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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806268/pharmacotherapy-of-eating-disorders
#1
Haley Davis, Evelyn Attia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medications are commonly prescribed in the treatment of eating disorders. In this review, we discuss relevant medications used for the treatment of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder (BED), and anorexia nervosa. We focus on recent research developments, where applicable, in addition to discussing important findings from older studies to provide a complete synopsis of the current evidence base for eating disorder treatment using pharmacologic agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Medications are generally useful for patients with bulimia nervosa and BED...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805592/nonmotor-effects-of-conventional-and-transdermal-dopaminergic-therapies-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Ryul Kim, Beomseok Jeon
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are an integral component of Parkinson's disease (PD). Because the burden and range of NMS are key determinants of quality of life for patients and caregivers, their management is a crucial issue in clinical practice. Although a range of NMS have a dopaminergic pathophysiological basis, this fact is underrecognized, and thus, they are often regarded as dopamine unresponsive symptoms. However, substantial evidence indicates that many NMS respond to oral and transdermal dopaminergic therapies...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805147/a-comparison-of-transdermal-over-the-counter-lidocaine-3-6-menthol-1-25-rx-lidocaine-5-and-placebo-for-back-pain-and-arthritis
#3
Eric Castro, David Dent
AIM: Transdermal lidocaine therapy has become a gold standard as part of a treatment regimen for patients who suffer from localized pain. We compared transdermal patches: over-the-counter (OTC) lidocaine 3.6% combined with menthol 1.25%, prescription lidocaine 5% (Rx) and placebo. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients were randomized to: OTC, Rx or placebo. RESULTS: OTC met primary end points of noninferiority compared with Rx for efficacy, side effects and quality of life...
August 14, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804994/neutron-activatable-needles-for-radionuclide-therapy-of-solid-tumors
#4
Junghyun Kim, Roger J Narayan, Xiuling Lu, Michael Jay
Various approaches have been undertaken to enhance the delivery of therapeutic agents, including tissue-killing radionuclides, into solid tumors. Here we describe the preparation of conical needles composed of Ti and Mo coated by pulsed laser deposition or chemical vapor deposition with elements (Ho and Re) that can readily yield radioactive isotopes following irradiation in a neutron flux. The radioactive needles, whose design were based on solid microneedle arrays used in transdermal drug delivery, can be produced with minimal handling of radioactivity and subsequently inserted into tumors as a means of internal radiation therapy...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803660/multiple-sclerosis-skin-induced-antigen-specific-immune-tolerance
#5
REVIEW
Paula Wildner, Krzysztof W Selmaj
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly prevalent demyelinating disorder, presumed to be driven by an autoimmune response toward the central nervous system (CNS) components. All currently available treatments modulate the immune system globally and besides the reduction of disease activity, they may also impose considerable disturbances on the immune protective mechanisms. Thus, induction of antigen-specific immune tolerance remains the ultimate goal of MS therapy. Such approach carries promising therapeutic perspectives and, above all, a desirable safety profile...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796918/hydrogel-carbon-nanotubes-needle-free-device-for-electrostimulated-skin-delivery
#6
Jean-François Guillet, Emmanuel Flahaut, Muriel Golzio
The permeability of skin allows passive diffusion across the epidermis to reach blood vessels but this is possible only for small molecules such as nicotine. In order to achieve transdermal delivery of large molecules such as insulin or plasmid DNA, permeability of the skin and mainly the permeability of stratum corneum has to be increased. Moreover, alternative routes that avoid the use of needles will improve the quality of life of patients. A method named "electropermeabilization" has been shown to increase skin permeability...
August 10, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796678/socioeconomic-status-as-a-risk-factor-for-unintended-pregnancy-in-the-contraceptive-choice-project
#7
Abigail Iseyemi, Qiuhong Zhao, Colleen McNicholas, Jeffrey F Peipert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of low socioeconomic status as an independent risk factor for unintended pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Contraceptive CHOICE project. Between 2007 and 2011, 9,256 participants were recruited and followed for up to 3 years. The primary outcome of interest was unintended pregnancy; the primary exposure variable was low socioeconomic status, defined as self-report of either receiving public assistance or having difficulty paying for basic necessities...
August 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796657/microneedling-a-review-and-practical-guide
#8
Tina S Alster, Paul M Graham
BACKGROUND: Microneedling is a relatively new treatment option in dermatology and has been touted for a broad range of applications including skin rejuvenation, acne scarring, rhytides, surgical scars, dyschromia, melasma, enlarged pores, and transdermal drug delivery. The significant increase in minimally invasive procedures that has been reported over the past several years suggest that microneedling may occupy a specific niche for patients who desire measurable clinical results from treatments with little to no recovery...
