markers-of-intestinal-permeability-are-already-altered-in-early-stages-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-studies-in-children
#11
Anika Nier, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Barbara Maier, Ina Bergheim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have shown that patients with manifest non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), e.g. steatosis grade 3 or steatohepatitis with or without beginning fibrosis frequently show altered fecal microbiota composition and elevated bacterial endotoxin levels. However, if these alterations are signs of a progressing disease or are already found in initial disease stages has not yet been clarified. METHODS: Twenty children with simple steatosis (grade 1) diagnosed by ultrasound and 29 normal weight healthy control children (age <10 years) were included in the study (mean age 7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880224/parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota
#12
REVIEW
Monika Cahova, Miriam Bratova, Petr Wohl
Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides life-saving nutritional support in situations where caloric supply via the enteral route cannot cover the necessary needs of the organism. However, it does have serious adverse effects, including parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The development of liver injury associated with PN is multifactorial, including non-specific intestine inflammation, compromised intestinal permeability, and barrier function associated with increased bacterial translocation, primary and secondary cholangitis, cholelithiasis, short bowel syndrome, disturbance of hepatobiliary circulation, lack of enteral nutrition, shortage of some nutrients (proteins, essential fatty acids, choline, glycine, taurine, carnitine, etc...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878863/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-tissue-homeostasis-and-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Aline Ignacio, Cristiane Naffah Souza Breda, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered family of innate immune cells. They are a part of the innate immune system, but develop from the lymphoid lineage. They lack pattern-recognition receptors and rearranged receptors, and therefore cannot directly mediate antigen specific responses. The progenitors specifically associated with the ILCs lineage have been uncovered, enabling the distinction between ILCs and natural killer cells. Based on the requirement of specific transcription factors and their patterns of cytokine production, ILCs are categorized into three subsets (ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3)...
August 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878025/gallbladder-derived-surfactant-protein-d-regulates-gut-commensal-bacteria-for-maintaining-intestinal-homeostasis
#14
Hana Sarashina-Kida, Hideo Negishi, Junko Nishio, Wataru Suda, Yuki Nakajima, Mika Yasui-Kato, Keiko Iwaisako, Sujin Kang, Nobuyasu Endo, Hideyuki Yanai, Masataka Asagiri, Hiroshi Kida, Masahira Hattori, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Tadatsugu Taniguchi
The commensal microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract is essential in maintaining homeostasis. Indeed, dysregulation in the repertoire of microbiota can result in the development of intestinal immune-inflammatory diseases. Further, this immune regulation by gut microbiota is important systemically, impacting health and disease of organ systems beyond the local environment of the gut. What has not been explored is how distant organs might in turn shape the microbiota via microbe-targeted molecules. Here, we provide evidence that surfactant protein D (SP-D) synthesized in the gallbladder and delivered into intestinal lumen binds selectively to species of gut commensal bacteria...
September 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877164/in-vivo-therapeutic-effect-of-combination-treatment-with-metformin-and-scutellaria-baicalensis-on-maintaining-bile-acid-homeostasis
#15
Kyungsun Han, Shambhunath Bose, Jing-Hua Wang, Soo-Kyoung Lim, Young-Won Chin, Young-Mi Kim, Han-Seok Choi, Hojun Kim
The radix of Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) is a herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat metabolic diseases. Several main components, including baicalin and wogonoside, possess anti-dyslipidemia, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. We hypothesized that co-administration of SB extract and metformin exerts a better effect on obesity-induced insulin resistance and lipid metabolism than treatment with metformin alone. We compared the effect of metformin (100 mg/10 mL/kg/day) alone with co-administration of metformin (100 mg/5 mL/kg/day) and SB extract (200 mg/5 mL/kg/day) on Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, a useful model of type II diabetes with obesity, and used Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats as a control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876011/a-study-of-the-prebiotic-like-effects-of-tomato-juice-consumption-in-rats-with-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#16
F J García-Alonso, R González-Barrio, G Martín-Pozuelo, N Hidalgo, I Navarro-González, D Masuero, E Soini, U Vrhovsek, M J Periago
Gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We investigated whether tomato juice consumption for 5 weeks could ameliorate high-fat diet-induced alterations in certain intestinal bacterial groups and products arising from their metabolism (short-chain fatty acids and microbial phenolic catabolites). For this, we used a rat model with NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet, involving four experimental groups: NA (standard diet and water), NL (standard diet and tomato juice), HA (high-fat diet and water) and HL (high-fat diet and tomato juice)...
September 6, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875318/influence-of-gut-microbiota-on-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
REVIEW
Fabiana de Faria Ghetti, Daiane Gonçalves Oliveira, Juliano Machado de Oliveira, Lincoln Eduardo Villela Vieira de Castro Ferreira, Dionéia Evangelista Cesar, Ana Paula Boroni Moreira
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the presence of steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, with or without fibrosis. The prevalence of NASH has increased with the obesity epidemic, but its etiology is multifactorial. The current studies suggest the role of gut microbiota in the development and progression of NASH. The aim is to review the studies that investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and NASH. These review also discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms and the influence of diet on the gut-liver axis...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874357/reduced-obesity-diabetes-and-steatosis-upon-cinnamon-and-grape-pomace-are-associated-with-changes-in-gut-microbiota-and-markers-of-gut-barrier
#18
Matthias Van Hul, Lucie Geurts, Hubert Plovier, Céline Druart, Amandine Everard, Marcus Ståhlman, Moez Rhimi, Kleopatra Chira, Pierre-Louis Teissedre, Nathalie M Delzenne, Emmanuelle Maguin, Angèle Guilbot, Amandine Brochot, Philippe Gerard, Fredrik Bäckhed, Patrice D Cani
Increasing evidence suggests that polyphenols have a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to assess the metabolic outcomes of two polyphenol-containing extracts from cinnamon bark (CBE) and grape pomace (GPE) on C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Both CBE and GPE were able to decrease fat mass gain and adipose tissue inflammation in mice fed a HFD without reducing food intake. This was associated with reduced liver steatosis and lower plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870406/probiotics-and-gastrointestinal-conditions-an-overview-of-evidence-from-the-cochrane-collaboration
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Parker, Tina Roy, Christopher R D'Adamo, L Susan Wieland
Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota are associated with a number of gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, including diarrhea, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and liver diseases. Probiotics, live microorganisms that may confer a health benefit to the host when consumed, are commonly used as a therapy for treating these GI conditions by means of modifying the composition or activity of the microbiota. The purpose of this review was to summarize the evidence on probiotics and GI conditions available from Cochrane, a nonprofit organization that produces rigorous and high-quality systematic reviews of health interventions...
July 6, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861740/gut-microbiota-and-physiologic-bowel-18-f-fdg-uptake
#20
Ji Yeon Kang, Han-Na Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Yeojun Yun, Seungho Ryu, Hocheol Shin, Hyung-Lae Kim
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between physiologic bowel FDG uptake and gut microbiota. FDG uptake in the normal large and small intestine is widely variable both in distribution and intensity. The etiology of physiologic bowel (18)F-FDG activity remains unknown. RESULTS: We included 63 healthy male subjects. After overnight fasting, blood samples and (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans were taken. Fecal samples were collected, and gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing...
August 31, 2017: EJNMMI Research
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