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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919887/genotyping-and-prevalence-of-pyrazinamide-and-moxifloxacin-resistant-tuberculosis-in-china-2000-2010-findings-from-the-national-survey-data
#1
Yu Pang, Zhijian Zhang, Yufeng Wang, Shengfen Wang, Yuanyuan Song, Bing Zhao, Yang Zhou, Xichao Ou, Qiang Li, Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Xiangqun Fang, Yanlin Zhao
We investigated the prevalence, trends and risk factors for pyrazinamide (PZA) and moxifloxacin (MOX) resistance among TB cases in China, and also analyzed the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.All the M. tuberculosis strains enrolled in this study were collected from the national TB prevalence surveys. Each strain was genotyped by analyzing the regions of RD105 and the IS6110 in the NTF region. The BACTEC MGIT 960 system was used to detect the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates against PZA and MOX...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906006/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-tuberculosis
#2
REVIEW
Weerawat Manosuthi, Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Tuberculosis (TB) has been the most common opportunistic infection and cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Clinical manifestations of TB vary and depend on the degree of immunodeficiency. Sputum microscopy and culture with drug-susceptibility testing are recommended as a standard method for diagnosing active TB. TB-related mortality in HIV-infected patients is high especially during the first few months of treatment. Integrated therapy of both HIV and TB is feasible and efficient to control the diseases and yield better survival...
May 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872068/missense-mutations-in-the-unfoldase-clpc1-of-the-caseinolytic-protease-complex-are-associated-with-pyrazinamide-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Michelle Yee, Pooja Gopal, Thomas Dick
Previously we showed that mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis panD, involved in coenzyme A biosynthesis, cause resistance against pyrazinoic acid, the bioactive component of the prodrug pyrazinamide. To determine whether additional resistance mechanisms can be identified, we isolated mutants resistant against pyrazinoic acid and subjected panD wildtype strains to whole genome sequencing. 8 out of 9 resistant strains harbored missense mutations in the unfoldase ClpC1 associated with the caseinolytic protease complex...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865403/propidium-monoazide-and-xpert-mtb-rif-to-quantify-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cells
#4
Xavier A Kayigire, Sven O Friedrich, Miriam N Karinja, Lize van der Merwe, Neil A Martinson, Andreas H Diacon
Propidium monoazide (PMA) penetrates non-viable cells with compromised membranes. PMA has been proposed to improve the specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) for the detection of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This study assessed the effect of PMA on Xpert cycle thresholds (CT) of M. tuberculosis made non-viable under antibiotic pressure. In vitro, we measured the difference between CT with and without PMA (ΔCT) in liquid cultures treated with one of six anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin, moxifloxacin) and found significant ΔCT only with isoniazid and ethambutol for pan-susceptible M...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855077/long-chain-fatty-acyl-coa-ligase-fadd2-mediates-intrinsic-pyrazinamide-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Brandon C Rosen, Nicholas A Dillon, Nicholas D Peterson, Yusuke Minato, Anthony D Baughn
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a first-line tuberculosis (TB) drug that has been in clinical use for sixty years yet still has an unresolved mechanism of action. Based upon the observation that the minimum concentration of PZA required to inhibit growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is approximately 1000-fold higher than for other first-line drugs, we hypothesized that M. tuberculosis expresses factors that mediate intrinsic resistance to PZA. To identify genes associated with intrinsic PZA resistance, a library of transposon mutagenized Mycobacterium bovis BCG was screened for strains showing hyper-susceptibility to the active form of PZA, pyrazinoic acid (POA)...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855070/pharmacokinetics-of-the-first-line-antituberculosis-drugs-in-ghanaian-children-with-tuberculosis-with-and-without-hiv-coinfection
#6
Sampson Antwi, Hongmei Yang, Anthony Enimil, Anima M Sarfo, Fizza S Gillani, Daniel Ansong, Albert Dompreh, Antoinette Orstin, Theresa Opoku, Dennis Bosumtwe, Lubbe Wiesner, Jennifer Norman, Charles A Peloquin, Awewura Kwara
Although human immunodefiency virus (HIV) coinfection is the most important risk factor for poor antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment response, its effect on the pharmacokinetics of the first-line drugs in children is understudied. This study examined the pharmacokinetics of the four first-line anti-TB drugs in children with tuberculosis (TB) with and without HIV coinfection. Ghanaian children with TB on isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for at least 4 weeks had blood samples collected at pre-dose, 1, 2, 4, and 8-hours post-dose...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848902/the-impact-of-mass-gathering-on-the-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-al-madinah-al-monawarah-region-saudi-arabia
#7
Mogahid Elhassan, Hassan A Hemeg, Miskelyemen A Elmekki, Khalid A Turkistani, Ahmed A Abdul-Aziz
BACKGROUND: The pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to first line drugs and multidrug resistance in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, a seasonally overcrowded are during Hajj and Omrah, is not well studied. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate anti-TB drug resistance and its distribution among new cases in Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. METHODS: Study subjects included 622 patients with first time confirmed TB referred to the central tuberculosis laboratory in Al-Madinah between January 2012 and December 2014...