August 7, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795404/palliative-drug-treatments-for-breathlessness-in-cystic-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Nishant Jaiswal, Meenu Singh, Amit Agarwal, Kiran K Thumburu
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting autosomal recessive genetic illness. A feeling of shortness of breath is common in cystic fibrosis, especially as the disease progresses. Reversing the underlying cause is the priority when treating breathlessness (dyspnoea), but when it is not feasible, palliation (easing) becomes the primary goal to improve an individual's quality of life. A range of drugs administered by various routes have been used, but no definite guidelines are available...
August 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780407/microneedles-for-enhanced-transdermal-and-intraocular-drug-delivery
#10
REVIEW
Kurtis Moffatt, Yujing Wang, Thakur Raghu Raj Singh, Ryan F Donnelly
Microneedle mediated delivery based research has garnered great interest in recent years. In the past, the initial focus was delivery of macromolecules of biological origin, however the field has now broadened its scope to include transdermal delivery of conventional low molecular weight drug molecules. Great success has been demonstrated utilising this approach, particularly in the field of vaccine delivery. Current technological advances have permitted an enhancement in design formulation, allowing delivery of therapeutic doses of small molecule drugs and biomolecules, aided by larger patch sizes and scalable manufacture...
August 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777967/optimal-routes-of-administration-vehicles-and-timing-of-progesterone-treatment-for-inhibition-of-delivery-during-pregnancy
#11
Dajun Fang, Mario Moreno, Robert E Garfield, Ruben Kuon, Huimin Xia
OBJECTIVES: Progestins, notably progesterone (P4) and 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, are presently used to treat pregnant women at risk of preterm birth. The aim of this study was to assess the optimal treatment options for progesterone (P4) to delay delivery using a sensitive bioassay for progesterone. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant rats, known to be highly sensitive to progestins, were treated with P4, including Prochieve(®) (also known as Crinone(®)), in various vehicles from day 13 of gestation and in late gestation, days 19 to 22, and delivery times noted...
June 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777369/-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-and-age-related-hypohonadism
#12
I M Madaeva, O N Berdina, N V Semenova, V V Madaev, L V Rychkova, L I Kolesnikova
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disease that causes a different spectrum of life processes violations in the continuum of 'sleep-wakefulness'. OSAS in combination with age-specific hypogonadism as a systemic pathology requires certain interdisciplinary approaches involving both the correction of the obstruction, and testosterone therapy in men with hypogonadism. AIM: Assessment of the effect of combined use of CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) and testosterone replacement therapy (transdermal form - Androgel) on indicators of polysomnography monitoring (PSG) with simultaneous study of erectile function and testosterone secretion...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776235/an-array-of-porous-microneedles-for-transdermal-monitoring-of-intercellular-swelling
#13
Kuniaki Nagamine, Jun Kubota, Hiroyuki Kai, Yoshinobu Ono, Matsuhiko Nishizawa
An array of porous microneedles was developed for minimally-invasive transdermal electrolytic connection through the human skin barrier, the stratum corneum. The length of microneedle was designed to be 100 μm so that it penetrates into the epidermis layer without pain. Each microneedle was supported by a thicker cylindrical post protruding from a planar substrate to realize its effective penetration even into elastic human skin. Since this support (post and substrate) was equally porous as the needles, the needle chip was entirely permeable for electrolyte...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776220/nanostructured-lipid-carriers-to-enhance-transdermal-delivery-and-efficacy-of-diclofenac
#14
Chien Ngoc Nguyen, Thi Thuy Trang Nguyen, Hanh Thuy Nguyen, Tuan Hiep Tran
Lipid carrier-mediated transdermal drug delivery offers several advantages because it is non-irritating and non-toxic, provides effective control of drug release, and forms an adhesive film that hydrates the outer skin layers. However, to penetrate the deeper skin layers, these formulations need to overcome several barriers in the stratum corneum. This study evaluates factors influencing particle size and drug-loading capacity, which play a key role in drug permeation and efficacy. Diclofenac sodium was chosen as the model drug...
August 3, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771779/population-pharmacokinetic-model-of-transdermal-nicotine-delivered-from-a-matrix-type-patch
#15
Matthew W Linakis, Joseph E Rower, Jessica K Roberts, Eleanor I Miller, Diana G Wilkins, Catherine M T Sherwin
AIM: Nicotine addiction is an issue faced by millions of individuals worldwide. As a result, nicotine replacement therapies, such as transdermal nicotine patches, have become widely distributed and used. While the pharmacokinetics of transdermal nicotine have been extensively described using non-compartmental methods, there is very little data available describing the between subject variability in transdermal nicotine pharmacokinetics. The aim of this investigation was to use population pharmacokinetic techniques to describe this variability, particularly as it pertains to the absorption of nicotine from the transdermal patch...
