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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321050/alteration-of-gut-microbial-community-after-n-n-dimethylformamide-exposure
#1
Man Zhang, Min Zheng, Zhijun Wu, Mingyue Guan, Shuai Liu, Wenjin Zhao, Juan Cheng
N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF), a solvent commonly used in factories, can induce liver toxicities, including hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatoma. It is well known that the gut microbial community plays a role in the metabolism of many toxic substance and in liver regeneration. However, the effect of DMF on rat gut microbial community is poorly understood. The gut microbiotas in control rats and rats exposed to DMF were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The levels of biochemical parameters in the serum of rats, including cholesterol, bile acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), were evaluated...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302863/transfer-of-dysbiotic-gut-microbiota-has-beneficial-effects-on-host-liver-metabolism
#2
Simon Nicolas, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Audren Fournel, Jerome Gilleron, Pascale Klopp, Aurelie Waget, Franck Ceppo, Alysson Marlin, Roshan Padmanabhan, Jason S Iacovoni, François Tercé, Patrice D Cani, Jean-François Tanti, Remy Burcelin, Claude Knauf, Mireille Cormont, Matteo Serino
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been implicated in a variety of systemic disorders, notably metabolic diseases including obesity and impaired liver function, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. To investigate this question, we transferred caecal microbiota from either obese or lean mice to antibiotic-free, conventional wild-type mice. We found that transferring obese-mouse gut microbiota to mice on normal chow (NC) acutely reduces markers of hepatic gluconeogenesis with decreased hepatic PEPCK activity, compared to non-inoculated mice, a phenotypic trait blunted in conventional NOD2 KO mice...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300220/effects-of-gliadin-consumption-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-metabolic-homeostasis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#3
Li Zhang, Daniel Andersen, Henrik Munch Roager, Martin Iain Bahl, Camilla Hartmann Friis Hansen, Niels Banhos Danneskiold-Samsøe, Karsten Kristiansen, Ilinca Daria Radulescu, Christian Sina, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Axel Kornerup Hansen, Susanne Brix, Lars I Hellgren, Tine Rask Licht
Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects of an obesogenic diet. Mice were fed either a defined high-fat diet (HFD) containing 4% gliadin (n = 20), or a gliadin-free, isocaloric HFD (n = 20) for 23 weeks. Combined analysis of several parameters including insulin resistance, histology of liver and adipose tissue, intestinal microbiota in three gut compartments, gut barrier function, gene expression, urinary metabolites and immune profiles in intestinal, lymphoid, liver and adipose tissues was performed...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297794/-research-advances-in-autoimmune-liver-diseases-in-2016
#4
B Li, Q X Wang, X Ma
Autoimmune liver diseases are a group of abnormal autoimmune-mediated inflammatory hepatobiliary injuries, mainly including autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), primary biliary cholangitis(PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune liver diseases, an important type of non-viral liver disease, have become a prominent issue in hepatology. In 2016, many new advances have been achieved in the clinical and basic research on autoimmune liver diseases, including the phase 3 clinical trial of obeticholic acid, the proposal of UK-PBC risk score, and the research on gut microbiota associated with PSC...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292401/what-bariatric-surgery-can%C3%A2-teach-us-about-endoluminal-treatment-of-obesity%C3%A2-and-metabolic-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Lee M Kaplan
Bariatric surgical procedures, including gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion, are the most effective and durable treatments for obesity. In addition, These operations induce metabolic changes that provide weight-independent improvement in type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. Initially thought to work by mechanical restriction of food intake or malabsorption of ingested nutrients, these procedures are now known to work through complex changes in neuroendocrine and immune signals emanating from the gut, including peptide hormones, bile acids, vagal nerve activity, and metabolites generated by the gut microbiota, all collaborating to reregulate appetite, food preference, and energy expenditure...
