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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821207/interrater-reliability-of-surveillance-for-ventilator-associated-events-and-pneumonia
#1
Meeta Prasad Kerlin, William E Trick, Deverick J Anderson, Hilary M Babcock, Ebbing Lautenbach, Renaud Gueret, Michael Klompas
OBJECTIVE To compare interrater reliabilities for ventilator-associated event (VAE) surveillance, traditional ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) surveillance, and clinical diagnosis of VAP by intensivists. DESIGN A retrospective study nested within a prospective multicenter quality improvement study. SETTING Intensive care units (ICUs) within 5 hospitals of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epicenters. PATIENTS Patients who underwent mechanical ventilation. METHODS We selected 150 charts for review, including all VAEs and traditionally defined VAPs identified during the primary study and randomly selected charts of patients without VAEs or VAPs...
November 8, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566171/lack-of-predictive-power-of-trait-fear-and-anxiety-for-conditioned-pain-modulation-cpm
#2
Claudia Horn-Hofmann, Janosch A Priebe, Jörg Schaller, Rüdiger Görlitz, Stefan Lautenbacher
In recent years the association of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) with trait fear and anxiety has become a hot topic in pain research due to the assumption that such variables may explain the low CPM efficiency in some individuals. However, empirical evidence concerning this association is still equivocal. Our study is the first to investigate the predictive power of fear and anxiety for CPM by using a well-established psycho-physiological measure of trait fear, i.e. startle potentiation, in addition to two self-report measures of pain-related trait anxiety...
August 26, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465112/the-effect-of-total-household-decolonization-on-clearance-of-colonization-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
Valerie C Cluzet, Jeffrey S Gerber, Joshua P Metlay, Irving Nachamkin, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Meghan F Davis, Kathleen G Julian, Darren R Linkin, Susan E Coffin, David J Margolis, Judd E Hollander, Warren B Bilker, Xiaoyan Han, Rakesh D Mistry, Laurence J Gavin, Pam Tolomeo, Jacqueleen A Wise, Mary K Wheeler, Baofeng Hu, Neil O Fishman, David Royer, Ebbing Lautenbach
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of total household decolonization with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine gluconate body wash on recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among subjects with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. DESIGN Three-arm nonmasked randomized controlled trial. SETTING Five academic medical centers in Southeastern Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS Adults and children presenting to ambulatory care settings with community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection (ie, index cases) and their household members...
October 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358356/a-clinical-decision-tree-to-predict-whether-a-bacteremic-patient-is-infected-with-an-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-organism
#4
Katherine E Goodman, Justin Lessler, Sara E Cosgrove, Anthony D Harris, Ebbing Lautenbach, Jennifer H Han, Aaron M Milstone, Colin J Massey, Pranita D Tamma
BACKGROUND: Timely identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) bacteremia can improve clinical outcomes while minimizing unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, including carbapenems. However, most clinical microbiology laboratories currently require at least 24 additional hours from the time of microbial genus and species identification to confirm ESBL production. Our objective was to develop a user-friendly decision tree to predict which organisms are ESBL producing, to guide appropriate antibiotic therapy...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273785/vitamin-d-and-pulmonary-function-in-obese-asthmatic-children
#5
Laura A Lautenbacher, Sunit P Jariwala, Morri E Markowitz, Deepa Rastogi
OBJECTIVE: Asthma-related morbidity is higher among children with vitamin D deficiency and obesity, morbidities that frequently co-exist among minority children. However, the effect of co-existent obesity and vitamin D deficiency on pulmonary function is poorly understood. METHODS: We compared percent-predicted values of pulmonary function across vitamin D categories among 72 obese and 71 normal-weight Hispanic and African-American children with asthma recruited at an urban children's hospital...
