Read by QxMD icon Read


A S Sandhya, Brijesh Prajapat
Thrombocytopenia is one of the most common hematological manifestations seen in HIV patients with approximately 40% of the patients developing thrombocytopenia during their course of illness. Opportunistic infection like tuberculosis is a rare but curative cause of thrombocytopenia in these patients. Clinically, it is a challenge to determine the exact cause and decide the treatment of thrombocytopenia in these patients as both infections can lead to significant thrombocytopenia by varied mechanisms. The treatment options are limited by drug antitubercular treatment highly active antiretroviral therapy (ATT and HAART)-induced thrombocytopenia...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Benson R Kidenya, Stephen E Mshana, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Oksana Ocheretina
BACKGROUND: Drug resistant Tuberculosis (TB) is considered a global public health threat. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is a new technology for tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics and is capable of providing rapid drug resistance profiles and genotypes for epidemiologic surveillance. Therefore, we used WGS to determine genotypic drug resistance profiles and genetic diversity of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Mwanza, North-western Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Bugando Medical Center (BMC) from September 2014 to June 2015...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Jordana Galizia, Mariano Prado Acosta, Estefanía Urdániz, Marcelo A Martí, Mariana Piuri
Nitroxyl (HNO) is a highly elusive and reactive molecule. Nitroxyl biological effects and pharmacological potential are becoming increasingly relevant. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection needs new and more efficient drugs. Reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen Species (RNOS) are key compounds used by the immune system to fight intracellular infections, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this context, we analyzed HNO potential to kill mycobacteria. We evaluated the viability and biological response of mycobacteria towards HNO releasing compounds...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Shouhong Gao, Zhipeng Wang, Xinfang Xie, Chunhua You, Yang Yang, Yanhai Xi, Wansheng Chen
First-line anti-tuberculosis drugs are playing vital roles for curbing rapid spread of tuberculosis. Multidrug therapies are commonly applied in clinical to achieve better treatment outcomes. However, drug resistance and adverse reactions come along with this therapies and therapeutic drug monitoring is a feasible way to precaution them. For this reasons, a simple and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and single protein precipitation was developed and validated for simultaneously quantifying of pyrazinamide, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin and rifampicin in human plasma...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Vahid Lohrasbi, Malihe Talebi, Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Lanfranco Fattorini, Michel Drancourt, Mohsen Heidary, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil
Despite the low expensive and effective four-drug treatment regimen (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) was introduced 40 years ago, TB continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. In 2015, the WHO estimated a total of 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide. Currently, the increased number of multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), extensively-drug resistant (XDR-TB) and in some recent reports, totally drug-resistant TB (TDR-TB) cases raises concerns about this disease...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Smriti Srivastava, Devla Bimal, Kapil Bohra, Balram Singh, Prija Ponnan, Ruchi Jain, Mandira Varma-Basil, Jyotirmoy Maity, M Thirumal, Ashok K Prasad
A series of β-d-ribofuranosyl coumarinyl-1,2,3-triazoles have been synthesized by Cu-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction between azidosugar and 7-O-/7-alkynylated coumarins in 62-70% overall yields. The in vitro antimycobacterial activity evaluation of the synthesized triazolo-conjugates against Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed that compounds were bactericidal in nature and some of them were found to be more active than one of the first line antimycobacterial drug ethambutol against sensitive reference strain H37Rv, and 7 to 420 times more active than all four first line antimycobacterial drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin) against multidrug resistant clinical isolate 591...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Vasileios S Skouras, Ioannis Kalomenidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize data regarding categories, detection methods, prevalence and patterns of drug resistance among patients with tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and to comment on the management of suspected drug-resistant TPE. RECENT FINDINGS: Pleural and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) present similar patterns of drug resistance. Approximately 10% and 6-10% of pleural Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates are resistant to at least one first-line anti-TB drug or at least isoniazid, respectively...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Astha Giri, Shraddha Gupta, Hassan Safi, Anshika Narang, Kamal Shrivastava, Naresh Kumar Sharma, Subramanya Lingaraju, Mahmud Hanif, Anuj Bhatnagar, Balakrishnan Menon, David Alland, Mandira Varma-Basil
