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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105975/simultaneous-determination-of-first-line-4-fdc-antituberculosis-drugs-by-uhplc-uv-and-hplc-uv-a-comparative-study
#1
Pedro H C Franco, Paula R Chellini, Marcone A L Oliveira, Gerson A Pianetti
Tuberculosis is the second most deadly infectiousdisease, surpassed only by HIV/AIDS, and hasresulted in over 1 billion deaths in the last200 years. The World Health Organization estimatesthat in 2014, 9.6 million people were infected bythis disease and 1.5 million had died. First-choicetreatment consists of fixed-dose combinationtablets containing rifampicin, isoniazid,pyrazinamide, and ethambutol hydrochloride(4-FDC). There are pharmacopeial protocolsavailable to test 4-FDC, but they are prolonged,two-step methods...
January 19, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100438/high-dose-rifampicin-moxifloxacin-and-sq109-for-treating-tuberculosis-a-multi-arm-multi-stage-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Martin J Boeree, Norbert Heinrich, Rob Aarnoutse, Andreas H Diacon, Rodney Dawson, Sunita Rehal, Gibson S Kibiki, Gavin Churchyard, Ian Sanne, Nyanda E Ntinginya, Lilian T Minja, Robert D Hunt, Salome Charalambous, Madeleine Hanekom, Hadija H Semvua, Stellah G Mpagama, Christina Manyama, Bariki Mtafya, Klaus Reither, Robert S Wallis, Amour Venter, Kim Narunsky, Anka Mekota, Sonja Henne, Angela Colbers, Georgette Plemper van Balen, Stephen H Gillespie, Patrick P J Phillips, Michael Hoelscher
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is the world's leading infectious disease killer. We aimed to identify shorter, safer drug regimens for the treatment of tuberculosis. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled, open-label trial with a multi-arm, multi-stage design. The trial was done in seven sites in South Africa and Tanzania, including hospitals, health centres, and clinical trial centres. Patients with newly diagnosed, rifampicin-sensitive, previously untreated pulmonary tuberculosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1:2 ratio to receive (all orally) either 35 mg/kg rifampicin per day with 15-20 mg/kg ethambutol, 20 mg/kg rifampicin per day with 400 mg moxifloxacin, 20 mg/kg rifampicin per day with 300 mg SQ109, 10 mg/kg rifampicin per day with 300 mg SQ109, or a daily standard control regimen (10 mg/kg rifampicin, 5 mg/kg isoniazid, 25 mg/kg pyrazinamide, and 15-20 mg/kg ethambutol)...
January 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081169/assessment-of-a-96-well-plate-assay-of-quantitative-drug-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-in-china
#3
Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Bing Zhao, Susan van den Hof, Frank Cobelens, YanLin Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the Sensitire MYCOTB MIC Plate (MYCOTB) which could measure the twelve anti-tuberculosis drugs susceptibility on one 96-wells plate. METHODS: A total of 140 MDR-TB strains and 60 non-MDR strains were sub-cultured and 193 strains were finally tested for drug resistance using MYCOTB and agar proportion method (APM) and another 7 strains failed of subculture. The drugs included ofloxacin (Ofx), moxifloxacin (Mfx), rifampin (RFP), amikacin (Am), rifabutin (Rfb), para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), ethionamide (Eth), isoniazid (INH), kanamycin (Km), ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin (Sm), and cycloserine(Cs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079833/the-rare-ethambutol-induced-optic-neuropathy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Wei Song, Shancheng Si
RATIONALE: Ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy (EON) is a well-known complication that results from the use of ethambutol. The ocular manifestations of EON include painless loss of central vision and cecocentral scotomas in the visual field. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 75-year-old Chinese Han man suffered from this rare ocular disorder because he took ethambutol for about 8 months. DIAGNOSES: He was diagnosed as EON based on series of ophthalmic examinations performed...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075574/visualization-of-mycobacterial-membrane-dynamics-in-live-cells
#5
Frances P Rodriguez-Rivera, Xiaoxue Zhou, Julie A Theriot, Carolyn R Bertozzi
Mycobacteria are endowed with a highly impermeable mycomembrane that confers intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Several unique mycomembrane glycolipids have been isolated and structurally characterized, but the underlying organization and dynamics of glycolipids within the cell envelope remain poorly understood. We report here a study of mycomembrane dynamics that was enabled by trehalose-fluorophore conjugates capable of labeling trehalose glycolipids in live actinomycetes. We identified fluorescein-trehalose analogs that are metabolically incorporated into the trehalose mycolates of representative Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus species...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069470/minimal-inhibitory-concentration-distributions-for-mycobacterium-avium-complex-towards-evidence-based-susceptibility-breakpoints
#6
Thomas Schön, Erja Chryssanthou
OBJECTIVE: Patients with clinical infections caused by the Mycobacterium avium-complex (MAC) are treated for at least one year following sputum conversion with a regimen suffering from suboptimal cure rates. The correlation between clinical outcome and drug susceptibility testing breakpoints other than for the macrolides is regarded to be poor. A systematic evaluation of clinical breakpoints against MAC has not been performed so far and thus our aim was to initiate this process by establishing minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061949/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rv0560c-is-not-essential-for-growth-in%C3%A2-vitro-or-in-macrophages