December 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147715/a-pragmatic-biomarker-driven-algorithm-to-guide-antibiotic-use-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-the-optimizing-antibiotic-strategies-in-sepsis-oasis-study
#6
Kevin J Downes, Scott L Weiss, Jeffrey S Gerber, Sarah B Klieger, Julie C Fitzgerald, Fran Balamuth, Sherri E Kubis, Pam Tolomeo, Warren B Bilker, Xiaoyan Han, Irving Nachamkin, Charles Garrigan, Jennifer H Han, Ebbing Lautenbach, Susan E Coffin
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers that identify critically ill children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at low risk for bacterial infection may help clinicians reduce unnecessary antibiotic use. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of children with SIRS and suspected infection admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit from January 5, 2012 to March 7, 2014. We enrolled patients upon initiation of new antibiotics (Time 0) and measured a panel of 8 serum biomarkers daily over 72 hours...
May 4, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971636/combined-biomarkers-discriminate-a-low-likelihood-of-bacterial-infection-among-surgical-intensive-care-unit-patients-with-suspected-sepsis
#7
Brendan J Kelly, Ebbing Lautenbach, Irving Nachamkin, Susan E Coffin, Jeffrey S Gerber, Barry D Fuchs, Charles Garrigan, Xiaoyan Han, Warren B Bilker, Jacqueleen Wise, Pam Tolomeo, Jennifer H Han
Among surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients, it is difficult to distinguish bacterial sepsis from other causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Biomarkers have proven useful to identify the presence of bacterial infection. We enrolled a prospective cohort of 69 SICU patients with suspected sepsis and assayed the concentrations of 9 biomarkers (α-2 macroglobulin [A2M], C-reactive protein, ferritin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, procalcitonin [PCT], serum amyloid A, serum amyloid P, and tissue plasminogen activator) at baseline, 24, 48, and 72hours...
May 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26452226/place-of-residence-moderates-the-risk-of-infant-death-in-kenya-evidence-from-the-most-recent-census-2009
#8
Oliver Gruebner, Sven Lautenbach, M M H Khan, Samuel Kipruto, Michael Epprecht, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Substantial progress has been made in reducing childhood mortality worldwide from 1990-2015 (Millennium Development Goal, target 4). Achieving target goals on this however remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya's infant mortality rates are higher than the global average and are more pronounced in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Only limited knowledge exists about the differences in individual level risk factors for infant death among rural, non-slum urban, and slum areas in Kenya...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26239984/use-of-a-combination-biomarker-algorithm-to-identify-medical-intensive-care-unit-patients-with-suspected-sepsis-at-very-low-likelihood-of-bacterial-infection
#9
Jennifer H Han, Irving Nachamkin, Susan E Coffin, Jeffrey S Gerber, Barry Fuchs, Charles Garrigan, Xiaoyan Han, Warren B Bilker, Jacqueleen Wise, Pam Tolomeo, Ebbing Lautenbach
Sepsis remains a diagnostic challenge in the intensive care unit (ICU), and the use of biomarkers may help in differentiating bacterial sepsis from other causes of systemic inflammatory syndrome (SIRS). The goal of this study was to assess test characteristics of a number of biomarkers for identifying ICU patients with a very low likelihood of bacterial sepsis. A prospective cohort study was conducted in a medical ICU of a university hospital. Immunocompetent patients with presumed bacterial sepsis were consecutively enrolled from January 2012 to May 2013...
October 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26113652/desirability-of-outcome-ranking-door-and-response-adjusted-for-duration-of-antibiotic-risk-radar
#10
Scott R Evans, Daniel Rubin, Dean Follmann, Gene Pennello, W Charles Huskins, John H Powers, David Schoenfeld, Christy Chuang-Stein, Sara E Cosgrove, Vance G Fowler, Ebbing Lautenbach, Henry F Chambers
Clinical trials that compare strategies to optimize antibiotic use are of critical importance but are limited by competing risks that distort outcome interpretation, complexities of noninferiority trials, large sample sizes, and inadequate evaluation of benefits and harms at the patient level. The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group strives to overcome these challenges through innovative trial design. Response adjusted for duration of antibiotic risk (RADAR) is a novel methodology utilizing a superiority design and a 2-step process: (1) categorizing patients into an overall clinical outcome (based on benefits and harms), and (2) ranking patients with respect to a desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR)...
