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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774828/bilberry-pomace-in-rabbit-nutrition-effects-on-growth-performance-apparent-digestibility-caecal-traits-bacterial-community-and-antioxidant-status
#1
S Dabbou, I Ferrocino, A Kovitvadhi, S Bergagna, D Dezzuto, A Schiavone, L Cocolin, F Gai, V Santoro, L Gasco
Agricultural by-products could be used as alternative raw materials in rabbit nutrition as they have been found to be highly nutritious and low cost feeding sources. The aim of this study was to estimate the nutritive value and potential use of bilberry pomace (BP) for growing rabbits. A total of 144 Grimaud rabbits (35 days old) were allotted to four groups and fed with a diet containing increasing level of BP: BP0 (basal diet), BP5, BP10 and BP15 containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg respectively. Growth trial lasted 48 days; apparent digestibility was evaluated, starting at 46 days of age, over 4 consecutive days...
May 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770190/effects-of-molecular-hydrogen-dissolved-alkaline-electrolyzed-water-on-intestinal-environment-in-mice
#2
Yasuki Higashimura, Yasunori Baba, Ryo Inoue, Tomohisa Takagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Yasuko Hirai, Chihiro Ushiroda, Yoshinori Tanaka, Yuji Naito
Increasing evidence indicates that molecular hydrogen-dissolved alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) has various physiological activities such as antioxidative activity. Gut microbiota are deeply associated with our health through a symbiotic relationship. Recent reports have described that most gastrointestinal microbial species encode the genetic capacity to metabolize molecular hydrogen, meaning that molecular hydrogen might affect the gut microbial composition. Nevertheless, AEW effects on gut microbiota remain unknown...
January 2018: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769268/pbdes-altered-gut-microbiome-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Cindy Yanfei Li, Joseph L Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, SooWan Lee, Kris M Weigel, Qiang Fei, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental contaminants with well-characterized toxicities in host organs. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of xenobiotic biotransformation; however, little is known about its interactions with PBDEs. Primary bile acids (BAs) are metabolized by the gut microbiome into more lipophilic secondary BAs that may be absorbed and interact with certain host receptors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that PBDEs cause dysbiosis and aberrant regulation of BA homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765460/the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-nafld-starting-points-for-intervention
#4
Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Paolo Gallo, Antonio Picardi
In recent years, close links between intestinal microbiota and host metabolism have been recognized. Intestinal bacteria can participate in the extraction of calories from food, and circulation of bacterial products, in particular lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is responsible for the "metabolic endotoxemia", which contributes to insulin resistance and its complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Indeed, qualitative and quantitative intestinal dysbiotic changes have been clearly documented in NAFLD patients, and several mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota can directly promote liver fat deposition, inflammation and fibrosis have also been described...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761927/on-the-potential-role-of-intestinal-microbial-community-in-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#5
REVIEW
Ashraf Mohamadkhani
The chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most potent risk factor for the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The association of intestinal microbiota alteration with progressive liver disease has been investigated in recent studies. Overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria of gram-negative species and, in particular, a significant increase in the fecal count of Escherichia coli (E. coli) are characterized in the presence of HCC. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of the intestinal microbiota related to the presence of HCC in HBV-carrier patients...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760423/simultaneous-amelioratation-of-colitis-and-liver-injury-in-mice-by-bifidobacterium-longum-lc67-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-lc27
#6
Se-Eun Jang, Jin-Ju Jeong, Jeon-Kyung Kim, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
Disturbances in the gut microbiota composition are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine and the liver. In a preliminary study, Lactobacillus plantarum LC27 and Bifidobacterium longum LC67 could inhibit Escherichia coli growth and lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation linked to gut inflammation. Here, we investigated their effects on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis and liver damage in mice. First, oral administration of LC27 or LC67 (1 × 109 CFU/mouse) inhibited TNBS-induced colon shortening [F(5,30) = 100...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758074/comparison-of-the-effect-of-dietary-copper-nanoparticles-and-one-copper-ii-salt-on-the-copper-biodistribution-and-gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-morphology-and-function-in-a-rat-model
#7
Ewelina Cholewińska, Katarzyna Ognik, Bartosz Fotschki, Zenon Zduńczyk, Jerzy Juśkiewicz
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of two forms (CuCO3 (CuS); and Cu nanoparticles (CuNP)) and dosages (standard 6.5 mg/kg (H), half of the standard (L)) of additional dietary Cu administered to growing rats on gastrointestinal and hepatic function and morphology. Copper in the form of CuNP vs CuS caused lower Cu faecal/urinal excretion and increased Cu accumulation in the brain tissue. Hepatic high-grade hydropic degeneration and necrotic lesions were observed only in the CuNP-H animals. In the lower gut, the dietary application of CuNP stifled bacterial enzymatic activity of caecal gut microbiota and resulted in lower SCFA production...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748815/improved-hemodynamic-and-liver-function-in-portal-hypertensive-cirrhotic-rats-after-administration-of-b-pseudocatenulatum-cect-7765
