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extra pulmonary tb

Shanila Ahmed, Habib Kibzai, Talha Shahzad, Saulat Hasnain Fatimi, Madiha Bilal Qureshi
Teratomas can be found in different organs of the body and may involve gonads, saccrococcygeal region, mediastinum and other sites. Intrathoracic teratomas always occur in mediastinum and less often arise within the lung. As teratomas mostly involve sex organs (gonads), they rarely occur as extra-gonadal tumors accounting for only 3% of all the cases and very small percentage of such tumors occur in mediastinum.We reported an interesting case of middle aged male who presented to us with symptoms of cough, hemoptysis and trichoptysis (hair expectoration)...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Muhammad Saeed, Farhan Rasheed, Shagufta Iram, Shahida Hussain, Adeel Ahmad, Saba Riaz, Maqsood Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the false negative results of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Mycobacteriology Laboratory, Allama Iqbal Medical College (AIMC) and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore (JHL), Pakistan, from February 2014 to August 2016. METHODOLOGY: A total of 3,951 (pulmonary 2,773 and extra-pulmonary 1,178) samples were collected from strong TB suspected patients attending JHL Lahore...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Paulo Ranaivomanana, Mihaja Raberahona, Sedera Rabarioelina, Ysé Borella, Alice Machado, Mamy J De Dieu Randria, Rivo A Rakotoarivelo, Voahangy Rasolofo, Niaina Rakotosamimanana
Background: The primary site of infection for Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) is the alveolar macrophages. However, Mtb can disseminate into other organs and causes extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). The diagnosis of EPTB is challenging due to relatively inaccessible infectious sites that may be paucibacillary and with clinical symptoms varying by site that are similar to those seen in other diseases. Hence, we sought to identify the expression patterns of a variety of cytokines that may be specific to EPTB from in vitro infections and in the plasma of TB patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Soumya Swaminathan, Sanjay Sarin, Virender Singh Salhotra, Aakshi Kalra, Ashwani Khanna, K K Chopra, M Hanif, K R Umadevi, Syed Hissar, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, C H Surya Prakash, B K Saha, Raghuram Rao, Claudia Denkinger, Catharina Boehme
BACKGROUND: Unlike in adults, diagnosis of TB can be challenging in children, as signs and symptoms of paediatric TB can be very non-specific and similar to other common childhood chest infections, which may lead to under or delayed diagnosis of TB disease. In spite of the increasing availability of rapid high-sensitivity diagnostics in public and private sectors, majority of paediatric TB cases are empirically diagnosed, without laboratory confirmation. To address these diagnostic challenges, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended upfront Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing for the diagnosis of TB in paediatric presumptive pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases...
2018: PloS One
Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Virender Singh Salhotra, Raghuram Rao, Aakshi Kalra, Soumya Swaminathan, Ashwani Khanna, Kamal Kishore Chopra, M Hanif, Varinder Singh, K R Umadevi, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Sophie Huddart, C H Surya Prakash, Shalini Mall, Pooja Singh, B K Saha, Claudia M Denkinger, Catharina Boehme, Sanjay Sarin
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of TB in children is challenging, and is largely based on positive history of contact with a TB case, clinical and radiological findings, often without microbiological confirmation. Diagnostic efforts are also undermined by challenges in specimen collection and the limited availability of high sensitivity, rapid diagnostic tests that can be applied with a quick turnaround time. The current project was undertaken in four major cities of India to address TB diagnostic challenges in pediatric population, by offering free of cost Xpert testing to pediatric presumptive TB cases, thereby paving the way for better TB care...
