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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351480/mechanistically-different-effects-of-fat-and-sugar-on-insulin-resistance-hypertension-and-gut-microbiota-in-rats
#1
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Lidia Atienza, Josefina Casas, Olga Jáuregui, Susana Amézqueta, Gabriel Dasilva, Isabel Medina, Maria Rosa Nogués, Marta Romeu, Josep Lluís Torres
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are the first manifestations of diet-induced metabolic alterations leading to type-2 diabetes, while hypertension is the deadliest risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The roles of dietary fat and fructose in the development of IR, IGT and hypertension are controversial. We tested the long-term effects of an excess of fat or sucrose (fructose/glucose) on healthy male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Fat affects IR and IGT earlier than fructose through low-grade systemic inflammation evidenced by liver inflammatory infiltration, increased levels of plasma interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2 and reduced levels of protective short-chain fatty acids without triggering hypertension...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344587/an-exploratory-study-of-red-raspberry-rubus-idaeus-l-poly-phenols-metabolites-in-human-biological-samples
#2
Xuhuiqun Zhang, Amandeep Sandhu, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt Burton-Freeman
Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) contains a variety of polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Red raspberry polyphenols absorbed in different forms (parent compounds, degradants or microbial metabolites) are subject to xenobiotic metabolism in the intestine, liver, and/or kidney, forming methylate, glucuronide, and sulfate conjugated metabolites. Upon acute exposure, (poly)phenol/metabolite presence in the blood depends mainly on intestinal absorption, enterohepatic circulation, and metabolism by resident microbiota...
January 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343276/the-antihyperlipidemic-effects-of-fullerenol-nanoparticles-via-adjusting-the-gut-microbiota-in-vivo
#3
Juan Li, Runhong Lei, Xin Li, Fengxia Xiong, Quanyang Zhang, Yue Zhou, Shengmei Yang, Yanan Chang, Kui Chen, Weihong Gu, Chongming Wu, Gengmei Xing
BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles (NPs) administered orally will meet the gut microbiota, but their impacts on microbiota homeostasis and the consequent physiological relevance remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the modulatory effects and the consequent pharmacological outputs of two orally administered fullerenols NPs (Fol1 C60(OH)7(O)8 and Fol113 C60(OH)11(O)6) on gut microbiota. RESULTS: Administration of Fol1 and Fol113 NPs for 4 weeks largely shifted the overall structure of gut microbiota in mice...
January 17, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327584/gama-aminobutyric-acid-enriched-rice-bran-diet-attenuates-insulin-resistance-and-balances-energy-expenditure-via-modification-of-gut-microbiota-and-scfas
#4
Xu Si, Wenting Shang, Zhongkai Zhou, Guanghou Shui, Sin Man Lam, Christopher L Blanchard, Padraig Strappe
In this study, gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched rice bran (ERB) was supplemented to obese rats to investigate the attenuation of metabolic syndromes induced by high-fat diet. ERB-containing diet stimulated butyrate and propionate production by promoting Anaerostipes, Anaerostipes sp. and associated synthesizing enzymes. This altered SCFA distribution further enhanced circulatory levels of leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, controlling food intake by down-regulating orexigenic factors. Together with the enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation highlighted by Prkaa2, Ppara, Scd1 expression via AMPK signaling pathway and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathway, energy expenditure was positively modulated...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#5
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324644/nanocomposite-of-half-fin-anchovy-hydrolysates-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-exhibits-actual-non-toxicity-and-regulates-intestinal-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-production-and-oxidative-status-in-mice
#6
Ru Song, Jianbin Yao, Qingqing Shi, Rongbian Wei
The nanocomposite of half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (named as HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs) demonstrated increased antibacterial activity compared to either HAHp(3.0) or ZnO NPs as per our previous studies. Also, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was detected in Escherichia coli cells after treatment with HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of this nanocomposite and to investigate its effect on intestinal microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and oxidative status in healthy mice...
January 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316191/microbiota-and-the-liver
#7
Ting-Chin David Shen, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos, Vinod K Rustgi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306503/a-mouse-model-with-age-dependent-immune-response-and-immune-tolerance-for-hbv-infection
#8
Xuerui Yi, Youcheng Yuan, Na Li, Lu Yi, Cuiling Wang, Ying Qi, Liang Gong, Guangze Liu, Xiangping Kong
BACKGROUND: Viral clearance of human HBV infection largely depends on the age of exposure. Thus, a mouse model with age-dependent immune response and immune-tolerance for HBV infection was established. METHODS: HBVRag1 mice were generated by crossing Rag1-/- mice with HBV-Tg mice. Following adoptive transfer of splenocytes adult (8-9 weeks old) and young (3 weeks old) HBVRag1 mice were named as HBVRag-ReA and HBVRag-ReY mice respectively. The biochemical parameters that were associated with viral load and immune function, as well as the histological evaluation of the liver tissues between the two mouse models were detected...
