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Jun Yamamoto, Miho Nishiura, Takanori Ohata, Ho Namkoong, Shinji Sakaguchi, Fumitake Saito, Hideki Yuki
A 44-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with pleural effusion and unknown fever. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was not detected by culture of pleural effusion and sputum and gastric fluid. Pleural fluid was serous and exudative, and cytological examination showed no malignant cells. Computed tomography revealed a little pleural thickening of the right middle lobe and massive pleural effusion. As acute pleurisy was suspected based on the findings of imaging studies, thoracoscopy was performed under general anesthesia...
March 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Lisa C Martial, Jordy Kerkhoff, Nilza Martinez, Mabel Rodríguez, Rosarito Coronel, Gladys Molinas, Myriam Roman, Roscio Gomez, Sarita Aguirre, Erwin Jongedijk, Justine Huisman, Daan J Touw, Domingo Pérez, Gilberto Chaparro, Felipe Gonzalez, Rob E Aarnoutse, Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Cecile Magis-Escurra
BACKGROUND: Dried blood spot sampling (DBS) for pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring has unique advantages over venous sampling. We aimed to evaluate a DBS method for first-line anti-TB drugs in children, implemented DBS to assess PK parameters. METHODS: Paraguayan children were treated according to the revised paediatric WHO dosing scheme. A PK curve was performed both with DBS and conventional venous sampling for rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Qingchun Li, Gang Zhao, Limin Wu, Min Lu, Wei Liu, Yifei Wu, Le Wang, Ke Wang, Han-Zhu Qian, Li Xie
Background: To evaluate prevalence and patterns of drug resistance among pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in Hangzhou City, China. Methods: Sputum samples of smear positive TB patients enrolled in 2011 and 2015 were collected and tested for drug susceptibility, and demographic and medical record data were extracted from the electronic database of China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Chi-square test was used to compare drug resistance prevalence between new and treated patients and between male and female patients, and Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence over calendar years 2011 and 2015...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Marc-Etienne Parent, Maxime Richer, Patrick Liang
To present an unrecognized vascular complication of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy administered for superficial bladder carcinoma. We also review the potential mimickers for primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) as well as complications of intravesical BCG therapy. An 89-year-old Caucasian man with a history of relapsing high-grade bladder carcinoma treated with intravesical BCG presented with recurring episodes of right upper limb paresthesia with clumsiness and dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed multiple predominantly left-sided frontotemporal micronodular peri-vascular lesions...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Clara Milikowski
Infectious proctitis is usually associated with sexually transmitted diseases, especially in HIV-infected individuals. Limited information is found about the role of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare as a causative agent for this condition. Here, we report the case of an HIV-infected patient with a CD4 count of 304 cells/uL and undetectable HIV viral load, who presented with constipation and painful defecation. Endoscopic evaluation was significant for shallow rectal ulcerations. Histopathology revealed poorly formed granulomas...
May 8, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Wael A Alghamdi, Mohammad H Al-Shaer, Charles A Peloquin
INTRODUCTION: The 4-drug regimen of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol is inexpensive, reliable option for treating patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). Its efficacy could be further improved by determining the free drug concentrations in plasma, knowing that only the unbound drug can freely penetrate to the tissues. METHODS: Using an ultrafiltration technique, we determined the protein binding (PB) extent and variability of the first-line anti-TB drugs when given simultaneously to TB patients, representing a real-life case scenario...
May 7, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Adriana Handra-Luca
Minor salivary gland granuloma is rare in tuberculosis. We present a case of labial minor salivary gland granulomas occurring in the course of tuberculosis along with skin, mediastinal and liver granulomas. The patient (46-year-old man) presented with asthenia, nocturne transpiration, weight loss and compressive thoracic adenopathies. The angiotensin I converting enzyme was elevated as well as calcemia. The QuantiFERON test and culture of a mediastinal specimen were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Ju-Yeun Lee, Jinu Han, Jeong Gi Seo, Kyung-Ah Park, Sei Yeul Oh
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic value of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) thickness versus peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness for the early detection of ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy (EON). METHODS: Twenty-eight eyes of 15 patients in the EON group and 100 eyes of 53 healthy subjects in the control group were included. All patients with EON demonstrated the onset of visual symptoms within 3 weeks. Diagnostic power for pRNFL and mGCIPL thicknesses measured by Cirrus spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves and sensitivity...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Katharigatta N Venugopala, Mohammed A Khedr, Melendhran Pillay, Susanta K Nayak, Sandeep Chandrashekharappa, Bandar E Al Dhubiab, Sree Harsha, Mahesh Attimarad, Bharti Odhav
Biotin is very important for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 7,8-Diamino pelargonic acid aminotransaminase (DAPA) is a transaminase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of biotin. The benzothiazole title compounds were investigated for their in vitro anti-tubercular activity against two tubercular strains: H37Rv (ATCC 25177) and MDR-MTB (multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis, resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol) by an agar incorporation method. The possible binding mode and predicted affinity were computed using a molecular docking study...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Divya Tiwari, Sae Woong Park, Maram M Essawy, Surendra Dawadi, Alan Mason, Madhumitha Nandakumar, Matthew Zimmerman, Marizel Mina, Hsin Pin Ho, Curtis A Engelhart, Thomas Ioerger, James C Sacchettini, Kyu Rhee, Sabine Ehrt, Courtney C Aldrich, Véronique Dartois, Dirk Schnappinger
Successful drug treatment for tuberculosis (TB) depends on the unique contributions of its component drugs. Drug resistance poses a threat to the efficacy of individual drugs and the regimens to which they contribute. Biologically and chemically validated targets capable of replacing individual components of current TB chemotherapy are a major unmet need in TB drug development. We demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the bacterial biotin protein ligase (BPL) with the inhibitor Bio-AMS (5'-[ N -(d-biotinoyl)sulfamoyl]amino-5'-deoxyadenosine) killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), the bacterial pathogen causing TB...
