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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#1
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425484/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistance-prediction-and-lineage-classification-from-genome-sequencing-comparison-of-automated-analysis-tools
#2
Viola Schleusener, Claudio U Köser, Patrick Beckert, Stefan Niemann, Silke Feuerriegel
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has the potential to accelerate drug-susceptibility testing (DST) to design appropriate regimens for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Several recently developed automated software tools promise to standardize the analysis and interpretation of WGS data. We assessed five tools (CASTB, KvarQ, Mykrobe Predictor TB, PhyResSE, and TBProfiler) with regards to DST and phylogenetic lineage classification, which we compared with phenotypic DST, Sanger sequencing, and traditional typing results for a collection of 91 strains...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396542/ethambutol-is-cleared-by-a-contemporary-high-flux-hemodialyzer-and-drug-monitoring-ensures-safety-and-therapeuticity
#3
Rusheng Chew, Sarah Jongbloed, Dev Jegatheesan, Helen Healy, Kim Ta, Jacobus Ungerer, Brett McWhinney, Peter Donovan, Marion L Woods
It is uncertain, given the lack of recent data and the inconclusive nature of previous data, whether ethambutol is cleared by hemodialysis using contemporary dialyzers. We measured serum ethambutol concentrations before, during and one hour after hemodialysis in a 75-year-old Caucasian male receiving ethambutol for disseminated Bacille Calmette-Guérin infection. There was a mean 41% decrease in serum ethambutol concentration during dialysis, confirming the hemodialyzability of ethambutol and the utility of drug monitoring in ensuring safety...
April 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392413/isolation-and-identification-of-multiple-drug-resistant-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-from-organs-of-cattle-produced-typical-granuloma-lesions
#4
Guangyu Cheng, Donglei Xu, Jinling Wang, Chunfa Liu, Yang Zhou, Yongyong Cui, Hancan Liu, Kanglin Wan, Xiangmei Zhou
Nontuberculosis mycobacteria are widespread in the environment and some are zoonotic. 320 tissue samples with visible lesions were obtained from dairy cows and examined by histopathology. Eleven samples showed typical granulomatous lesions and a total of 8 strains were cultured. Three genes (16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB) were sequenced for species identification. All mycobacterial isolates were tested for rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, capreomycin, kanamycin, para-aminosalicylic acid susceptibility...
April 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357124/antibiotic-associated-suspected-adverse-drug-reactions-among-hospitalized-patients-in-uganda-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Ronald Kiguba, Charles Karamagi, Sheila M Bird
We sought to determine the prevalence at admission and incidence during hospitalization of antibiotic-associated suspected adverse drug reactions (aa-ADRs) among Ugandan inpatients; and to characterize these aa-ADRs. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 762 consented adults admitted on medical and gynecological wards of the 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital. Thirty percent were known HIV-seropositive (232/762). Nineteen percent (148/762; 95% CI: 17-22%) of inpatients experienced at least one aa-ADR...
April 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346018/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-infected-children-who-require-a-rifamycin-containing-regimen-for-tuberculosis
#6
REVIEW
Helena Rabie, Eric H Decloedt, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Mark F Cotton, Lisa Frigati, Marc Lallemant, Anneke Hesseling, H Simon Schaaf
In high prevalence settings, tuberculosis and HIV dual infection and co-treatment is frequent. Rifamycins, especially rifampicin, in combination with isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide are key components of short-course antituberculosis therapy. Areas covered: We reviewed available data, for which articles were identified by a Pubmed search, on rifamycin-antiretroviral interactions in HIV-infected children. Rifamycins have potent inducing effects on phase I and II drug metabolising enzymes and transporters...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335772/production-of-s-2-aminobutyric-acid-and-s-2-aminobutanol-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Nora Weber, Anaëlle Hatsch, Ludivine Labagnere, Harald Heider
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) has great potential as a whole-cell biocatalyst for multistep synthesis of various organic molecules. To date, however, few examples exist in the literature of the successful biosynthetic production of chemical compounds, in yeast, that do not exist in nature. Considering that more than 30% of all drugs on the market are purely chemical compounds, often produced by harsh synthetic chemistry or with very low yields, novel and environmentally sound production routes are highly desirable...
