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Siyuan Li, Yan Yang, Xiangjun Zha, Yicun Zhou, Wei Yang, Mingbo Yang
Nanostructured polyamide 12(PA12)/polyketone (PK) blends were fabricated by melt compounding. The nanoscale droplet and domain-in-domain morphologies depending on PK content were observed. When the content of PK was 10 vol%, the impact strength of the blend jumps from 6.8 to 111.9 kJ/m² and further improved with an increasing content of PK. The toughening mechanism was found to be closely related with the morphology change from nanoscale droplet morphology to domain-in-domain morphology owing to the strong interfacial hydrogen bonding...
November 8, 2018: Nanomaterials
Huairong Zhong, Yong Xue, Xiaoyuan Lu, Qiang Shao, Yuelei Cao, Zhaoxia Wu, Gao Chen
Proanthocyanidins, including polymers with both low and high degrees of polymerization, are the focus of intensive research worldwide due to their high antioxidant activity, medicinal applications, and pharmacological properties. However, the nutritional value of these compounds is limited because they readily form complexes with proteins, polysaccharides, and metal ions when consumed. In this study, we examined the effects of proanthocyanidins with different degrees of polymerization on white mice. Twenty-four male white mice were randomly divided into three groups of eight mice each and fed proanthocyanidins with a low degree of polymerization or a high degree of polymerization or a distilled water control via oral gavage over a 56-day period...
November 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Andrea Li-Ann Wong, Xiaoqiang Xiang, Pei Shi Ong, Ee Qin Ying Mitchell, Nicholas Syn, Ian Wee, Alan Prem Kumar, Wei Peng Yong, Gautam Sethi, Boon Cher Goh, Paul Chi-Lui Ho, Lingzhi Wang
In the last decade, the tremendous improvement in the sensitivity and also affordability of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has revolutionized its application in pharmaceutical analysis, resulting in widespread employment of LC-MS/MS in determining pharmaceutical compounds, including anticancer drugs in pharmaceutical research and also industries. Currently, LC-MS/MS has been widely used to quantify small molecule oncology drugs in various biological matrices to support preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic studies in R&D of oncology drugs...
November 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Samir M Awad, Yasser M Zohny, Sahar A Ali, Shahenda Mahgoub, Ahmed M Said
Hyperthyroidism is the result of uncontrolled overproduction of the thyroid hormones. One of the mostly used antithyroid agents is 6- n- propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU). The previously solved X-ray crystal structure of the PTU bound to mammalian lactoperoxidase (LPO) reveals that the LPO-PTU binding site is basically a hydrophobic channel. There are two hydrophobic side chains directed towards the oxygen atom in the C-4 position of the thiouracil ring. In the current study, the structural activity relationship (SAR) was performed on the thiouracil nucleus of PTU to target these hydrophobic side chains and gain more favorable interactions and, in return, more antithyroid activity...
November 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Javiera Navarro Soto, Silvia Satorres Martínez, Diego Martínez Gila, Juan Gómez Ortega, Javier Gámez García
The presence of minor compounds in virgin olive oils has been proven to play multiple positive roles in health protection, encouraging its production. The key factors that influence the oil quality are ripening stages and the state of health of the fruit. For this reason, at the oil mill's reception yard, fruits are visually inspected and separated according to their external appearance. In this way, the process parameters can be better adjusted to improve the quantity and/or quality of olive oil. This paper presents a proposal to automatically determine the oil quality before being produced from a previous inspection of the incoming fruits...
November 8, 2018: Sensors
Rodrigo Vieira Gonzaga, Soraya da Silva Santos, Joao Vitor da Silva, Diego Campos Prieto, Debora Feliciano Savino, Jeanine Giarolla, Elizabeth Igne Ferreira
The design of compounds with directed action to a defined organ or tissue is a very promising approach, since it can decrease considerably the toxicity of the drug/bioactive compound. For this reason, this kind of strategy has been greatly important in the scientific community. Dendrimers, on the other hand, comprise extremely organized macromolecules with many peripheral functionalities, stepwise controlled synthesis, and defined size. These nanocomposites present several biological applications, demonstrating their efficiency to act in the pharmaceutical field...
November 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Giuseppe Annunziata, Maria Maisto, Connie Schisano, Roberto Ciampaglia, Patricia Daliu, Viviana Narciso, Gian Carlo Tenore, Ettore Novellino
The beneficial effects of the tea beverage are well-known and mainly attributed to polyphenols which, however, have poor bioaccessibility and bioavailability. The purpose of the present study was the evaluation of colon bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of tea polyphenolic extract. An 80% methanolic extract ( v / v ) of tea polyphenols was obtained from green (GT), white (WT) and black tea (BT). Simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion was performed on acid-resistant capsules containing tea polyphenolic extract...