September 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25880678/risk-factors-for-infection-with-escherichia-coli-in-nursing-home-residents-colonized-with-fluoroquinolone-resistant-e-coli
#11
Sara Manning, Ebbing Lautenbach, Pam Tolomeo, Jennifer H Han
A case-control study to determine risk factors for clinical infection with Escherichia coli was conducted among nursing home residents colonized with fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. Among 94 subjects, 11 (12%) developed infections with E. coli. Risk factors included the presence of a urinary catheter or tracheostomy, diabetes mellitus, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole exposure.
May 2015: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25869756/risk-factors-for-recurrent-colonization-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-community-dwelling-adults-and-children
#12
Valerie C Cluzet, Jeffrey S Gerber, Irving Nachamkin, Joshua P Metlay, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Meghan F Davis, Kathleen G Julian, Darren R Linkin, Susan E Coffin, David J Margolis, Judd E Hollander, Warren B Bilker, Xiaoyan Han, Rakesh D Mistry, Laurence J Gavin, Pam Tolomeo, Jacqueleen A Wise, Mary K Wheeler, Baofeng Hu, Neil O Fishman, David Royer, Ebbing Lautenbach
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. DESIGN Prospective cohort study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012. SETTING Five adult and pediatric academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS Subjects (ie, index cases) who presented with acute community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. METHODS Index cases and all household members performed self-sampling for MRSA colonization every 2 weeks for 6 months. Clearance of colonization was defined as 2 consecutive sampling periods with negative surveillance cultures...
July 2015: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25819167/albumin-concentration-significantly-impacts-on-free-teicoplanin-plasma-concentrations-in-non-critically-ill-patients-with-chronic-bone-sepsis
#13
A J Brink, G A Richards, E E G Lautenbach, N Rapeport, V Schillack, L van Niekerk, J Lipman, J A Roberts
The impact of decreased serum albumin concentrations on free antibiotic concentrations in non-critically ill patients is poorly described. This study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of a high-dose regimen of teicoplanin, a highly protein-bound antibiotic, in non-critically ill patients with hypoalbuminaemia. Ten patients with chronic bone sepsis and decreased serum albumin concentrations (<35 g/L) receiving teicoplanin 12 mg/kg 12-hourly intravenously for 48 h followed by 12 mg/kg once daily were enrolled...
June 2015: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25714468/a-systematic-approach-to-the-reporting-of-medically-relevant-findings-from-whole-genome-sequencing
#14
Heather M McLaughlin, Ozge Ceyhan-Birsoy, Kurt D Christensen, Isaac S Kohane, Joel Krier, William J Lane, Denise Lautenbach, Matthew S Lebo, Kalotina Machini, Calum A MacRae, Danielle R Azzariti, Michael F Murray, Christine E Seidman, Jason L Vassy, Robert C Green, Heidi L Rehm
BACKGROUND: The MedSeq Project is a randomized clinical trial developing approaches to assess the impact of integrating genome sequencing into clinical medicine. To facilitate the return of results of potential medical relevance to physicians and patients participating in the MedSeq Project, we sought to develop a reporting approach for the effective communication of such findings. METHODS: Genome sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Variants were filtered, interpreted, and validated according to methods developed by the Laboratory for Molecular Medicine and consistent with current professional guidelines...
2014: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25648237/duration-of-colonization-and-determinants-of-earlier-clearance-of-colonization-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Valerie C Cluzet, Jeffrey S Gerber, Irving Nachamkin, Joshua P Metlay, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Meghan F Davis, Kathleen G Julian, David Royer, Darren R Linkin, Susan E Coffin, David J Margolis, Judd E Hollander, Rakesh D Mistry, Laurence J Gavin, Pam Tolomeo, Jacqueleen A Wise, Mary K Wheeler, Warren B Bilker, Xiaoyan Han, Baofeng Hu, Neil O Fishman, Ebbing Lautenbach
BACKGROUND: The duration of colonization and factors associated with clearance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) after community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) remain unclear. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with acute MRSA SSTI presenting to 5 adult and pediatric academic hospitals from 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2012. Index patients and household members performed self-sampling for MRSA colonization every 2 weeks for 6 months...