#8
Isabel Gómez-Hurtado, Pedro Zapater, Kevin Portune, Oriol Juanola, Anabel Fernández-Iglesias, José M González-Navajas, Jordi Gracia-Sancho, Yolanda Sanz, Rubén Francés
PURPOSE: Evaluating whether changes in gut microbiota induced by a bifidobacterial strain may have an effect on the hepatic vascular function in portal hypertensive cirrhotic rats. METHODS: Bile duct ligation (BDL) was performed in rats. A subgroup of animals received B. pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 (109  cfu/daily ig.) for 1 week prior to laparotomy. Hemodynamic, biochemical and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Ileal microbiota composition was identified. Statistical analysis was performed...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740891/effects-of-gut-microbiota-and-time-of-treatment-on-tissue-levels-of-green-tea-polyphenols-in-mice
#9
Anna B Liu, Siyao Tao, Mao-Jung Lee, Qi Hu, Xiaofeng Meng, Yong Lin, Chung S Yang
The previous studies have shown that tea polyphenols are metabolized by gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of gut microbiota on the bioavailability, tissue levels, and degradation of tea polyphenols. Mice were treated with antibiotics (ampicillin/sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) in drinking water and the control mice received water for 11 days, and they were given an AIN93M diet enriched with 0.32% of Polyphenon E. The levels of catechins and their metabolites (if present) in the serum, liver, urine, and fecal samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
May 8, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729565/acute-exposure-to-pbdes-at-an-environmentally-realistic-concentration-causes-abrupt-changes-in-the-gut-microbiota-and-host-health-of-zebrafish
#10
Lianguo Chen, Chenyan Hu, Nelson Lok-Shun Lai, Weipeng Zhang, Jianghuan Hua, Paul K S Lam, James C W Lam, Bingsheng Zhou
Contamination from lower brominated PBDEs is ubiquitous in the environments. However, their effects on gut microbiota and intestinal health have not yet been investigated. This study exposed adult zebrafish to an environmentally realistic concentration of pentaBDE mixture (DE-71) at 5.0 ng/L for 7 days, after which metagenomic sequencing of the intestinal microbiome was conducted and host physiological activities in the intestine and liver were also examined. The results showed that acute exposure to DE-71 significantly shifted the gut microbial community in a sex-specific manner...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723298/oral-administration-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-could-attenuate-fat-deposition-of-pigs
#11
A R Jiao, H Diao, B Yu, J He, J Yu, P Zheng, Z Q Huang, Y H Luo, J Q Luo, X B Mao, D W Chen
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main products of indigestible carbohydrates that are fermented by microbiota in the hindgut. This study was designed to investigate the effects of oral SCFAs administration on the lipid metabolism of weaned pigs. A total of 21 barrows were randomly allocated into three groups, including control group (orally infused with 200 mL physiological saline per day), low dose SCFAs group (orally infused with 200 mL SCFAs containing acetic acid 20.04 mM, propionic acid 7.71 mM and butyric acid 4...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718124/gut-dysbiosis-associated-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#12
Takako Inoue, Jiro Nakayama, Kei Moriya, Hideto Kawaratani, Rie Momoda, Kiyoaki Ito, Etsuko Iio, Shunsuke Nojiri, Kei Fujiwara, Masashi Yoneda, Hitoshi Yoshiji, Yasuhito Tanaka
Background: Little is known about the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on gut microbiota and the relationship between alteration of gut microbiota and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) progression. We performed a comparative study of gut microbiota composition between CHC patients and healthy individuals. Methods: Fecal samples from 166 CHC patients were compared with those from 23 healthy individuals; the gut microbiota community was analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717179/transplantation-of-human-microbiota-into-conventional-mice-durably-reshapes-the-gut-microbiota
#13
Laura Wrzosek, Dragos Ciocan, Patrick Borentain, Madeleine Spatz, Virginie Puchois, Cindy Hugot, Gladys Ferrere, Camille Mayeur, Gabriel Perlemuter, Anne-Marie Cassard
Human microbiota-associated (HMA) mice are an important model to study the relationship between liver diseases and intestinal microbiota. We describe a new method to humanize conventional mice based on bowel cleansing with polyethylene glycol followed by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a human donor. Four successive bowel cleansings were sufficient to empty the intestine and decrease the microbiota by 90%. We then compared four different strategies based on the frequency of FMT over four weeks: (1) twice a week; (2) once a week; (3) two FMTs; (4) one FMT...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710519/effects-of-shenling-baizhu-powder-herbal-formula-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nafld-rats
#14
Yupei Zhang, Kairui Tang, Yuanjun Deng, Runsen Chen, Shu Liang, Huijun Xie, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Qinhe Yang
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease closely associated with obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a formulation of a variety of natural medicinal plants, has hepatoprotective properties and clinical efficacy in treating non-infectious intestinal disease. SLBZP has improved NAFLD symptoms; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. METHODS: We established an NAFLD model in rats given a high-fat diet (HFD), administered different interventions and measured serum biochemical indices and inflammatory factors...