January 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290360/trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-harmful-protective-or-diagnostic-marker-in-lifestyle-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Artur Nowiński, Marcin Ufnal
Diet has been considered a general health determinant for many years. Recent research shows a connection between gut microbiota composition that is shaped by our diet and lifestyle diseases. Several studies point to a positive correlation between elevated plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut bacteria metabolite, and an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Therefore, it has been suggested that TMAO is a link between the diet, gut microbiota, and illness. Emerging experimental and clinical evidence shows that TMAO may be involved in the etiology of hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and renal failure...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286050/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-chronic-vascular-complications-of-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Giovanni Targher, Amedeo Lonardo, Christopher D Byrne
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus are common diseases that often coexist and might act synergistically to increase the risk of hepatic and extra-hepatic clinical outcomes. NAFLD affects up to 70-80% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and up to 30-40% of adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The coexistence of NAFLD and diabetes mellitus increases the risk of developing not only the more severe forms of NAFLD but also chronic vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Indeed, substantial evidence links NAFLD with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and other cardiac and arrhythmic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes mellitus...
December 29, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285942/-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-as-a-component-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-causal-correlations-with-other-extrahepatic-diseases
#11
Tamás Halmos, Ilona Suba
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common non-infectious chronic liver-disease in our age, and is a spectrum of all the diseases associated with increased fat accumulation in the hepatocytes. Its development is promoted by sedentary life-style, over-feeding, and certain genetic predisposition. Prevalence in the adult population, even in Hungary is ~30%. In a part of cases, this disease may pass into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, later into fibrosis, rarely into primary hepatocellular cancer. Fatty liver is closely and bidirectionally related to the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and nowadays there is a general consensus that fatty liver is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic sycndrome...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285751/endogenous-metabolites-mediated-communication-between-oat1-oat3-and-oatp1b1-may-explain-the-association-between-slco1b1-snps-and-methotrexate-toxicity
#12
David Martinez, Kienana Muhrez, Jean-Baptiste Woillard, Aline Berthelot, Emmanuel Gyan, Sylvain Choquet, Christian R Andrès, Pierre Marquet, Chantal Barin-Le Guellec
Although OATP1B1 is not expressed in the kidney, polymorphisms in SLCO1B1 have been associated with methotrexate clearance or toxicity. This unexpected pharmacogenetic association may reflect remote communication between liver and kidney transporters. This study confirms the pharmacogenetic association with methotrexate toxicity in adult patients with hematological malignancies. Using a targeted urinary metabolomics approach, we identified 38 and 34 metabolites which were differentially excreted between wild-type and carriers of the c...
December 29, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262351/the-xenobiotic-transporter-mdr1-enforces-t-cell-homeostasis-in-the-presence-of-intestinal-bile-acids
#13
Wei Cao, Hisako Kayama, Mei Lan Chen, Amber Delmas, Amy Sun, Sang Yong Kim, Erumbi S Rangarajan, Kelly McKevitt, Amanda P Beck, Cody B Jackson, Gogce Crynen, Angelos Oikonomopoulos, Precious N Lacey, Gustavo J Martinez, Tina Izard, Robin G Lorenz, Alex Rodriguez-Palacios, Fabio Cominelli, Maria T Abreu, Daniel W Hommes, Sergei B Koralov, Kiyoshi Takeda, Mark S Sundrud
CD4+ T cells are tightly regulated by microbiota in the intestine, but whether intestinal T cells interface with host-derived metabolites is less clear. Here, we show that CD4+ T effector (Teff) cells upregulated the xenobiotic transporter, Mdr1, in the ileum to maintain homeostasis in the presence of bile acids. Whereas wild-type Teff cells upregulated Mdr1 in the ileum, those lacking Mdr1 displayed mucosal dysfunction and induced Crohn's disease-like ileitis following transfer into Rag1-/- hosts. Mdr1 mitigated oxidative stress and enforced homeostasis in Teff cells exposed to conjugated bile acids (CBAs), a class of liver-derived emulsifying agents that actively circulate through the ileal mucosa...