March 23, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335544/combination-effect-of-antituberculosis-drugs-and-ethanolic-extract-of-selected-medicinal-plants-against-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#8
Prabasiwi Nur Fauziyah, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Dhyan Kusuma Ayuningtyas
Adverse drug reaction and resistance to antituberculosis drugs remain the causes of tuberculosis therapeutic failure. This research aimed to find the combination effect of standard antituberculosis drugs with Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Kaempferia galanga L., and Piper crocatum N.E. Br against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Two MDR strains (i.e., isoniazid/ethambutol resistant and rifampicin/streptomycin resistant) of M. tuberculosis were inoculated in Löwenstein-Jensen medium containing a combination of standard antituberculosis drugs and ethanolic extracts of H...
March 20, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333978/association-between-genotype-and-drug-resistance-profiles-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-circulating-in-china-in-a-national-drug-resistance-survey
#9
Yang Zhou, Susan van den Hof, Shengfen Wang, Yu Pang, Bing Zhao, Hui Xia, Richard Anthony, Xichao Ou, Qiang Li, Yang Zheng, Yuanyuan Song, Yanlin Zhao, Dick van Soolingen
We describe the population structure of a representative collection of 3,133 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, collected within the framework of a national resistance survey from 2007 in China. Genotyping data indicate that the epidemic strains in China can be divided into seven major complexes, of which 92% belonged to the East Asian (mainly Beijing strains) or the Euro-American lineage. The epidemic Beijing strains in China are closely related to the Beijing B0/W148 strain earlier described in Russia and a large cluster of these strains has spread national wide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331797/paradoxical-response-with-increased-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-levels-to-anti-tuberculosis-treatment-in-a-patient-with-disseminated-tuberculosis
#10
Sho Watanabe, Yugo Kaneko, Hironori Kawamoto, Tomoki Maehara, Yuri Baba, Ikumi Fujisaki, Nayuta Saito, Kai Ryu, Aya Seki, Tsugumi Horikiri, Akira Kinoshita, Hiroshi Takeda, Keisuke Saito, Kazuyosi Kuwano
It has been reported that tuberculosis (TB) worsens after cessation of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors and starting anti-TB treatment. Little is known about the immunological pathogenesis of this paradoxical response (PR). We report the first case of a TB patient in whom PR occurred concurrently with elevation of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels. A 75-year-old woman, who had been treated with adalimumab for SAPHO syndrome, developed disseminated TB. Soon after administration of anti-TB treatment (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol), and after discontinuation of adalimumab, a PR occurred...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331031/an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#11
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Zhiyi Lan, Dick Menzies
This systematic review aimed to update the current evidence for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment.We searched for studies that reported treatment information and clinical characteristics for at least 25 patients with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary MDR-TB and either end of treatment outcomes, 6-month culture conversion or severe adverse events (SAEs). We assessed the association of these outcomes with patients' characteristics or treatment parameters. We identified 74 studies, including 17 494 participants...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329197/systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-of-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-to-reduce-progression-to-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#12
Suzanne M Marks, Sundari R Mase, Sapna Bamrah Morris
Background: Evidence-based recommendations for treating persons having presumed latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) after contact to infectious multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are lacking because published data consist of small observational studies. TB incidence in persons treated for latent multidrug-resistant-TB infection (MDR LTBI) is unknown. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published (1/1/1994-12/31/2014) to analyze TB incidence, treatment completion and discontinuation, and cost effectiveness...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318196/-paradoxical-reaction-to-antituberculosis-treatment-in-an-immunocompetent-girl-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#13
Ignacio Ruiz Del Olmo Izuzquiza, Claudia Orden Rueda, Laura Ochoa Gómez, Nuria Clavero Montañés, Enrique Berdún Chéliz, Carmelo Guerrero Laleona
Paradoxical reaction to antituberculosis treatment is rare in paediatric population. We report a 9-year-old girl with high fever and productive cough for the last three weeks. Tuberculine test and Quantiferon were positive, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 64 mm/h, culture and polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis negative, and chest X ray showed a widened right mediastinum. Tuberculosis was diagnosed, therefore treatment with standard doses of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol was started...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317798/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-species-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-coinfection-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-dr-soetomo-hospital-surabaya-indonesia
#14