April 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283691/-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-by-nutritional-interventions
#6
S Derer, H Lehnert, C Sina, A E Wagner
Humans live in symbiosis with billions of commensal bacteria. The so-called microbiota live on different biological interfaces such as the skin, the urogenital tract and the gastrointestinal tract. Commensal bacteria replace potentially pathogenic microbes, synthesize vitamins and ferment dietary fibre. An imbalance in the bacterial composition of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with various diseases including gut-associated disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
March 10, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265110/bifidobacterium-breve-with-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-alters-the-composition-distribution-and-transcription-factor-activity-associated-with-metabolism-and-absorption-of-fat
#7
Elaine Patterson, Rebecca Wall, Sara Lisai, R Paul Ross, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Sebastiano Banni, Eamonn M Quigley, Fergus Shanahan, Catherine Stanton
This study focused on the mechanisms that fatty acid conjugating strains - Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 and Bifidobacterium breve DPC 6330 - influence lipid metabolism when ingested with α-linolenic acid (ALA) enriched diet. Four groups of BALB/c mice received ALA enriched diet (3% (w/w)) either alone or in combination with B. breve NCIMB 702258 or B. breve DPC 6330 (10(9) CFU/day) or unsupplemented control diet for six weeks. The overall n-3 PUFA score was increased in all groups receiving the ALA enriched diet...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257306/intestinal-microbiota-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#8
Katharina Brandl, Bernd Schnabl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver disease with high prevalence in western countries. Progression from NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs in 10-20%. NASH pathogenesis is multifactorial including genetic and environmental factors. The gut microbiota is involved in disease progression and its role is complex. RECENT FINDINGS: NASH is associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota, although findings in recent studies are inconsistent...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253210/the-association-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-genetic-polymorphisms-a-multicenter-study
#9
Ahmet Uygun, Kadir Ozturk, Hakan Demirci, Ali Oztuna, Fatih Eren, Salih Kozan, Yusuf Yilmaz, Omer Kurt, Turker Turker, Sezgin Vatansever, Emrah Alper, Belkis Unsal
INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence suggests that multiple factors, such as insulin resistance, nutritional factors, gut microbiota, and hormones released from the adipose tissue, act together on genetically predisposed individuals. We aimed to investigate whether various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and severity of liver damage in the Anatolian population. METHODS: Two hundred and sixteen patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 150 control participants, aged 18-70 years, were consecutively enrolled in this multicenter study...
April 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249783/diet-driven-microbiota-dysbiosis-is-associated-with-vagal-remodeling-and-obesity
#10
Tanusree Sen, Carolina R Cawthon, Benjamin Thomas Ihde, Andras Hajnal, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is one of the major health issues in the United States. Consumption of diets rich in energy, notably from fats and sugars (high-fat/high-sugar diet: HF/HSD) is linked to the development of obesity and a popular dietary approach for weight loss is to reduce fat intake. Obesity research traditionally uses low and high fat diets and there has been limited investigation of the potential detrimental effects of a low-fat/high-sugar diet (LF/HSD) on body fat accumulation and health. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of HF/HSD and LF/HSD on microbiota composition, gut inflammation, gut-brain vagal communication and body fat accumulation...
February 26, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249275/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-signaling-modulates-metabolic-disease
#11
Frank J Gonzalez, Changtao Jiang, Cen Xie, Andrew D Patterson
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates the synthesis, transport and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BA) by modulating the expression of related genes in the liver and small intestine. The composition of the gut microbiota is correlated with metabolic diseases, notably obesity and non-alcoholic fatty acid disease (NAFLD). Recent studies revealed that bacterial metabolism of BA can modulate FXR signaling in the intestine by altering the composition and concentrations of FXR agonist and antagonist. FXR agonist enhances while FXR antagonist suppresses obesity, NAFLD and insulin resistance...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249269/roles-of-ileal-asbt-and-ost%C3%AE-ost%C3%AE-in-regulating-bile-acid-signaling
#12
Paul A Dawson
BACKGROUND: In addition to their classical role as detergents, bile acids function as signaling molecules to regulate gastrointestinal physiology, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and energy expenditure. The pharmacodynamic potential of bile acids is dependent in part on the tight pharmacokinetic control of their concentration and metabolism, properties governed by their hepatic synthesis, enterohepatic cycling, and biotransformation via host and gut microbiota-catalyzed pathways. Key Messages: By altering the normal cycling and compartmentalization of bile acids, changes in hepatobiliary or intestinal transport can affect signaling and lead to the retention of cytotoxic hydrophobic bile acids and cell injury...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247264/new-paradigms-in-management-of-alcoholic-hepatitis-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Sandeep Singh Sidhu, Omesh Goyal, Harsh Kishore, Simran Sidhu
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is defined by modified Maddrey discriminant function ≥32 or Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) >21 and/or hepatic encephalopathy. It has a 3-month mortality rate ≥30-70 %. Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis need combined, i.e., static (MELD score) and dynamic (Lille's score), prognostication. Systemic inflammation and poor regeneration are hallmarks of SAH, rather than intrahepatic inflammation. SAH is characterized by dysregulated and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response followed by weak compensatory antiinflammatory response that leads to increased susceptibility to infection and multiple organ failure...
February 28, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246016/gut-specific-delivery-of-t-helper-17-cells-reduces-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#14
Chun-Pyo Hong, Areum Park, Bo-Gie Yang, Chang Ho Yun, Min-Jung Kwak, Gil-Woo Lee, Jung-Hwan Kim, Min Seong Jang, Eun-Jung Lee, Eun-Ji Jeun, Gihoon You, Kwang Soon Kim, Youngwoo Choi, Ji-Hwan Park, Daehee Hwang, Sin-Hyeog Im, Jihyun F Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, Charles D Surh, You-Me Kim, Myoung Ho Jang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome have been associated with alterations to the intestinal microbiota. However, few studies examined the effects of obesity on the intestinal immune system. We investigated changes in subsets of intestinal CD4+ T-helper (Th) cells with obesity and the effects of gut-tropic Th17 cells in mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: We isolated immune cells from small intestine and adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice fed a normal chow diet or a HFD for 10 weeks and analyzed the cells by flow cytometry...