April 25, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Ju-Yeun Lee, Jae Hwan Choi, Kyung-Ah Park, Sei Yeul Oh
Purpose: To describe changes in the retina during ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy (EON) progression, and determine the retinal layer thickness as a predictive factor for vision recovery after stoppage of ethambutol (EMB) in EON. Methods: A total of 42 eyes in 21 patients with EON underwent Spectralis optical coherence tomography after the onset of symptoms. Peripapillary and macular retinal nerve fiber layer as well as ganglion cell layer plus inner plexus layer (GCIPL) thickness was measured using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) circles...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Alex Guri, Michal Kori, Pearl Herskovitz, Oren Zimhony
A 15-year-old girl presented with erythema nodosum and mild abdominal complaints. Her intestinal granulomatous disease was erroneously diagnosed as Crohn's disease despite the fact that the possibility of tuberculosis was considered. The final diagnosis of tuberculosis was made only when an anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy resulted in further deterioration. The patient was treated with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, with slow and steady clinical improvement until complete recovery was achieved...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Maikel Boot, Susanna Commandeur, Amit K Subudhi, Meriem Bahira, Trever C Smith, Abdallah M Abdallah, Mae van Gemert, Joël Lelièvre, Lluís Ballell, Bree B Aldridge, Arnab Pain, Alexander Speer, Wilbert Bitter
Due to the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to effectively combat these cases and shorten treatment regimens. Recently, drug screens using whole cell analyses have been shown to be successful. However, current high-throughput screens focus mostly on stricto sensu life-death screening that give little qualitative information. In doing so, promising compound scaffolds or non-optimized compounds that fail to reach inhibitory concentrations are missed. To accelerate early TB drug discovery, we performed RNA sequencing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum to map the stress responses that follow upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics with known targets: ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yingjun Liu, Henry Pertinez, Geraint R Davies, Stephen H Gillespie, Anthony R Coates, Yanmin Hu
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading killer worldwide, and disease control is hampered by ineffective control of persistent infections. Substitution of moxifloxacin for isoniazid or ethambutol in standard TB regimens reduces treatment duration and relapse rates in animal studies and four-month regimens were not non-inferior in clinical trials. Resuscitation promoting factor (RPF) dependent bacilli have recently been implicated in M. tuberculosis persistence. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of moxifloxacin substitution in the standard drug regimen for eradicating colony forming count (CFU) positive and RPF-dependent persistent M...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
A Wakamiya, O Seguchi, A Shionoiri, Y Kumai, K Kuroda, S Nakajima, M Yanase, S Matsuda, K Wada, Y Matsumoto, S Fukushima, T Fujita, J Kobayashi, N Fukushima
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous paradoxical reactions (PRs) are excessive immune reactions occurring after antituberculosis (TB) treatment and are commonly observed in immunocompromised hosts such as patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. CASE REPORT: We recently encountered a 63-year-old male heart transplant recipient who developed tuberculous PR after treatment for miliary TB. The patient had been receiving immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil for over 15 years...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Quratulain Kizilbash, Adriana Vasquez, Barbara Seaworth
We describe 2 young, female patients who developed drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome while on treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Active TB was treated successfully with second-line TB medications, including moxifloxacin, ethambutol, linezolid, and amikacin for 18 months.
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Saleha Banu, Rajitha Bollu, Lingaiah Nagarapu, Jagadeesh Babu Nanubolu, Yogeswari Perumal, Dharmarajan Sriram, Shravan Kumar Gunda, Divyasphoorthi Vardhan
In the quest for new active molecules against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a series of dihydroquinoline derivatives possessing triazolo substituents were efficiently synthesized using click chemistry. The structure of 6l was evidenced by X-ray crystallographic study. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-tubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC27294). The compounds 6a, 6g and 6j (MIC: 3.13 μg/mL) showed promising activity when compared to the first line drug such as ethambutol...
April 6, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Yukihiko Kato, Yu Sato, Miho Nakasu, Ryoji Tsuboi
Background: We experienced a rare case of immediate type hypersensitivity and late phase reaction to anti-tubercular therapy consisting of ethambutol and levofloxacin, which occurred in close succession, giving the appearance of a single, continuous reaction to one drug. Case presentation: The patient was a man in his 70's who began therapy consisting of isoniazide, rifampicin, and ethambutol for pulmonary tuberculosis. Since the patient had a drug eruption within several hours after the start of his treatment, his reaction to ethambutol was assessed first among the three suspected drugs using an oral challenge test...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Rangappa S Keri, Sudam S Pandule, Srinivasa Budagumpi, Bhari M Nagaraja
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly dreaded, infectious, chronic, airborne disease affecting more than two million people all around the world, with more than eight million cases every calendar year. TB is the second leading infectious cause of death after HIV/AIDS. Over the past few decades, numerous efforts have been undertaken to develop new anti-TB agents. The current frontline therapy for TB consists of administering three or more different drugs (usually isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol) over an extended period of time...
April 3, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
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