Mutations at embB306 are the most prevalent polymorphisms associated with ethambutol (EMB) resistance, responsible for 40-60% of EMB resistant clinical cases of tuberculosis (TB). The present study analyzed additional mutations associated with EMB resistance in the embB, embC, embA and Rv3806c (ubiA) genes in 29 EMB resistant and 29 EMB susceptible clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis selected from 360 patients with TB. The entire ubiA gene, mutational hotspot regions of embB, embC, and upstream region of embA were screened for polymorphisms by DNA sequencing and the results correlated with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of EMB...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Liping Yan, Xiaohong Kan, Limei Zhu, Kaijin Xu, Jianjun Yin, Li Jie, Yong Li, Ji Yue, Wenyu Cui, Juan Du, Lihua Wang, Shouyong Tan, Xiangao Jiang, Zhong Zeng, Shenghui Xu, Lin Wang, Yu Chen, Weiguo He, Xusheng Gao, Dapeng Bai, Chengjie Zhao, Xiaofeng Yan, Yuyin Zhu, Yumei Fan, Lanpin Xie, Aihua Deng, Qing Zhang, Heping Xiao
PURPOSE: We designed a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled study to assess a 5-month regimen compared with the standard regimen on previously treated patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: We enrolled 917 sputum smear-positive patients undergoing additional treatment in 27 major tuberculosis hospitals in China. Patients were randomly assigned to a test group (n = 626)treated with a 5-month regimen of moxifloxacin, pasiniazid, rifabutin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide or a reference group (n = 291) treated with an 8-month regimen of isoniazid, rifampicin, and streptomycin...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Nafise Rahgozar, Gholamreza Bakhshi Khaniki, Soroush Sardari
Background: Drug resistance is a major public health problem and a threat to progress made in bovine tuberculosis care and control worldwide. This study aimed at evaluating anti-mycobacterial and synergistic activity of some medicinal plants that were selected by cheminformatics studies against Mycobacterium bovis. Methods: Considering the strong synergistic antimycobacterial action of oleanolic acid in combination with tuberculosis drugs, NCBI database was explored to find the compounds with over 80% similarity to oleanolic acid, called S1...
March 7, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Partosch Falko, Mielke Hans, Stahlmann Ralf, Gundert-Remy Ursula
Mycobacterial diseases remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rifampicin and ethambutol are among the drugs recommended by WHO as first line treatment. In this work, we addressed the question whether doses of the two anti-tuberculosis agents ethambutol and rifampicin transferred to a nursed infant could be of health concerns when the mother is under treatment. We used the approach of pharmacokinetic modelling using a structural model with two interconnected organisms, the first one being the organism of the nursing mother, the second one being the organism of the nursed child...
March 5, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yu Zhang, Mingqin Zhu, Lifang Wang, Miao Shi, Hui Deng
RATIONALE: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is characterized by contiguous inflammatory lesions of spinal cord extending to ≥3 vertebral segments. The etiology of LETM is complicated, including various infection, autoimmune disease, and so on. Neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is the most common cause of LETM. Several case reports have suggested the associations between NMOSD and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). PATIENT CONCERNS: Patient 1, a 20-year-old woman who had a past history of PTB, presented with weakness, numbness, and pain in the limbs...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katsutoshi Ando, Masaki Ishii, Akihiko Yonenaga, Koji Shibasaki, Yasuhiro Yamaguchi, Tomohiko Urano, Sumito Ogawa, Masahiro Akishita
We report the case of an 82-year-old woman who developed pneumothorax during treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). In year X, she was diagnosed with NTM at another hospital after abnormalities were pointed out on a chest X-ray. She received no treatment for NTM at that time. Antibiotic treatment was introduced at the department of respiratory medicine in our hospital in year X+15. The regimen was composed of clarithromycin (800 mg/day), ethambutol (750 mg/day) and rifampicin (600 mg/day); however, treatment with the three-drug antibiotic regimen was canceled at her request and changed to erythromycin...