February 25, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240840/liver-transplant-modulates-gut-microbial-dysbiosis-and-cognitive-function-in-cirrhosis
#15
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Andrew Fagan, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Melanie B White, Richard K Sterling, HoChong Gilles, Douglas Heuman, R T Stravitz, Scott C Matherly, Mohammed S Siddiqui, Puneet Puri, Arun J Sanyal, Velimir Luketic, Binu John, Michael Fuchs, Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, Patrick M Gillevet
Liver transplant (LT) improves daily function and cognition in cirrhosis but a subset can remain impaired. Unfavorable microbiota or dysbiosis is observed in cirrhosis but the effect of LT on microbial composition; especially with poor post-LT cognition, is unclear. AIMS: (1) determine the effect of LT on gut microbiota and (b) to determine whether gut microbiota are associated with cognitive dysfunction post-LT. We enrolled outpatient cirrhotics on the LT list and followed them till 6 months post-LT...
February 27, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239402/high-cholesterol-diet-does-not-alter-gut-microbiota-composition-in-mice
#16
Lidiya G Dimova, Nikola Zlatkov, Henkjan J Verkade, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Uwe J F Tietge
INTRODUCTION: Western diet containing both saturated fat and cholesterol impairs cardio-metabolic health partly by modulating diversity and function of the microbiota. While diet containing only high fat has comparable effects, it is unclear how diets only enriched in cholesterol impact the microbiota. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the response of host and microbiota to a high cholesterol (HC) diet in mice susceptible to cardio-metabolic disease. METHODS: LDLR knockout mice received either 1...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239368/connection-of-nicotine-to-diet-induced-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cellular-and-mechanistic-insights
#17
REVIEW
Amiya P Sinha-Hikim, Indrani Sinha-Hikim, Theodore C Friedman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a serious health hazard affecting 20-40% of adults in the general population in the USA and over 70% of the obese and extremely obese people. In addition to obesity, nicotine is recognized as a risk factor for NAFLD, and it has been reported that nicotine can exaggerate obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. The development of NAFLD has serious clinical complications because of its potential progression from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228158/flaxseed-oil-ameliorates-alcoholic-liver-disease-via-anti-inflammation-and-modulating-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#18
Xiaoxia Zhang, Hao Wang, Peipei Yin, Hang Fan, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a chronic wide-spectrum of liver injury caused by consistently excessive alcohol intake. Few satisfactory advances have been made in management of ALD. Thus, novel and more practical treatment options are urgently needed. Flaxseed oil (FO) is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, the impact of dietary FO on chronic alcohol consumption remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, we assessed possible effects of dietary FO on attenuation of ALD and associated mechanisms in mice...
February 22, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223285/butyrate-regulates-liver-mitochondrial-function-efficiency-and-dynamic-in-insulin-resistant-obese-mice
#19
Maria Pina Mollica, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Gina Cavaliere, Giovanna Trinchese, Chiara De Filippo, Serena Aceto, Marina Prisco, Claudio Pirozzi, Francesca Di Guida, Adriano Lama, Marianna Crispino, Diana Tronino, Paola Di Vaio, Roberto Berni Canani, Antonio Calignano, Rosaria Meli
Fatty liver, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of insulin resistance and obesity. Butyrate, produced by fermentation in the large intestine by gut microbiota, and its synthetic derivative, the N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide, FBA, have been demonstrated to be protective against insulin resistance and fatty liver.Here, hepatic mitochondria were identified as the main target of the beneficial effect of both butyrate-based compounds in reverting insulin resistance and fat accumulation in diet induced obese mice...
February 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220041/butyrate-restores-hfd-induced-adaptations-in-brain-function-and-metabolism-in-mid-adult-obese-mice
#20
I A C Arnoldussen, M Wiesmann, C E Pelgrim, E M Wielemaker, W van Duyvenvoorde, P L Amaral-Santos, L Verschuren, B J F Keijser, A Heerschap, R Kleemann, P Y Wielinga, A J Kiliaan
OBJECTIVE: Midlife obesity affects cognition and increases risk of developing dementia. Recent data suggest that intake of the short chain fatty acid butyrate could improve memory function, and may protect against diet-induced obesity by reducing body weight and adiposity. SUBJECTS: We examined the impact of a high-fat diet (HFD) followed by intervention with 5% (w/w) dietary butyrate, on metabolism, microbiota, brain function and structure in the low-density-lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) mouse model in mid and late life...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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