November 8, 2018: Nutrients
Ruiwen Li, Chuan Mo, Yichuan Liao
The physico-chemical properties of the Uranium intermetallic compound are of technological importance for improvement of the safety and compatibility of nuclear engineering systems. Diffusion couple samples with U and Cu were assembled and U-Cu intermetallic compounds were fabricated at interface by hot pressure diffusion method at a treatment temperature of 350 °C to 650 °C and at a pressure of 168 MPa in a vacuum furnace. The microstructure and element distribution of the compound phase have been studied by means of SEM, EDS, and XRD...
November 8, 2018: Materials
Xiaxia Di, Caroline Rouger, Ingibjorg Hardardottir, Jona Freysdottir, Tadeusz F Molinski, Deniz Tasdemir, Sesselja Omarsdottir
An UPLC-qTOF-MS-based dereplication study led to the targeted isolation of seven bromoindole alkaloids from the sub-Arctic sponge Geodia barretti . This includes three new metabolites, namely geobarrettin A⁻C ( 1 ⁻ 3 ) and four known compounds, barettin ( 4 ), 8,9-dihydrobarettin ( 5 ), 6-bromoconicamin ( 6 ), and l-6-bromohypaphorine ( 7 ) . The chemical structures of compounds 1 ⁻ 7 were elucidated by extensive analysis of the NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute stereochemistry of geobarrettin A ( 1 ) was assigned by ECD analysis and Marfey's method employing the new reagent l- N α -(1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)tryptophanamide (l-FDTA)...
November 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Ivana Acimovic, Marwan M Refaat, Adrien Moreau, Anton Salykin, Steve Reiken, Yvonne Sleiman, Monia Souidi, Jan Přibyl, Andrey V Kajava, Sylvain Richard, Jonathan T Lu, Philippe Chevalier, Petr Skládal, Petr Dvořak, Vladimir Rotrekl, Andrew R Marks, Melvin M Scheinman, Alain Lacampagne, Albano C Meli
BACKGROUND: Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak and post-translational modifications under stress have been implicated in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), a highly lethal inherited arrhythmogenic disorder. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer a unique opportunity for disease modeling. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to obtain functional hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from a CPVT patient harboring a novel ryanodine receptor (RyR2) mutation and model the syndrome, drug responses and investigate the molecular mechanisms associated to the CPVT syndrome...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Byung-Cheol Lee, Seiko Susuki-Miyata, Chen Yan, Jian-Dong Li
Phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) plays an important role in inflammation. Recently we have reported that roflumilast as a PDE4-selective inhibitor, synergizes with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) to up-regulate PDE4B expression in vitro and in vivo. Clinical evidence and our previous results suggest that synergistic induction of PDE4B could be counterproductive for suppressing inflammation or may contribute to tolerance to roflumilast. We thus investigated if dexamethasone inhibits the synergistic induction of PDE4B by roflumilast and NTHi as well as inflammation...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Magdalena Anna Karaś, Anna Turska-Szewczuk, Małgorzata Marczak, Magdalena Jaszek, Monika Janczarek, Katarzyna Dworaczek, Dawid Stefaniuk, Jerzy Wydrych
In our previous report, we had shown that the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii influenced the abundance, competiveness, and virulence of Mesorhizobium loti NZP2213, the microsymbiont of agriculturally important plants of the genus Lotus . The molecular basis of this phenomenon; however, had not been explored. In the present study, we demonstrated that oatB , the O -acetyltransferase encoding gene located in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis cluster of M. loti , was responsible for maintaining the protective capacity of the bacterial cell envelope, necessary for the bacteria to fight environmental stress and survive inside amoeba cells...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Guixing Ren, Zhenxing Shi, Cong Teng, Yang Yao
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. The antiproliferative activities of biochanin A (BA) and ginsenoside Rh₂ were determined by evaluating their inhibitory effect on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell proliferation. The combination of BA with Rh₂ was also assessed. In MDA cells, combination treatment led to a decrease in the EC50 values of BA and Rh₂ to 25.20 μM and 22.75 μM, respectively. In MCF-7 cells, the EC50 values of combined BA and Rh₂ decreased to 27...