August 3, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770686/body-composition-changes-with-testosterone-replacement-therapy-following-spinal-cord-injury-and-aging-a-mini-review
#16
Tom E Nightingale, Pamela Moore, Joshua Harman, Refka Khalil, Ranjodh S Gill, Teodoro Castillo, Robert A Adler, Ashraf S Gorgey
Context Hypogonadism is a male clinical condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone. Testosterone plays a key role in maintaining body composition, bone mineral density, sexual function, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition and quality of life. Hypogonadism can occur due to several underlying pathologies during aging and in men with physical disabilities, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). This condition is often under diagnosed and as a result, symptoms undertreated. Methods In this mini-review, we propose that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) may be a viable strategy to improve lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) in men with SCI...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770403/route-of-feeding-as-a-proxy-for-dysphagia-after-stroke-and-the-effect-of-transdermal-glyceryl-trinitrate-data-from-the-efficacy-of-nitric-oxide-in-stroke-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Lisa J Woodhouse, Polly Scutt, Shaheen Hamdy, David G Smithard, David L Cohen, Christine Roffe, Daniel Bereczki, Eivind Berge, Christopher F Bladin, Valeria Caso, Hanne K Christensen, Rónán Collins, Anna Czlonkowska, Asita de Silva, Anwar Etribi, Ann-Charlotte Laska, George Ntaios, Serefnur Ozturk, Stephen J Phillips, Kameshwar Prasad, Szabolcs Szatmari, Nikola Sprigg, Philip M Bath
Post-stroke dysphagia is common, associated with poor outcome and often requires non-oral feeding/fluids. The relationship between route of feeding and outcome, as well as treatment with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), was studied prospectively. The Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial assessed transdermal GTN (5 mg versus none for 7 days) in 4011 patients with acute stroke and high blood pressure. Feeding route (oral = normal or soft diet; non-oral = nasogastric tube, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube, parenteral fluids, no fluids) was assessed at baseline and day 7...
August 2, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768931/potential-of-stratum-corneum-lipid-liposomes-for-screening-of-chemical-skin-penetration-enhancers
#18
Pajaree Sakdiset, Hiroaki Todo, Kenji Sugibayashi
The evaluation of effective skin chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) is a crucial process in the development of transdermal and dermal formulations with the capacity to overcome the stratum corneum barrier. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs) as an alternative tool for the screening of various types and concentrations of CPEs. SCLLs were prepared using a thin-film hydration technique, and two types of fluorescent probes (sodium fluorescein [FL] or 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene [DPH] were entrapped separately into SCLLs (FL-SCLL and DPH-SCLL, respectively)...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768917/efficacy-and-safety-of-switching-from-oral-bisoprolol-to-transdermal-patch-in-japanese-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#19
Shin-Ichi Momomura, Yoshihiko Saito, Yoshio Yasumura, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Yasushi Sakata, Masao Daimon, Koichiro Kinugawa, Hiroshi Okamoto, Naoki Dohi, Issei Komuro
BACKGROUND: TY-0201 (TY) is a transdermal formulation of bisoprolol that is the free base of bisoprolol fumarate (BO), a drug widely used to treat chronic heart failure (CHF). The objectives of this phase II study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TY when switching from oral BO to TY in patients with CHF whose drug therapy was optimized, and to determine the dose conversion rate of BO to TY.Methods and Results:The efficacy and safety of once daily TY patch use for 16 weeks was investigated in 40 patients with CHF who were stabilized with an optimized drug treatment, including BO, after switching from BO to TY at the dose conversion rate of 5:8...
August 2, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762896/ambulance-delivered-transdermal-glyceryl-trinitrate-versus-sham-for-ultra-acute-stroke-rationale-design-and-protocol-for-the-rapid-intervention-with-glyceryl-trinitrate-in-hypertensive-stroke-trial-2-right-2-trial-isrctn26986053
#20
Jason P Appleton, Polly Scutt, Mark Dixon, Harriet Howard, Lee Haywood, Diane Havard, Trish Hepburn, Tim England, Nikola Sprigg, Lisa J Woodhouse, Joanna M Wardlaw, Alan A Montgomery, Stuart Pocock, Philip M Bath
Rationale Vascular nitric oxide levels are low in acute stroke and donors such as glyceryl trinitrate have shown promise when administered very early after stroke. Potential mechanisms of action include augmentation of cerebral reperfusion, thrombolysis and thrombectomy, lowering blood pressure, and cytoprotection. Aim To test the safety and efficacy of four days of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (5 mg/day) versus sham in patients with ultra-acute presumed stroke who are recruited by paramedics prior to hospital presentation...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
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