November 15, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846235/population-based-drug-resistance-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-taiwan-2007-2014
#8
Pei-Hua Chuang, Mei-Hua Wu, Shin-Yuan Fan, Keng-Yu Lin, Ruwen Jou
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of drug resistance in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases, we conducted a retrospective, population-based analysis using drug susceptibility testing (DST) results of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates obtained from 2007-2014 in Taiwan. METHODS: M. tuberculosis isolates collected from 1,331 MDR-TB cases were included in this survey. Treatment histories, age, sex, chest radiograph and bacteriological results of patients were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816662/applicability-of-the-shorter-bangladesh-regimen-in-high-mdr-tb-settings
#9
Giovanni Sotgiu, Simon Tiberi, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Zhenia Fuentes, Alimuddin Zumla, Giovanni Battista Migliori
In spite of the recent introduction of two new drugs (delamanid and bedaquiline) and a few repurposed compounds to treat multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB), clinicians are facing increasing problems in designing effective regimens in severe cases. Recently a 9 to 12-month regimen (known as Bangladesh regimen) proved to be effective in treating MDR-TB cases. It included an initial phase of 4 to 6 months of kanamycin, moxifloxacin, prothionamide, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, high dose isoniazid and ethambutol followed by 5 months of moxifloxacin, clofazimine, pyrazinamide and ethambutol...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807020/miliary-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-male-with-a-fatal-outcome
#10
Louise Dunphy, Elizabeth Keating, T Parke
A man aged 33 years, born in Nepal, but resident in the UK for 7 years presented to the emergency department with a 4-day history of general malaise, fever (temperature 38.6°C) and a non-productive cough. His medical history was unremarkable and no high-risk behaviour was identified. Clinical examination confirmed decreased air entry bilaterally with bibasal crackles. He was tachycardic, with a heart rate of 120 bpm. Further investigation with a 12-lead ECG confirmed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) which was terminated with vagal manoeuvres...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805329/role-of-risorine-in-the-treatment-of-drug-susceptible-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-pilot-study
#11
Agam Vora, Sanjay Patel, Kamlesh Patel
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and tolerability of Risorine Capsule (A fixed dose combination of Rifampicin 200 mg + INH 300 mg + Piperine 10 mg) therapy in the treatment of drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis patients who developed GI intolerance with standard WHO anti TB regimen. METHODS: 33 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with one Risorine kit, daily consisting of one capsule of Risorine, one tablet of ethambutol (800 mg) and two tablets of Pyrazinamide 750 mg each, for first two months of therapy...