Ni Made Mertaniasih, Deby Kusumaningrum, Eko Budi Koendhori, Tutik Kusmiati, Desak Nyoman Surya Suameitria Dewi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) species derived from sputum specimens of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) suspects. Increasing prevalence and incidence of pulmonary infection by NTM species have widely been reported in several countries with geographical variation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2014 and September 2015, sputum specimens from chronic pulmonary TB suspect patients were analyzed...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303436/mutations-in-catalase-peroxidase-katg-from-isoniazid-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#15
Arethusa Lobo Pimentel, Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro, Katiany Rizzieri Caleffi-Ferracioli, Vera Lúcia Dias Siqueira, Paula Aline Zanetti Campanerut-Sá, Luciana Dias Ghiraldi Lopes, Aryadne Larissa de Almeida, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso, Flavio Augusto Vicente Seixas
The current multidrug therapy for tuberculosis (TB) is based on the use of isoniazid (INH) in combination with other antibiotics such as rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Literature reports have shown that Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, has become resistant to this treatment by means of point mutations in the target enzymes of these drugs, such as catalase-peroxidase (KatG). By means of equilibrium molecular dynamics in the presence of the ligand, this work evaluated ten point mutations described in the enzyme KatG that are related to resistance to INH ...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297817/-distribution-and-drug-resistance-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-beijing
#16
J Zhang, J R Su, B C Ding, J W Liu, J L Yi, X Y Yang, N H Wang, S M Wang
Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of nontuberculous mycobacteria(NTM) in Beijing. Methods: Using PCR-fluorescence probe method we identified 1 552 mycobacterial isolates in 2009 and 1 553 mycobacterial isolates in 2013, which were stored by Beijing Research Institute for Tuberculosis Control.All identified NTM strains were confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and drug sensitivity testing was performed by using 1% ratio method.SPSS 13.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The isolation rate for NTM in 2009 and 2013 was 3...
March 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284261/tuberculosis-drug-resistance-in-southern-mozambique-results-of-a-population-level-survey-in-the-district-of-manhi%C3%A3-a
#17
S Valencia, D Respeito, S Blanco, R M Ribeiro, E López-Varela, V G Sequera, B Saavedra, E Mambuque, M Gómez Morillo, H Bulo, F Cobelens, E Macete, P L Alonso, J A Caminero, A L García-Basteiro
SETTING: Mozambique, one of the world's high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, has conducted only one national-level drug resistance survey, in 2007-2008. OBJECTIVE: To determine the drug resistance patterns of laboratory-confirmed TB cases. DESIGN: This was a population-level survey conducted over a 1-year period in the district of Manhiça. All laboratory-confirmed cases were evaluated for first-line anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing using liquid culture...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281443/central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#18
John M Leonard
Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) takes three clinical forms: meningitis (TBM), intracranial tuberculoma, and spinal arachnoiditis. TBM predominates in the western world and presents as a subacute to chronic meningitis syndrome with a prodrome of malaise, fever, and headache progressing to altered mentation and focal neurologic signs, followed by stupor, coma, and death within five to eight weeks of onset. The CSF formula typically shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis, and low glucose and high protein concentrations...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277228/utility-of-phenotypic-and-genotypic-testing-in-the-study-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistance-to-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#19
Luz María Alba Álvarez, José María García García, M Dolores Pérez Hernández, Susana Martínez González, Juan José Palacios Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of molecular techniques in the diagnosis of resistance and the extent of resistance to first-line drugs in our region. MATERIAL AND METHOD: From 2004 to 2013, 1,889 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Asturias, Spain, were studied using phenotypic (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines) and molecular (INNOLiPA RIF-TB(©); GenotypeMDRplus(©); GenotypeMDRsl(©)) sensitivity tests. RESULTS: 1,759 strains (94...
October 27, 2016: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268125/mycobacterium-branderi-infection-case-report-and-literature-review-of-an-unusual-and-difficult-to-treat-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium
#20
Shannon L Turvey, Gregory J Tyrrell, Cristina Hernandez, Dima Kabbani, Karen Doucette, Carlos Cervera
A 67-year-old man with significant smoking history presented with fever, unintentional weight loss, night sweats, productive cough, and progressive dyspnea. Multiple respiratory specimens grew Mycobacterium branderi. Computed tomography scanning of the chest revealed a cavitary right upper lung lesion. Bronchoscopy and thoracoscopic biopsy were negative for malignancy but showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation, which was culture negative. Due to clinical and radiologic progression despite therapy with clarithromycin, ethambutol and moxifloxacin, the lesion was surgically resected and the patient's symptoms resolved...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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