2018: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Kiran Kumar Alluri, Rudraraju Srilakshmi Reshma, Raghuram Suraparaju, Suryanarayana Gottapu, Dharmarajan Sriram
Need for new drugs to fight against tuberculosis (TB) is increasing day by day. In the present work we have taken a spiro compound (GSK 2200150A) reported by GSK as a lead and we modified the structure of the lead to study the antitubercular activity. For structure activity profiling twenty-one molecules have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their antimycobacterial potency against both active and dormant TB. Compound 06, 1-((4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl)-4',5'-dihydrospiro[piperidine-4,7'-thieno[2,3-c]pyran] was found to be the most potent compound (MIC: 8...
December 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Jun An, Xuejuan Bai, Mengqiu Gao, Naihui Chu, Hairong Huang, Hongyin Xu, Xiuping Zhang, Baoxia Li, Cailiu Huang, Haixia Cai, Fengqin Zhang, Yu Pang, Liang Li
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe trends in anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug prescribing of inpatients from 2011 to 2015 in a National TB Hospital. METHODS: We carried out this study in March 2016, which retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all inpatients diagnosed as tuberculosis between 2011 and 2015. We recorded the medication used for the treatment of TB during the inpatient period. RESULTS: A total of 11465 inpatients from Beijing Chest Hospital were enrolled in this analysis...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Viran Jayanetti, Michael Rossiter-Thornton, Domit Azar, Clare L Fraser
Ethambutol is utilised in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors report two siblings who developed the adverse effect of ethambutol-induced optic chiasmopathy, with recovery following cessation of ethambutol. Discussion explores potential genetic predisposition to development of this condition and its resolution. Ethambutol optic neuropathy (EON), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), and other optic neuropathies of mitochondrial origin share a common pathophysiology...
February 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
Michael Chavarria, Larry Lutwick, Bonny L Dickinson
Mycobacterium celatum is a slow-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) and a rare cause of infection in humans. Infection occurs primarily by inhalation or direct inoculation from environmental sources, and this pathogen has been reported to cause localized infections in the lungs and lymph nodes of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present a case of pulmonary infection with M. celatum in an immunocompetent 68-year-old male with clinical features similar to tuberculosis...
2018: IDCases
Battini Swapna, M K Chaitanya Mannava, Ashwini Nangia
The classic FDC of four TB drugs, namely Rifampicin (RIF), Isoniazid (INH), Pyrazinamide (PZA) and Ethambutol Dihydrochloride (EDH) has the twin issues of physical stability and rifampicin cross-reaction in the 4FDC. The major reason for these quality issues is the interaction between RIF and INH to yield isonicotinyl hydrazone (HYD) in drug tablets. Pharmaceutical cocrystals of INH with caffeic acid (PZA + EDH + RIF + INH-CFA cocrystal) and vanillic acid (PZA + EDH + RIF + INH-VLA cocrystal) are able to stabilize the FDC formulation compared to the reference batch (PZA + EDH + RIF + INH)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Frances M Entwistle, Peter J Coote
PURPOSE: To evaluate the suitability of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model and drug-screening tool for mycobacteria infections. METHODOLOGY: Larvae were infected using a range of inoculum sizes from a variety of rapid-growing mycobacteria, including strains of M. fortuitum, M. marinum and M. aurum. Larval survival, internal bacterial burden and the effects of amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid and rifampicin treatment on larval survival were measured over 144 h...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ahmed H Qavi, Tasnim F Imran, Zachariah Hasan, Fariha Ilyas
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) meninges that carries high morbidity and mortality. It is important to recognize, as patients may present with atypical symptoms. We describe the case of a 31-year-old man with a history of diabetes who presented with a sub-acute onset of right-sided facial weakness and right gaze difficulty with diplopia. History revealed low-grade fever, right-sided headache, fatigue and moderate weight loss for the past several weeks. The patient did not report neck stiffness, rigidity, fever, chills or cough...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"