November 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803453/evaluation-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-adverse-events-in-healthy-volunteers-upon-inhalation-of-antituberculosis-drugs
#12
Teerapol Srichana, Chaveewan Ratanajamit, Siwasak Juthong, Tan Suwandecha, Nisa Laohapojanart, Petchawan Pungrassami, Alwar Ramanujam Padmavathi
Inhalation therapy is a promising drug delivery approach for tuberculosis treatment. However, there is always concern about the safety of the dosage form by inhalation as it may induce inflammation. Developing a new dosage form for inhalation must include tests for its safety especially for the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukine (IL)-1β. The safety of four anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs administered via inhalation was assessed in healthy volunteers. Four anti-TB drugs; isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and levofloxacin were prepared as dry powder and evaluated for uniformity of delivered dose and in vitro drug deposition...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803386/characterization-of-isoniazid-specific-t-cell-clones-in-patients-with-anti-tuberculosis-drug-related-liver-and-skin-injury
#13
Toru Usui, Xiaoli Meng, Katy Saide, John Farrell, Paul Thomson, Paul Whitaker, John Watson, Neil S French, B Kevin Park, Dean J Naisbitt
Isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol are commonly used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Drug exposure is occasionally associated with liver and/or skin injury. The aim of this study was to determine whether drug-specific T-cells are detectable in patients with adverse reactions and if so characterize the nature of the T-cell response. PBMC from 6 patients with anti-tuberculosis drug-related adverse reactions (4 liver, 2 skin) were used to detect drug-responsive T-lymphocytes. Positive lymphocyte transformation test and/or ELIspot results were observed with all 6 patients...
November 1, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801499/six-month-therapy-for-abdominal-tuberculosis
#14
REVIEW
Sophie Jullien, Siddharth Jain, Hannah Ryan, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs to be poorly absorbed. On the other hand, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could increase relapse, contribute to drug resistance developing, and increase costs to patients and health providers...
November 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795222/-immunological-evaluation-during-treatment-of-a-case-of-borderline-lepromatous-leprosy
#15
Blanca María Morfín-Maciel, María Carmen Jiménez Martínez
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection that affects skin and peripheral nerves. Its prevalence has declined, but is still observed mainly in poor rural areas. CASE REPORT: A male city dweller with photophobia and chronic dermatosis in the face: nodular and erythematous lesions, pustules, keratitis and entropion, partial eyebrows loss, and edema on eyelids, chin, and nose bridge. The rest of the body had no lesion or lymphadenopathy. Biopsy revealed Langhans giant cell proliferation in the superficial dermis without epidermal atrophy...
October 2016: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790357/hematological-and-liver-toxicity-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#16
Maryam-Sadat Mirlohi, Alireza Ekrami, Saeed Shirali, Mehdi Ghobeishavi, Fatemeh Pourmotahari
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and anti-tuberculosis drugs can cause severe adverse reactions. The aim of this study was to determine hematological and biochemical changes and associated risk factors in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment with standard protocols. METHODS: In a descriptive study, a total of 40 tuberculosis patients aged between 15-60 years were collected from hospitals in Khuzestan Province (Iran) from March 2013 to March 2014...
September 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784505/-research-of-pyrazinamide-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
Y T Gu, H R Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784282/mechanisms-of-first-line-antimicrobial-resistance-in-multi-drug-and-extensively-drug-resistant-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#18
Navisha Dookie, A Willem Sturm, Prashini Moodley
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, drug resistant tuberculosis is a major public health crisis in the face of the colossal HIV pandemic. METHODS: In an attempt to understand the distribution of drug resistance in our setting, we analysed the rpoB, katG, inhA, pncA and embB genes associated with resistance to key drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the KwaZulu-Natal province. RESULTS: Classical mutations were detected in the katG, inhA and embB genes associated with resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776597/pyrazinamide-susceptibility-testing-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-the-fast-resazurin-microtiter-assay-plate
#19
R Z Pina, K R Caleffi-Ferracioli, P A Z Campanerut-Sá, L D Ghiraldi-Lopez, F R Pavan, V L D Siqueira, R B L Scodro, R F Cardoso
SETTING: Department of Clinical Analysis and Biomedicine, State University of Maringa, Maringa, PR, Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) plate at pH 5.5 in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to pyrazinamide (PZA). DESIGN: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PZA in M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. bovis AN5 reference strains and in 34 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates (26 PZA-susceptible and eight PZA-resistant) was determined using REMA at pH 5...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769174/severe-adverse-events-during-second-line-tuberculosis-treatment-in-the-context-of-high-hiv-co-infection-in-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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