November 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Edenilson Dos Santos Niculau, Leandro do Prado Ribeiro, Thiago Felipe Ansante, João Batista Fernandes, Moacir Rossi Forim, Paulo Cezar Vieira, José Djair Vendramim, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da Silva
A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous isolation, on a semi-preparative scale, of chavibetol and methyleugenol from the crude essential oil of P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves. The purity of the isolated compounds and their quantifications were developed using GC/FID. Chavibetol was isolated with high purity (98.7%) and mass recovery (94.6%). The mass recovery (86.4%) and purity (85.3%) of methyleugenol were lower than those of chavibetol. Both compounds were identified on the basis of spectral analysis...
November 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
BoMi Ryu, Yunfei Jiang, Hyun-Soo Kim, Jee-Min Hyun, Sang-Bin Lim, Yong Li, You-Jin Jeon
Nutraceutical use of algae requires understanding of the diversity and significance of their active compositions for intended activities. Ishige okamurae ( I. okamurae ) extract is well-known to possess α-glucosidase inhibitory activity; however, studies are needed to investigate its active composition in order to standardize its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In this study, we observed the intensity of the dominant compounds of each I. okamurae extract harvested between 2016 and 2017, and the different potency of each I...
November 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yu-Shun Lin, Shui-Yuan Lu, Hai-Ping Wu, Chi-Fen Chang, Yung-Tsung Chiu, Hui-Ting Yang, Pei-Min Chao
The objective was to investigate endocrine-disrupting effects of polar compounds from oxidized frying oil. Estrogenicity of polar compounds was tested with a rat uterotrophic bioassay. Dietary oxidized frying oil (containing 51% polar compounds) or polar compounds isolated from it were incorporated into feed (in lieu of fresh soybean oil) and fed to ovariectomized rats, with or without treatment with exogenous ethynyl estradiol. Exogenous estrogen restored uterine weight, and caused histological abnormalities (stratified epithelia and conglomerate glands) as well as proliferation of uterine epithelial cells...
November 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Wenwen Jiang, Xiangli Tian, Ziheng Fang, Li Li, Shuanglin Dong, Haidong Li, Kun Zhao
Salinity is an important environmental factor affecting fish physiology. Tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a euryhaline species that can survive in a wide range of salinity, and might be used as a promising model animal for environmental science. In this study, by using the nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR)-based metabolomics, amino acids analysis and real-time quantitative PCR assay, we investigated the metabolic responses in the gills and plasma of tongue sole subjected to hypo- (0 ppt, S0) and hyper-osmotic stress (50 ppt, S50) from isosmotic environment (30 ppt, S30)...
October 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guilaine Jaria, Vânia Calisto, Carla Patrícia Silva, María Victoria Gil, Marta Otero, Valdemar I Esteves
In this work, a granular activated carbon (GAC) was produced using primary paper mill sludge (PS) as raw material and ammonium lignosulfonate (AL) as binder agent. PS is a residue from the pulp and paper industry and AL is a by-product of the cellulose pulp manufacture and the proposed production scheme contributes for their valorisation together with important savings in GAC precursors. The produced GAC (named PSA-PA) and a commercially available GAC (GACN), used as reference material, were physically and chemically characterized...
October 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wenhui Qiu, Jing Sun, Meijuan Fang, Shusheng Luo, Yiqun Tian, Peiyao Dong, Bentuo Xu, Chunmiao Zheng
The occurrence and distribution of antibiotics were investigated in surface water and sediment collected from the main rivers of Shenzhen, China. Total concentrations of 20 selected antibiotics ranged from 36.510 to 1075.687 ng L-1 (mean 244.992 ng L-1 ) in 31 water samples and from 28.124 to 2728.810 ng g-1 (mean 680.169 ng g-1 ) in 31 sediment samples. Notably, STZ and SDZ were the dominant antibiotics in both water and sediment as their higher concentrations compared with the other compounds...
October 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yanbei Hou, Yixin Hu, Shuilai Qiu, Longxiang Liu, Weiyi Xing, Weizhao Hu
Bimetallic compounds have been proved superior suppression effect on smoke emission during combustion of polymers. In this work, MoS2 /Bi2 Se3 (MB) hybrids were prepared by a facile wet chemical method and showed superior performance on smoke suppression of EP matrix during combustion. N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was employed to exfoliate molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) nanosheets in a recyclable method, which showed high efficiency and was recyclable. Exfoliated MoS2 exhibited large surface area and used as carriers to synthesize MB hybrids...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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