April 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#15
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705917/management-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-not-responsive-to-first-line-treatments
#16
REVIEW
Silvia Nardelli, Lorenzo Ridola, Stefania Gioia, Oliviero Riggio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs in up to 30% of patients with cirrhosis. HE may be a consequence of pure liver failure, as in patients with fulminant hepatitis, or of the combination of liver failure and portal-systemic shunting, as in patients with liver cirrhosis. Episodes of HE are usually related to precipitating events, such as infections or gastrointestinal bleeding; a minority of cirrhotic patients experienced a chronic HE, refractory to standard medical treatment...
April 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704005/multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-aggravates-inflammatory-responses-in-murine-chronic-colitis
#17
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
The World Health Organization has rated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psae) as serious threat to human health. We here addressed whether chronic murine gut inflammation facilitates intestinal MDR Psae colonization and whether bacterial infection subsequently worsens colonic immunopathology. Converse to wildtype counterparts, Psae colonized the intestines of IL-10-/- mice with chronic colitis following peroral challenge, but did not lead to changes in intestinal microbiota composition...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701975/characterizing-the-biochemical-response-to-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-and-treatment-with-praziquantel-in-pre-school-and-school-aged-children
#18
Gordana Panic, Jean T Coulibaly, Nikita Harvey, Jennifer Keiser, Jonathan Swann
Schistosomiasis is a wide-spread chronic neglected tropical disease prevalent mostly in children in under-resourced rural areas. Its pathological effects have been clinically characterized, yet the molecular-level effects are understudied. In this study, the biochemical effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment were studied in 159 pre-school aged and 130 school aged infected children and 11 non-infected children in Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire. Urine samples were collected prior to receiving 20, 40 or 60 mg/kg of praziquantel or a placebo, as well as 24 hours post-treatment, and at the 3-week follow up...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701490/influence-of-gut-microbiota-and-intestinal-barrier-on-enterogenic-infection-after-liver-transplantation
#19
Jingzhou Mu, Qiuyu Chen, Liang Zhu, Yunhong Wu, Suping Liu, Yufei Zhao, Tonghui Ma
Liver transplantation is currently a standard therapy for patients with end-stage liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given that liver transplantation has undergone a thriving development in these decades, the survival rates after liver transplantation have markedly improved as a result of the critical advancement in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapies, and postoperative care. However, infection remains a fatal complication after liver transplantation surgery. In particular, enterogenic infection represents a major complication in liver transplant recipients...
April 27, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694888/gut-microbiota-derived-tryptophan-metabolites-modulate-inflammatory-response-in-hepatocytes-and-macrophages
#20
Smitha Krishnan, Yufang Ding, Nima Saedi, Maria Choi, Gautham V Sridharan, David H Sherr, Martin L Yarmush, Robert C Alaniz, Arul Jayaraman, Kyongbum Lee
The gut microbiota plays a significant role in the progression of fatty liver disease; however, the mediators and their mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Comparing metabolite profile differences between germ-free and conventionally raised mice against differences between mice fed a low- and high-fat diet (HFD), we identified tryptamine and indole-3-acetate (I3A) as metabolites that depend on the microbiota and are depleted under a HFD. Both metabolites reduced fatty-acid- and LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages and inhibited the migration of cells toward a chemokine, with I3A exhibiting greater potency...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
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