December 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259643/dahuang-zexie-decoction-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-nafld-by-modulating-gut-microbiota-mediated-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-activation-and-loss-of-intestinal-barrier
#14
Jing Fang, Xiaoqi Sun, Boyu Xue, Nanyuan Fang, Min Zhou
Increasing evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and activated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling play key roles in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Dahuang Zexie Decoction (DZD) has been verified to be effective for treating NAFLD, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of DZD on NAFLD rats and determined whether such effects were associated with change of the gut microbiota, downregulated activity of the TLR4 signaling pathway, and increased expressions of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the gut...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241453/bile-acid-is-a-significant-host-factor-shaping-the-gut-microbiome-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#15
Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Sha Lei, Yunjing Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Tianlu Chen, Chun Qu, Cynthia Rajani, Bing Dong, Defa Li, Wei Jia
BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria are known to regulate bile acid (BA) homeostasis via intestinal biotransformation of BAs and stimulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 through intestinal nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). On the other hand, BAs directly regulate the gut microbiota with their strong antimicrobial activities. It remains unclear, however, how mammalian BAs cross-talk with gut microbiome and shape microbial composition in a dynamic and interactive way. RESULTS: We quantitatively profiled small molecule metabolites derived from host-microbial co-metabolism in mice, demonstrating that BAs were the most significant factor correlated with microbial alterations among all types of endogenous metabolites...
December 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230676/gut-microbial-balance-and-liver-transplantation-alteration-management-and-prediction
#16
REVIEW
Xinyao Tian, Zhe Yang, Fangzhou Luo, Shusen Zheng
Liver transplantation is a conventional treatment for terminal stage liver diseases. However, several complications still hinder the survival rate. Intestinal barrier destruction is widely observed among patients receiving liver transplant and suffering from ischemia-reperfusion or rejection injuries because of the relationship between the intestine and the liver, both in anatomy and function. Importantly, the resulting alteration of gut microbiota aggravates graft dysfunctions during the process. This article reviews the research progress for gut microbial alterations and liver transplantation...
December 12, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227833/vitamin-a-deficiency-in-mice-alters-host-and-gut-microbial-metabolism-leading-to-altered-energy-homeostasis
#17
Yuan Tian, Robert G Nichols, Jingwei Cai, Andrew D Patterson, Margherita T Cantorna
Vitamin A deficiency (A-) is a worldwide public health problem. To better understand how vitamin A status influences gut microbiota and host metabolism, we systematically analyzed urine, cecum, serum and liver samples from vitamin A sufficient (A+) and deficient (A-) mice using 1H NMR-based metabolomics, quantitative (q)PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with multivariate data analysis. The microbiota in the cecum of A- mice showed compositional as well as functional shifts compared to the microbiota from A+ mice...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215603/differential-location-and-distribution-of-hepatic-immune-cells
#18
REVIEW
Maria Alice Freitas-Lopes, Kassiana Mafra, Bruna A David, Raquel Carvalho-Gontijo, Gustavo B Menezes
The liver is one of the main organs in the body, performing several metabolic and immunological functions that are indispensable to the organism. The liver is strategically positioned in the abdominal cavity between the intestine and the systemic circulation. Due to its location, the liver is continually exposed to nutritional insults, microbiota products from the intestinal tract, and to toxic substances. Hepatocytes are the major functional constituents of the hepatic lobes, and perform most of the liver's secretory and synthesizing functions, although another important cell population sustains the vitality of the organ: the hepatic immune cells...
December 7, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213261/antibiotic-induced-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-mice
#19
Richard R Rodrigues, Renee L Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Karen N DSouza, Manoj Gurung, Jia Y Wu, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease. Antibiotics are known to alter gut microbiota, yet their effects on glucose tolerance in lean, normoglycemic mice have not been widely investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore mechanisms by which treatment of lean mice with antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, vancomycin, or their cocktail) influences the microbiome and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we sought to: (i) study the effects on body weight, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, (ii) examine the changes in expression of key genes of the bile acid and glucose metabolic pathways in the liver and ileum, (iii) identify the shifts in the cecal microbiota, and (iv) infer interactions between gene expression, microbiome, and the metabolic parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209439/comparative-study-of-probiotic-effects-of-lactobacillus-and-bifidobacteria-strains-on-cholesterol-levels-liver-morphology-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-obese-mice
#20
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Lidiia P Babenko, Liudmyla M Lazarenko, Viktoria V Mokrozub, Oleksandr A Demchenko, Oleksiy V Nechypurenko, Mykola Ya Spivak
Background: Microbiome-modulating interventions are promising for treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The number of probiotic strains demonstrated ability to decrease cholesterol level in vivo, however, it was poorly confirmed in a clinical setting. The aim was to study the effects of L. acidophilus IMV B-7279, L. casei IMV B-7280, B. animalіs VKL and B. animalіs VKB separately and in various compositions on the level of serum cholesterol, gut microbiota contents and liver morphology on a high-calorie-induced obesity model in BALB/c mice...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
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