2018: PloS One
Hanifeh Erie, Hami Kaboosi, Naeme Javid, Hesamaddin Shirzad-Aski, Masoumeh Taziki, Maya Babaee Kuchaksaraee, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi
Background and Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is still responsible for a wide range of deaths worldwide. Beijing genotype is one of the most important and virulent strains in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . This study was designed for determination Beijing genotypes of M. tuberculosis in Golestan province, north of Iran. Materials and Methods: In the current descriptive study, 238 clinical MTB isolates, obtained from patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in north of Iran, were evaluated...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Seble Worku, Awoke Derbie, Daniel Mekonnen, Fantahun Biadglegne
BACKGROUND: Data regarding tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes, proportion of TB/HIV co-infection and associated factors have been released at different TB treatment facilities in Ethiopia and elsewhere in the world as part of the auditing and surveillance service. However, these data are missing for the TB clinic offering directly observed treatment short-course (DOTs) at Debre Tabor General Hospital (DTGH). METHODS: The authors analysed the records of 985 TB patients registered at the DTGH from September 2008 to December 2016...
February 26, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Sally-Ann Ohene, Frank Bonsu, Nii Nortey Hanson-Nortey, Adelaide Sackey, Samuel Danso, Felix Afutu, Paul Klatser, Mirjam Bakker
BACKGROUND: The End TB Strategy calls for systematic screening of selected high-risk groups including contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases to facilitate early TB case detection. Contact investigation is not usually routinely practiced in low TB burden countries, such as Ghana, with consequent paucity of data on the yield of TB case detection from such interventions. This study's objective was to document the outcomes and feasibility of implementing contact investigation activities under programmatic conditions in Ghana...
February 27, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
C Oprea, I Ianache, P I Calistru, M Nica, S Ruta, C Smith, M Lipman
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-positive injecting drug users (IDUs) may fuel the TB epidemic in the general population of Romania. We determined the frequency and characteristics of TB in HIV-infected IDUs referred to a national centre. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study of all newly-diagnosed HIV-positive IDUs admitted to Victor Babes Hospital, Bucharest, between January 2009 and December 2014. Socio-demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes of HIV/TB co-infected IDUs were compared to HIV-positive IDUs without TB...
February 21, 2018: HIV Medicine
Hester Korthals Altes, Serieke Kloet, Frank Cobelens, Martin Bootsma
While tuberculosis (TB) represents a significant disease burden worldwide, low-incidence countries strive to reach the WHO target of pre-elimination by 2035. Screening for TB in immigrants is an important component of the strategy to reduce the TB burden in low-incidence settings. An important option is the screening and preventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI). Whether this policy is worthwhile depends on the extent of transmission within the country, and introduction of new cases through import...
2018: PloS One
Arghya Das, Shampa Anupurba, Om P Mishra, Tuhina Banerjee, Rajneesh Tripathi
Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is now a global priority. With the advent of Xpert MTB/RIF, more TB cases in children are being reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Xpert in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in children. Methods: Specimens from 171 suspected TB cases in children aged <15 years were tested with Xpert, culture and smear microscopy in the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, India...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
R Rakotoarivelo, J Ambrosioni, V Rasolofo, M Raberahona, N Rakotosamimanana, R Andrianasolo, R Ramanampamonjy, M Tiaray, J Razafimahefa, J Rakotoson, M Randria, F Bonnet, A Calmy
SETTING: A tertiary care hospital in Madagascar. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of the implementation of a commercial rapid molecular diagnosis test (Xpert MTB/RIF) for the routine diagnosis of smear-negative or extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its diagnostic accuracy, and to assess HIV prevalence in this population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of all consecutive cases with suspected smear-negative and/or extra-pulmonary TB over a two-year period...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Komal Shakeel, Shagufta Iram, Mehwish Akhtar, Shahida Hussain, Hannana Maryam, Ambreen Anwar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of GeneXpert for detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in pus samples and compare its results with conventional techniques in terms of validity, rapidity and rifampicin resistance. METHODS: This longitudinal, descriptive study was conducted at Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January 2012 to December 2015, and comprised pus samples of people suspected of having extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Participants were included by using consecutive sampling technique...
