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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452453/-personalized-ophthalmology-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-in-vitro-modelling-of-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#1
Caroline Brandl, Bernhard H F Weber
Today, the search for therapeutic options to treat retinal degeneration often relies on an in-depth understanding of the underlying pathological events. Alternatively, it is conceivable to search, in an undirected screening approach, for chemical compounds affecting disease outcome. For both approaches, there is an urgent need for in vitro and, ideally, in vivo disease models that adequately reflect the site of pathology. Currently available animal models possess limitations as they often develop only defined aspects of disease...
February 16, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452450/-cost-comparison-of-licensed-intravitreal-therapies-for-insufficiently-anti-vegf-responding-fovea-involving-diabetic-macular-edema-in-germany
#2
Aljoscha S Neubauer, Christos Haritoglou, Michael W Ulbig
BACKGROUND: In the treatment of center-involving diabetic macular edema, despite initial therapy with an anti-VEGF compound, an insufficient response may occur. Further therapy options include a switch of anti-VEGF products or to corticosteroid implants, such as Fluocinolone acetonide or Dexamethasone. OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to investigate systematically which evidence-based study data are available describing the efficacy of in-label treatments after primary anti-VEGF treatment, secondly, to investigate which costs go along for the healthcare provider...
February 16, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452376/the-vacuolar-transportome-of-plant-specialized-metabolites
#3
Rita de Brito Francisco, Enrico Martinoia
The plant vacuole is a cellular compartment that is essential to plant development and growth. Often plant vacuoles accumulate specialized metabolites, also called secondary metabolites, which constitute functionally and chemically diverse compounds that exert in planta many essential functions and improve the plant's fitness. These metabolites provide for example chemical defence against herbivorous and pathogens or chemical attractants (colour and fragrance) to attract pollinators. The chemical composition of the vacuole is dynamic and is altered during development and as a response to environmental changes...
February 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452253/remote-limb-ischemic-postconditioning-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-activating-ampk-dependent-autophagy
#4
Hao Guo, Lei Zhao, Bodong Wang, Xia Li, Hao Bai, Haixiao Liu, Liang Yue, Wei Guo, Zhenyuan Bian, Li Gao, Dayun Feng, Yan Qu
Remote limb ischemic postconditioning (RIPoC) is a promising adjunct treatment for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated yet. The present study aims to investigate potential involvement and regulatory mechanisms of autophagy in RIPoC treatment against cerebral IR injury in mice. Mice were subjected to 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) then treated with vehicle, 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor), or compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) at the onset of reperfusion...
February 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452251/using-in-vitro-derived-enzymatic-reaction-rates-of-metabolism-to-inform-pesticide-body-burdens-in-amphibians
#5
Donna A Glinski, W Matthew Henderson, Robin J Van Meter, S Thomas Purucker
Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. To assess the potential metabolic activation of broad use pesticides in amphibians, in vitro and in vivo metabolic rate constants were derived from toad (Anaxyrus terrestris) livers in experiments measuring the depletion of atrazine (ATZ), triadimefon (TDN), and fipronil (FIP) as well as formation of their metabolites. To determine the predictability of these in vitro derived rate constants, Fowler's toads (Anaxyrus fowleri) were exposed to soil contaminated with each of the pesticides at maximum application rate...
February 13, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452241/raw-material-variability-of-an-active-pharmaceutical-ingredient-and-its-relevance-for-processability-in-secondary-continuous-pharmaceutical-manufacturing
#6
F Stauffer, V Vanhoorne, G Pilcer, P-F Chavez, S Rome, M A Schubert, L Aerts, T De Beer
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) raw material variability is not always thoroughly considered during pharmaceutical process development, mainly due to low quantities of drug substance available. However, synthesis, crystallization routes and production sites evolve during product development and product life cycle leading to changes in physical material attributes which can potentially affect their processability. Recent literature highlights the need for a global approach to understand the link between material synthesis, material variability, process and product quality...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452235/improved-strength-of-silk-fibers-in-bombyx-mori-trimolters-induced-by-an-anti-juvenile-hormone-compound
#7
Kaiyu Guo, Zhaoming Dong, Yan Zhang, Dandan Wang, Muya Tang, Xiaolu Zhang, Qingyou Xia, Ping Zhao
BACKGROUND: Bombyx mori silk fibers with thin diameters have advantages of lightness and crease-resistance. Many studies have used anti-juvenile hormones to induce trimolters in order to generate thin silk; however, there has been comparatively little analysis of the morphology, structure and mechanical properties of trimolter silk. METHODS: This study induced two kinds of trimolters by appling topically anti-juvenile hormones and obtained thin diameter silk. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), FTIR analysis, tensile mechanical testing, chitin staining were used to reveal that the morphology, conformation and mechanical property of the trimolter silk...