May 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25630645/risk-factors-for-ambulatory-urinary-tract-infections-caused-by-high-mic-fluoroquinolone-susceptible-escherichia-coli-in-women-results-from-a-large-case-control-study
#16
Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Irving Nachamkin, Warren B Bilker, Jason A Roy, Joshua P Metlay, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Ebbing Lautenbach
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of high-MIC fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli (FQSEC) has been increasing. These isolates are one step closer to full fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance and may lead to delayed response to FQ therapy. Our study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of high-MIC FQSEC in ambulatory urinary tract infections (UTIs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted at outpatient services within the University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia...
May 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25623014/anatomical-patterns-of-colonization-of-pets-with-staphylococcal-species-in-homes-of-people-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-skin-or-soft-tissue-infection-ssti
#17
S A Iverson, A M Brazil, J M Ferguson, K Nelson, E Lautenbach, S C Rankin, D O Morris, M F Davis
Methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), and other pathogenic staphylococci can cause infections in companion animals and humans. Identification of colonized animals is fundamental to research and practice needs, but harmonized methods have not yet been established. To establish the optimal anatomic site for the recovery of methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS), survey data and swabs were collected from 196 pets (dogs, cats, reptiles, birds, fish and pocket pets) that lived in households with an MRSA-infected person...
March 23, 2015: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25612602/a-one-page-summary-report-of-genome-sequencing-for-the-healthy-adult
#18
Jason L Vassy, Heather M McLaughlin, Heather L McLaughlin, Calum A MacRae, Christine E Seidman, Denise Lautenbach, Joel B Krier, William J Lane, Isaac S Kohane, Michael F Murray, Amy L McGuire, Heidi L Rehm, Robert C Green
As genome sequencing technologies increasingly enter medical practice, genetics laboratories must communicate sequencing results effectively to nongeneticist physicians. We describe the design and delivery of a clinical genome sequencing report, including a one-page summary suitable for interpretation by primary care physicians. To illustrate our preliminary experience with this report, we summarize the genomic findings from 10 healthy participants in a study of genome sequencing in primary care.
2015: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25586681/carbapenem-therapy-is-associated-with-improved-survival-compared-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-for-patients-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-bacteremia
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Pranita D Tamma, Jennifer H Han, Clare Rock, Anthony D Harris, Ebbing Lautenbach, Alice J Hsu, Edina Avdic, Sara E Cosgrove
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) for the treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) bacteremia is controversial. We compared 14-day mortality of PTZ vs carbapenems as empiric therapy in a cohort of patients with ESBL bacteremia who all received definitive therapy with a carbapenem. METHODS: Patients hospitalized between January 2007 and April 2014 with monomicrobial ESBL bacteremia were included. A decrease of >3 doubling dilutions in the minimum inhibitory concentration for third-generation cephalosporins tested in combination with 4 µg/mL of clavulanic acid was used to confirm ESBL status...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25370746/gaze-behaviour-when-monitoring-pain-faces-an-eye-tracking-study
#20
J A Priebe, M Messingschlager, S Lautenbacher
BACKGROUND: The vigilance-(attentional) avoidance hypothesis (VAH) developed for explaining phobic reactions describes an early attentional bias towards a feared stimulus followed by attentional avoidance of this stimulus. Such a pattern of attentional shifts might also be found when processing of pain-related stimuli is required. The purpose of the present study was to test the VAH for pain-associated stimuli, i.e., faces displaying pain, using the method of eye-tracking in a pain-free sample...
July 2015: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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