#7
Rachel Kokoczka, Dorothée L Schuessler, Julie V Early, Tanya Parish
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0560c, a putative benzoquinone methyl transferase, is heavily induced in response to salicylate exposure. It has some similarity to Escherichia coli UbiG, although its role in ubiquinone or menaquinone synthesis is not clear, since M. tuberculosis is not known to produce ubiquinone. We constructed an unmarked in-frame deletion of Rv0560c in M. tuberculosis to determine its role in vitro. Deletion of Rv0560c in M. tuberculosis had no effect on growth in medium containing salicylate or in its ability to grow in macrophages...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054732/liver-transplantation-is-associated-with-good-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-active-tuberculosis-and-acute-liver-failure-due-to-anti-tubercular-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Michele Bartoletti, Giulia Martelli, Sara Tedeschi, Mariacristina Morelli, Valentine Bertuzzo, Marina Tadolini, Paolo Pianta, Francesco Cristini, Maddalena Giannella, Russell E Lewis, Antonio D Pinna, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Active tuberculosis (TB) is commonly considered a contraindication for liver transplantation (LT). However, in patients with TB who develop acute liver failure (ALF) due to toxicity induced by anti-tubercular treatment (ATT), LT could be the only opportunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of LT in this scenario. METHODS: We described 2 cases and comprehensively reviewed the literature finding 26 cases of LT performed in patients having a concomitant active TB and liver failure secondary to ATT toxicity...
January 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050363/first-line-anti-tb-drug-resistance-in-an-urban-area-of-odisha-india
#9
Dasarathi Das, Prakasini Satapathy, Biswanath Murmu
INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance is a major cause for increasing the global burden of Tuberculosis (TB). However in countries with larger geographical areas and different climatic conditions like India the prevalence of drug resistance varies from place to place. Information on anti-TB drug resistance patterns particularly among newly diagnosed cases is crucial for planning an effective TB control program. AIM: To determine the prevalence of resistance against first line anti-TB drugs and Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043640/alternate-efflux-pump-mechanism-may-contribute-to-drug-resistance-in-extensively-drug-resistant-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan, Ambreen Zaver, Asho Ali, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Mussarat Ashraf, Taane G Clark, Ruth McNerney, Samreen Shafiq, Zahra Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the biggest threats to public health and TB control programs worldwide. XDR-TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains resistant to rifampin and isoniazid, as well as to a fluoroquinolone and to at least one injectable aminoglycoside. Drug resistance in MTB has primarily been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, it has also been shown that efflux pumps may play a role in resistance of MTB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043638/activity-of-drugs-against-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
A Iacobino, G Piccaro, F Giannoni, A Mustazzolu, L Fattorini
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous mixtures of cellular and caseous granulomas coexist in the lungs of tuberculosis (TB) patients, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) existing from actively replicating (AR) to dormant, nonreplicating (NR) stages. Within cellular granulomas, the pH is estimated to be less than 6, whereas in the necrotic centres of hypoxic, cholesterol/triacylglycerol-rich, caseous granulomas, the pH varies between 7.2 and 7.4. To combat TB, we should kill both AR and NR stages of Mtb...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043606/ethambutol-resistance-testing-by-mutation-detection-using-mtbdrsl
#12
H Margaryan, S Rüsch-Gerdes, A Hayrapetyan, A Mirzoyan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the successes in managing drug-susceptible TB, drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis is a major challenge to the effectiveness of National Tuberculosis Program in Armenia, placing the country in the list of 18 high-burden countries for MDR-TB in the WHO European Region. Estimated burden of MDR-TB in 2012 was 9.4 (7-12) and 43 (38-49) among retreatment TB cases. A total of 92 laboratory confirmed cases had been reported to the WHO (57 new and 35 previously treated) out of 511 cases tested for MDR-TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043565/drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-avium-isolates-from-naturally-infected-domestic-pigeons-to-avian-tuberculosis
#13
Kaveh Parvandar, Mansour Mayahi, Nader Mosavari, Reza Aref Pajoohi
OBJECTIVE: Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds. Several mycobacterial species have been identified causing avian tuberculosis, and the organisms confirmed most frequently are Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium genavense. Any species of birds can be infected with M. avium. Generally, domesticated fowl or captive wild birds are affected more frequently than those living in the wild. M. avium can not only infect all species of birds, but can also infect some domesticated mammals to cause disease, usually with localized lesion...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043525/molecular-genetics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistant-to-aminoglycosides-and-cyclic-peptide-testing-by-mtbdrsl-in-armenia
#14
