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microbiota and liver

Shenglin Fang, Zhao Zhuo, Xiaonan Yu, Haichao Wang, Jie Feng
The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of excess iron in a liquid iron preparation (especially on intestinal barrier function) and the possible etiology of side effects or diseases caused by the excess iron. In study 1, forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (4-5 wk old) were subjected to oral gavage with 1 ml vehicle (0.01 mol/L HCl) or 1 ml liquid iron preparation containing 8 mg, 16 mg or 24 mg of iron for 30 d. Iron status, oxidative stress, histology (H&E staining), ultrastructure (electron microscopy) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) in the intestines and liver were assessed...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Sonia Spitzer, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip W J Burnet
Olanzapine is an effective antipsychotic drug but since it causes significant weight gain, it is not well tolerated by psychosis patients. The prebiotic, B-GOS® , attenuates metabolic dysfunction in obese subjects, and in rodents, alters central NMDA receptors and may affect serotonin receptors that are relevant in psychosis. We have determined whether B-GOS® influenced olanzapine-associated weight gain and central NMDA and serotonin receptors. Circulating acetate, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNFα, liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), white adipose tissue (WAT) acetate receptor GPR43, and specific faecal bacteria genera were also measured to provide mechanistic information...
March 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Raffaella Mastrocola, Ilario Ferrocino, Erica Liberto, Fausto Chiazza, Alessia Sofia Cento, Debora Collotta, Giulia Querio, Debora Nigro, Valeria Bitonto, Juan Carlos Cutrin, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Mariaconcetta Durante, Emanuela Masini, Manuela Aragno, Chiara Cordero, Luca Cocolin, Massimo Collino
Despite clinical findings suggesting that the form (liquid versus solid) of the sugars may significantly affect the development of metabolic diseases, no experimental data are available on the impact of their formulations on gut microbiota, integrity and hepatic outcomes. In the present sudy, C57Bl/6j mice were fed a standard diet plus water (SD), a standard diet plus 60% fructose syrup (L-Fr) or a 60% fructose solid diet plus water (S-Fr) for 12 weeks. Gut microbiota was characterized through 16S rRNA phylogenetic profiling and shotgun sequencing of microbial genes in ileum content and related volatilome profiling...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Maggie A Stanislawski, Catherine A Lozupone, Brandie D Wagner, Merete Eggesbø, Marci K Sontag, Nichole Nusbacher, Mercedes Martinez, Dana Dabelea
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence supports that the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and may also offer avenues for treatment or prevention. METHODS: We investigated the associations among gut microbiota, diet and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) in 107 adolescents. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to assess HFF, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on collected fecal samples. Dietary intake was assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Murphy L Y Wan, Hani El-Nezami
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver cancer, is one of the dreaded complications of chronic liver disease. Recent experimental and clinical studies have revealed that the alteration of gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in the onset of chronic liver diseases, including HCC. Altered gut microbiota and endotoxemia are increasingly recognized as critical components in promoting the progression of chronic liver diseases to HCC. Probiotics have been suggested as a novel, safe and cost-effective approach to prevent or treat HCC...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Rina Komazaki, Sayaka Katagiri, Hirokazu Takahashi, Shogo Maekawa, Takahiko Shiba, Yasuo Takeuchi, Yoichiro Kitajima, Anri Ohtsu, Sayuri Udagawa, Naoki Sasaki, Kazuki Watanabe, Noriko Sato, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Yuichiro Eguchi, Keizo Anzai, Yuichi Izumi