February 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452212/exploring-in-vivo-metabolism-and-excretion-of-qo-58l-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Jiaqi Zhang, Qingzhong Jia, Jinlong Qi, Hailin Zhang, Yaru Wu, Xiaowei Shi
QO-58 lysine (QO-58L) as a new potassium channel opener, reported to have a potential activity to cure neuropathic pain. The aim of this research is to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of QO-58L in rat urine, feces and bile. In addition, analyze and identify the metabolites in urine and bile. The assay for this compound in samples detected with multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM), and take nimodipine as internal standards (IS)...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452189/roasted-and-green-coffee-extracts-show-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-activity-in-myoblast-and-endothelial-cell-lines-in-a-cell-specific-manner
#9
Alexandros Priftis, Eleftheria-Maria Panagiotou, Konstantinos Lakis, Christina Plika, Maria Halabalaki, Georgia Ntasi, Aristidis S Veskoukis, Dimitrios Stagos, Leandros A Skaltsounis, Dimitrios Kouretas
Coffee is one of the most highly consumed beverages with potential beneficial health implications, however its molecular mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated yet. To that cause, the polyphenolic composition of different coffee extracts (from Light, Medium and Dark roasts as well as green beans) was examined by UHPLC-HRMS analysis, indicating chlorogenic acids isomers as the main constituents. In the following step, the toxicity of the extracts was tested in myoblasts and endothelial cells and differential toxicity of green and roasted samples was displayed as the myoblasts were more sensitive to green coffee extracts, in contrast to the endothelial cells...
February 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452186/lectin-obtained-from-the-red-seaweed-bryothamnion-triquetrum-secondary-structure-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-mice
#10
Thais Pontes Carvalho Fontenelle, Glauber Cruz Lima, Jacilane Ximenes Mesquita, José Luiz de Souza Lopes, Tarcísio Vieira de Brito, Francisco das Chagas Vieira Júnior, Adriano Bezerra Sales, Karoline Saboia Aragão, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte Souza, André Luiz Dos Reis Barbosa, Ana Lúcia Ponte Freitas
Seaweeds are sources of biomolecules with biological activities and pharmacological potential - for example, lectins, a group of proteins that can bind reversibly to carbohydrates or compounds containing them. The aim of this study was to elucidate the structural properties of a lectin extracted from the red seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum (BtL) and to investigate its anti-inflammatory activity in mice. The lectin was purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and ion-exchange chromatography. Its secondary structure and tryptophan (Trp) microenvironment were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452148/complete-inhibition-of-fetal-movement-in-the-day-40-pregnant-goat-model-by-the-piperidine-alkaloid-anabasine-but-not-related-alkaloids
#11
B T Green, S T Lee, J W Keele, K D Welch, D Cook, J A Pfister, W R Kem
Four chemically similar alkaloids, anabasine, anabaseine, epibatidine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP), are potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists of fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human TE-671 cells. Based on results with these cells, we hypothesized that the alkaloids would completely inhibit ultrasound-monitored fetal movement in a goat model. Different, single doses of anabasine, anabaseine, epibatidine, DMPP, or saline control were administered I.V. to pregnant goats on day 40 of gestation and the number of fetal movements per 5 min sample was measured by ultrasound at times 0, 0...
February 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452141/a-rich-source-of-potential-bioactive-compounds-with-anticancer-activities-by-catharanthus-roseus-cambium-meristematic-stem-cell-cultures
#12
So Hyun Moon, Muthuraman Pandurangan, Doo Hwan Kim, Jelli Venkatesh, Rahul V Patel, Bhupendra M Mistry
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. is an important medicinal plant with rich sources of remarkable health benefits consisting more than 100 alkaloids and significant amounts of bioactive compounds, which have been widely used as a folk medicine for treatment of several pathologies. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we isolated and cultured innately undifferentiated cambium meristematic cells (CMCs), which were observed stable cell growth, enhancement of bioactive compounds from C...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452108/effect-of-brimonidine-an-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-agonist-on-human-meibomian-gland-epithelial-cells
#13
Xi Han, Yang Liu, Wendy R Kam, David A Sullivan
We recently discovered that the anti-glaucoma pharmaceuticals timolol, a β adrenergic antagonist, and pilocarpine, a cholinergic compound, negatively influence the morphology, proliferative capacity and survival of human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs). We hypothesize that another class of anti-glaucoma drugs, the α2 adrenergic agonists, also acts directly on HMGECs to affect their structure and function. We tested this hypothesis. Immortalized (i) HMGECs were cultured with brimonidine, as well as clonidine (α2 agonist), phenylephrine (α1 agonist), RX821002 (inverse α2 agonist) and MK912 (neutral α2 agonist) for up to 7 days...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452096/the-macrophage-heme-heme-oxygenase-1-system-and-its-role-in-inflammation
#14
REVIEW
Vijith Vijayan, Frank A D T G Wagener, Stephan Immenschuh