Hasmik Margaryan, Parissa Farnia, Armen Hayrapetyan, Alvard Mirzoyan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The GenoType MTBDRsl test rapidly detects resistance to ethambutol, fluoroquinolones, second-line aminoglycosides (amikacin [AMK] and kanamycin [KAN]), and cyclic peptides (capreomycin [CAP]) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to data from Global Drug Resistance Surveillance Report (2007), Armenia is counted as a high-burden country for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The estimated burden of MDR-TB in 2012 was 9.4 (7-12) and 43 (38-49) among retreatment TB cases...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043519/increased-expression-of-efflux-pump-genes-in-extensively-drug-resistant-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan, Ying Zhang, Wanliang Shi, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Kiran Iqbal, Samreen Shafiq, Zahra Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is defined as tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains that are multidrug resistant (MDR) and also resistant to a fluoroquinolone and to one injectable aminoglycoside or capreomycin. Whilst resistance in MTB has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), efflux pumps are thought to play a role in conferring resistance to MTB but little is known about them. METHODS: We studied XDR MTB (n=10) strains characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS; http://www...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043512/mutations-in-embb-gene-associated-with-resistance-to-ethambutol-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-isolated-from-tb-patients-in-the-west-of-iran-2014-15
#16
Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Bahman Mohammadi, Parviz Mohajeri
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in embB gene, especially those in ethambutol resistance-determining region (ERDR), are known as "hot spots". These mutations have frequently been reported in EMB-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates, using the Sequence analysis as a precise and effective method. The aim of this study was to detect mutations in embB gene associated with resistance to ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from TB patients in the west of Iran (2014-15). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was performed on smear-positive patients of the west side of Iran, in the TB research center located in Kermanshah city, during 2014-15...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043506/drug-resistance-pattern-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-the-province-with-highest-incidence-of-tuberculosis-in-iran
#17
N Mansoori, Masoumeh Douraghi, F Vaziri, A A Rajabloo, M Sheikhi, M Taziki, M Atarjalali
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in Golestan Province is consistently higher than other provinces of Iran. This study aimed to determine the rate of drug resistance to first-line antibiotics in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates recovered from new cases in this province. METHODS: The sputum and broncho-alveolar lavage samples from 3828 patients who were suspected for active TB were collected from March 2015 to July 2015. All specimens were subjected to smear microscopy and culture...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043503/isoniazid-resistance-among-rifampicin-susceptible-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-tuberculosis-patients
#18
Jyoti Arora, Ritu Singhal, Ajoy Kumar Verma, Gavish Kumar, Manpreet Bhalla, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: With the introduction of novel molecular techniques that rely on rifampicin (RIF) susceptibility, resistance to isoniazid (INH) or other first-line drugs remains undetected. Such patients are prescribed first-line antituberculosis therapy and are on RIF monodrug therapy during the continuation phase, which may lead to therapeutic failure and emergence of multidrug resistance. We aimed to study INH resistance among RIF-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from retreatment patients...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043493/efficacy-and-safety-of-quercetin-and-polyvinylpyrrolidone-in-treatment-of-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-destructive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-comparison-with-standard-antimycobacterial-therapy
#19
Dmytro Butov, Svetlana Zaitseva, Tetyana Butova
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to study the efficacy and safety of quercetin and polyvinylpyrrolidone (QP) in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed destructive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in comparison with standard antimycobacterial therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 124 patients aged between 20years and 70years with newly diagnosed destructive pulmonary TB. Patients were allocated to two groups. The first (control) group received standard antimycobacterial and pathogenetic therapy and included 31 (25...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035639/mycobacterium-infection-from-a-cardiopulmonary-bypass-heater-cooler-unit-in-a-patient-with-steroid-induced-immunosuppression
#20
Yi Cai, Kevin Landolfo, Johnathan R Renew
PURPOSE: To present a case of mycobacterium infection transmitted through a heater-cooler unit during cardiac bypass surgery. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 63-yr-old woman with a past medical history of aortic coarctation repair in 1963 and a mechanical aortic valve replacement in 2010 was prescribed antibiotics and steroids at an outpatient care facility in September 2015 for symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection. Four months later, she developed malaise and intermittent fever with anemia and acute kidney dysfunction...
December 29, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
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