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liang Lu, Zhiqin Wan, Ting Luo, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Microplastic (MP) has become a concerning global environmental problem. It is toxic to aquatic organisms and can spread through the food chain to ultimately pose a threat to humans. In the environment, MP can interact with microbes and act as a microbial habitat. However, effects of polystyrene MP on the gut microbiota in mammals remain unclear. Here, male mice were exposed to two different sizes of polystyrene MP for 5 weeks to explore its effect. We observed that oral exposure to 1000 μg/L of 0.5 and 50 μm polystyrene MP decreased the body, liver and lipid weights in mice...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jizhou Xia, Cuiyuan Jin, Zihong Pan, Liwei Sun, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Lead (Pb) is one of the most prevalent toxic, nonessential heavy metals that can contaminate food and water. In this study, effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of Pb on metabolism and gut microbiota were evaluated in mice. It was observed that exposure of mice to 0.1mg/L Pb, supplied via drinking water, for 15weeks increased hepatic TG and TCH levels. The levels of some key genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver increased significantly in Pb-treated mice. For the gut microbiota, at the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes changed obviously in the feces and the cecal contents of mice exposed to 0...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shenhai Gong, Tian Lan, Liyan Zeng, Haihua Luo, Xiaoyu Yang, Na Li, Xiaojiao Chen, Zhanguo Liu, Rui Li, Sanda Win, Shuwen Liu, Hongwei Zhou, Bernd Schnabl, Yong Jiang, Neil Kaplowitz, Peng Chen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of acute liver failure worldwide. It is well established that the liver damage induced by acetaminophen exhibits diurnal variation. However, the detailed mechanism for the hepatotoxic variation is not clear. Here we aimed to determine the relative contributions of gut microbiota in modulating the diurnal variation of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP. METHODS: Male Balb/C mice were treated with or without antibiotics and orally administrated a single dose of APAP (300 mg/kg) at ZT0 (when the light is on-start of resting period) and ZT12 (when the light is off-start of active period)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Rajesh Dabur, Amey Shirolkar, Vijender Mishra, Baljeet Singh Yadav
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption damages the intestine and liver cells directly as well as through unbalancing the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to correlate the alcohol consumption and change in urinary metabolites profile linked with gut microbiota. METHOD: Non-alcoholic (control) healthy (n=22) and moderate alcoholic (n=26) males with an average age of 39.3±1.83 years subjected to alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) were considered for study...
March 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Tasha Barr, Suhas Sureshchandra, Paul Ruegger, Jingfei Zhang, Wenxiu Ma, James Borneman, Kathleen Grant, Ilhem Messaoudi
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results in increased intestinal permeability, nutrient malabsorption, and increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these morbidities remains limited because studies to date have relied almost exclusively on short-term heavy/binge drinking rodent models and colonic biopsies/fecal samples collected from AUD subjects with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consequently, the dose- and site-dependent impact of chronic alcohol consumption in the absence of overt liver disease remains poorly understood...
March 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
Shoji Yamada, Yoko Takashina, Mitsuhiro Watanabe, Ryogo Nagamine, Yoshimasa Saito, Nobuhiko Kamada, Hidetsugu Saito
Gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, understanding of the precise mechanism of this process remains incomplete. A new class steatohepatitis-inducing high-fat diet (HFD), namely STHD-01, can promote the development of HCC without the administration of chemical carcinogens. Using this diet, we comprehensively analyzed changes in the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions during the development of HCC in NASH...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Qingqing Feng, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
The gut microbiota, as the main member in gut microecology, is an essential mediator in health and disease. The gut microbiota interacts with various organs and systems in the body, including brain, lung, liver, bone, cardiovascular system, and others. Microbiota-derived metabolites such as the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate are primary signals, which link the gut microbiota and physiology. Recently, the gut microbiota has been identified as the origin of a number of diseases by influencing the related cell signaling pathways such as WNT/beta-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer and T cell receptor signaling in the central nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hengchang Sun, Zhipeng Lin, Lu Zhao, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Hongye Jiang, Zeli Tang, Xinyi Zhou, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Pengli Ren, Honglin Qu, Jinsi Lin, Xuerong Li, Jin Xu, Yan Huang, Xinbing Yu