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inducible isoform of the heme-degrading enzyme HO, plays a critical role in inflammation and iron homeostasis. Regulatory functions of HO-1 are mediated via the catalytic breakdown of heme, which is an iron-containing tetrapyrrole complex with potential pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects. The HO reaction produces the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, subsequently converted into bilirubin, along with iron, which is reutilized for erythropoiesis...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451904/phytoforensics-trees-as-bioindicators-of-potential-indoor-exposure-via-vapor-intrusion
#15
Jordan L Wilson, V A Samaranayake, Matt A Limmer, Joel G Burken
Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via vapor intrusion (VI) is an emerging public health concern with notable detrimental impacts on public health. Phytoforensics, plant sampling to semi-quantitatively delineate subsurface contamination, provides a potential non-invasive screening approach to detect VI potential, and plant sampling is effective and also time- and cost-efficient. Existing VI assessment methods are time- and resource-intensive, invasive, and require access into residential and commercial buildings to drill holes through basement slabs to install sampling ports or require substantial equipment to install groundwater or soil vapor sampling outside the home...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451867/determination-of-debye-temperatures-and-lamb-m%C3%A3-ssbauer-factors-for-lnfeo-3-orthoferrite-perovskites-ln-la-nd-sm-eu-gd
#16
A Scrimshire, A Lobera, A M T Bell, A H Jones, I Sterianou, S D Forder, P A Bingham
Lanthanide orthoferrites have wide-ranging industrial uses including solar, catalytic and electronic applications. Here a series of lanthanide orthoferrite perovskites, LnFeO 3 (Ln = La; Nd; Sm; Eu; Gd), prepared through a standard stoichiometric wet ball milling route using oxide precursors, has been studied. Characterisation through x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence confirmed the synthesis of phase-pure or near-pure LnFeO 3 compounds. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was performed over a temperature range of 10 K-293 K to observe hyperfine structure and to enable calculation of the recoil-free fraction and Debye temperature (θ D ) of each orthoferrite...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451865/flavonoids-and-triterpenes-from-combretum-fragrans-with-anti-inflammatory-antioxidant-and-antidiabetic-potential
#17
Amadou Dawé, Marius Mbiantcha, Fawai Yakai, Almas Jabeen, Muhammad Shaiq Ali, Mehreen Lateef, Bonaventure Tchaleu Ngadjui
Despite the well-documented benefits of Combretum fragrans in Cameroon, only few scientific works have been done on it. In this study we isolated eight compounds from the leaves extract of C. fragrans: velutin (1), belamcanidin (2), cirsilineol (3), cirsimaritin (4), 3β-acetoxy-20,24-epoxy-11,25-hydroxy-dammarane (5), combretin A (6), combretin B (7) and a mixture of arjunolic acid (8a) and asiatic acid (8b). Compounds 6 and 7 presented potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. Compounds 1, 3, 5 and the mixture of 8a and 8b were significantly active, and compounds 2 and 4 presented moderate activity for reactive oxygen species inhibitory and free-radical scavenging...
February 16, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451850/determination-of-14-aminoglycosides-by-lc-ms-ms-using-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-solid-phase-extraction-for-clean-up
#18
Marie-Claude Savoy, Pei Mun Woo, Pauline Ulrich, Adrienne Tarres, Pascal Mottier, Aurélien Desmarchelier
A LC-MS/MS method for screening fourteen aminoglycosides in foodstuffs of animal origin is presented. Its scope includes raw materials and processed ingredients but also finished products composed of milk, meat, fish, egg or fat. Aminoglycosides are extracted in an acidic aqueous solution, which is first recovered after centrifugation, then diluted with a basic buffer and finally purified by molecularly imprinted polymer-solid phase extraction (MIP-SPE). Analytes are detected within 8 min by ion-pair reversed phase LC-MS/MS...
February 16, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451805/loss-and-formation-of-malodorous-volatile-sulfhydryl-compounds-during-wine-storage
#19
Gal Y Kreitman, Ryan J Elias, David W Jeffery, Gavin L Sacks
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), particularly low molecular weight sulfhydryls like hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and methanethiol (MeSH), are often observed in wines with sulfurous off-aromas. Recent work has shown both H 2 S and MeSH can increase up to a few µM (> 40 µg/L) during anoxic storage, but the identity of the latent sources of these sulfhydryls is still disputed. This review critically evaluates the latent precursors and pathways likely to be responsible for the loss and formation of these sulfhydryls during wine storage based on the existing enology literature as well as studies from food chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry, and synthetic chemistry...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451790/copper-ii-chlorate-complexes-the-renaissance-of-a-forgotten-and-misjudged-energetic-anion
#20
Maximilian H H Wurzenberger, Norbert Szimhardt, Jörg Stierstorfer
A convenient synthetic route toward new copper(II) chlorate complexes with potential use in modern advanced igni-tion or initiation systems is described. Obtained compounds were not only accurately characterized (XRD, IR, UV/Vis EA and DTA) but also investigated for their energetic character (sensitivities, initiation capability and laser ignition). The copper 4-aminotriazolyl chlorate complex showed excellent initiation of PETN, while also being thermally stable and safe to handle. Solid-state UV-Vis measurements were performed to get a possible insight toward the laser initia-tion mechanism...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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