January 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Dilip Sharma, Sudhamshu Kc, Bikash Jaisi
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that patients with liver cirrhosis are more susceptible to tuberculosis because of immune dysfunction; however there are only limited data. We carried out this study to know the prevalence and clinical characteristics of tuberculosis in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical files of 200 consecutive patients admitted with diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in the medical ward of liver unit, Bir Hospital from January 2011 to December 2014 were evaluated for the presence of TB and clinical characteristics of these patients were analyzed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
E N Wa Ilunga, R K Muya, A A Kaponda, C M A Kaput, S M Kalonji, V B Chiribagula, B N Nshikala, A N N'sasi, J-B L Simbi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are a dangerous couple in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of the co-infection tuberculosis/HIV/AIDS and its impact on issues of tuberculosis patients treated in Lubumbashi Heath Zone (LHZ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective and transversal study was conducted through the analysis of tuberculosis patients' data admitted in the tuberculosis Health Centers for Diagnosis and treatment (HCDT) in the LHZ from January 2014 to December 2015...
January 9, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
K Dale, E Tay, J M Trauer, P Trevan, J Denholm
BACKGROUND: Gender has a significant impact on tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and outcomes in many settings worldwide. We explored gender differences in Victoria, Australia, a low-incidence setting. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study: 2002-2015. Gender was included as an independent variable in multivariate statistical analyses assessing TB management. RESULTS: There were 2655 (54.5%) males and 2212 (45.5%) females notified (male:female ratio = 1...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Sabine Bélard, Charlotte C Heuvelings, Ebrahim Banderker, Lindy Bateman, Tom Heller, Savvas Andronikou, Lesley Workman, Martin P Grobusch, Heather J Zar
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) detects extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in HIV-infected adults but has not been evaluated in children despite their higher risk of EPTB. This study's aims were to investigate feasibility of POCUS for EPTB in children, frequency of POCUS findings suggestive of EPTB, and time to sonographic resolution of findings with treatment. METHODS: This prospective South African cohort study enrolled children with suspected PTB...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Eric Wobudeya, Moorine Sekadde-Kasirye, Derrick Kimuli, Frank Mugabe, Deus Lukoye
BACKGROUND: The road map for childhood tuberculosis launched in 2013 provided strong renewed efforts focused towards zero deaths due to tuberculosis in children. From 2010, there were efforts to improve childhood tuberculosis diagnosis in Kampala and this study aimed to document the trend and outcome of tuberculosis in children over the period. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of tuberculosis data for Kampala city for the period 2011-2015. We extracted data from the unit TB registers in the 52 Diagnostic and treatment units (DTUs) in the Kampala...
December 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
Jia-Ni Xiao, Yanqing Xiong, Yingying Chen, Yang-Jiong Xiao, Ping Ji, Yong Li, Shu-Jun Wang, Guo-Ping Zhao, Qi-Jian Cheng, Shui-Hua Lu, Ying Wang
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most severe infectious diseases. It is still of paramount importance to establish more accurate, rapid, and efficient diagnostic methods. Since infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is largely mediated through the respiratory tract, IgA responses against mycobacterial proteins are worthy of investigation for their potential clinical utility. In this study, the IgA response targeting lipoprotein Z (LppZ) was determined by using a homemade ELISA with plasma of TB patients (N = 125), LTBI individuals (N = 92), healthy controls (HCs) (N = 165), as well as TB patients undergoing anti-TB treatment (N = 9)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Vanina Guernier, Tanya Diefenbach-Elstob, Daniel Pelowa, Sandra Pollard, Graham Burgess, Emma S McBryde, Jeffrey Warner
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious health problem in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with an estimated 30000 new cases and 3800 deaths each year. In the Balimo region of the Western Province, diagnosis relies on clinical manifestations and on the microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in sputum smears, a technique with limited sensitivity. METHODS: A molecular diagnosis assay targeting DNA extracted from archived sputum smear slides collected from the Balimo region (2012-2014) was conducted, without the need for a viable culture...
February 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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