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Effective prevention strategies are urgently needed to control this food-borne infectious disease. Previous studies indicated that paramyosin of C. sinensis (CsPmy) is a potential vaccine candidate. METHODS: We constructed a recombinant plasmid of PEB03-CotC-CsPmy, transformed it into Bacillus subtilis WB600 strain (B.s-CotC-CsPmy), and confirmed CsPmy expression on the spore surface by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Yung-Tsung Chen, Yu-Chun Lin, Jin-Seng Lin, Ning-Sun Yang, Ming-Ju Chen
SCOPE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease that is concomitant with obesity, resulting in increased mortality. To date, the efficiency of NAFLD treatment still needs to be improved. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus mali APS1, which was isolated from sugary kefir, on hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sprague Dawley rats were fed a control diet, a high-fat diet with saline and a high-fat diet with APS1 intervention by gavage daily for 12 weeks...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Jacob E Friedman, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Alba Alfonso-Garcia, Alexander Fast, Rachel C Janssen, Taylor K Soderborg, Aimee L Anderson, Julie A Reisz, Angelo D'Alessandro, Daniel N Frank, Charles E Robertson, Becky A de la Houssaye, Linda K Johnson, David J Orlicky, Xiaoxin X Wang, Moshe Levi, Eric O Potma, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher
Increasingly, evidence suggests that exposure to maternal obesity creates an inflammatory environment in utero , exerting long-lasting postnatal signatures on the juvenile innate immune system and microbiome that may predispose offspring to development of fatty liver disease. We found that exposure to a maternal Western-style diet (WD) accelerated fibrogenesis in the liver of offspring and was associated with early recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages at 8-12 weeks and microbial dysbiosis as early as 3 weeks of age...
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
Qian Zhang, Hongyue Yu, Xinhua Xiao, Ling Hu, Fengjiao Xin, Xiaobing Yu
Background & Aims: Accumulating research has addressed the linkage between the changes to gut microbiota structure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inulin is one type of soluble dietary fiber that can alleviate T2D. As a prebiotic, inulin cannot be digested by humans, but rather is digested by probiotics. However, whether inulin treatment can benefit the entire gut bacteria community remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-treated diabetic, normal control, and inulin-treated normal control rats...
2018: PeerJ
Kaeko Murota, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Mariko Uehara
Several dietary flavonoids exhibit anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-osteoporotic activities relevant to prevention of chronic diseases, including lifestyle-related diseases. Dietary flavonoids (glycoside forms) are enzymatically hydrolyzed and absorbed in the intestine, and are conjugated to their glucuronide/sulfate forms by phase II enzymes in epithelial cells and the liver. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the metabolism of flavonoids found in foods. Some specific products of bacterial transformation, such as ring-fission products and reduced metabolites, exhibit enhanced properties...
March 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, I Jane Cox, Hiroshi Nittono, Hajime Takei, Melanie White, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Douglas M Heuman, Ho Chong Gilles, Phillip Hylemon, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Min Kim, Jin Xu, Roger Williams, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, William M Pandak, Patrick M Gillevet
Liver transplant (LT) improves daily function and ameliorates gut microbial composition. However, the effect of LT on microbial functionality, which can be related to overall patient benefit, is unclear and could affect the post-LT course. AIMS: To determine the effect of LT on gut microbial functionality focusing on endotoxemia, bile acid (BA), ammonia metabolism and lipidomics. METHOD: We enrolled outpatient cirrhotic patients on the LT list and followed them till 6 months post-LT...
March 3, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Kyosuke Kanai, Ah-Mee Park, Akiko Watanabe, Tomohiro Arikawa, Teruhito Yasui, Hiroki Yoshida, Ikuo Tsunoda, Osamu Yoshie
IL-27 is an immunoregulatory cytokine consisting of p28 and EBI3. Its receptor also has two subunits, WSX1 and gp130. Although IL-27 promotes Th1 differentiation in naive T cells, it also induces IL-10 expression in effector Th1 cells to curtail excessive immune responses. By using p28-deficient mice and WSX1-deficient mice (collectively called IL-27-deficient mice), we examined the role of IL-27 in primary infection by murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68), a murine model of EBV. Upon airway infection with MHV68, IL-27-deficient mice had more aggravated lung inflammation than wild-type mice, although MHV68 infection per se was better controlled in IL-27-deficient mice...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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