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L-Q Li, D Pan, S-W Zhang, D -Y-Xie, X-L Zheng, H Chen
OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in East Asia. Increasing evidence has revealed that autophagy is closely associated with tumor initiation and progression. The present work aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric cancer stem cells (CSCs) were isolated from gastric cancer cell lines using the cell surface markers CD44 and CD54 and cultured in a three-dimensional cell culture system...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Antonia K Roseweir, Lindsay Bennett, Ashley Dickson, Kelvin Cheng, Mary-Anne Quintayo, Jane Bayani, Donald C McMillan, Paul G Horgan, Cornelis J H van de Velde, Caroline Seynaeve, Annette Hasenburg, Dirk G Kieback, Christos Markopoulos, Luc Y Dirix, Daniel W Rea, Elizabeth A Mallon, John M S Bartlett, Joanne Edwards
Background: Aromatase inhibitors improve disease-free survival compared with tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The Tamoxifen and Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial compared exemestane monotherapy with sequential therapy of tamoxifen followed by exemestane. The trial failed to show a statistically significant difference between treatment arms. A robust translational program was established to investigate predictive biomarkers. Methods: A tissue microarray was retrospectively constructed using a subset of patient tissues (n = 4631) from the TEAM trial (n = 9766)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Emanuele Cereda, Marilisa Caraccia, Riccardo Caccialanza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an updated perspective on the use of probiotics as adjuvant treatment strategy for patients suffering from or at risk of developing mucositis. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggest that oral and intestinal microbiota could be relevant to mucositis development and treatment, but no clear high-risk pattern has been identified and no single probiotic formulation has emerged from human clinical trials for strong recommendation. Promising results from available clinical trials suggest their use in patients with peri-implant mucositis or at risk of anticancer treatment-related oral or intestinal mucositis...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Konstantin Brawanski, Gero Brockhoff, Peter Hau, Arabel Vollmann-Zwerenz, Christian Freyschlag, Annette Lohmeier, Markus J Riemenschneider, Claudius Thomé, Alexander Brawanski, Martin A Proescholdt
AIM: Recently, D,L-methadone has been put forward as adjuvant treatment in glioblastoma (GBM). METHODS: We analyzed the μ-opioid receptor expression in a set of GBM cell lines and investigated the efficacy of D,L-methadone alone and in combination with temozolomide (TMZ). Results & conclusion: Expression of the μ-opioid receptor was similar in the tested cell lines. High concentrations of D,L-methadone induced apoptosis in all cell lines and showed treatment interaction with TMZ...
June 19, 2018: CNS Oncology
Faize Elif Bahadır, Mustafa Kutay Köroğlu, Meral Yüksel, Feriha Ercan, Y. İnci Alican
Background/aim: This study was designed to examine the effect of tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 inhibitor, on the severity of joint and muscle damage in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). Materials and methods: AA was induced by intradermal inoculation into right hind paw of male Sprague Dawley rats (300-450g) with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA; 0.1 mL). AA rats were treated with either tadalafil (10 mg/kg; per oral) alone or along with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 10 mg/kg; intraperitoneally)...
June 14, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Jose G Bazan, Lonika Majithia, Allison M Quick, Jessica L Wobb, Alicia M Terando, Doreen M Agnese, William Farrar, Julia R White
PURPOSE: A meta-analysis of 22 randomized trials accrued from 1964 to 1986 demonstrated significantly higher rates of locoregional failure (LRF) and breast-cancer mortality in women with 1-3 positive nodes without postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) after mastectomy (mast.). Recent data demonstrate that PMRT reduces distant metastases (DM) in women with pN1 disease. The challenge today is whether all patients with pathologic T1-2pN1 disease have similar substantial LRF/DM risk that routinely warrants PMRT...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Erica S Tsang, Yarrow J McConnell, David F Schaeffer, Lawrence Lee, Yaling Yin, Siham Zerhouni, Kimberly Schaff, Caroline Speers, Hagen F Kennecke
BACKGROUND: Goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs) of the appendix are rare mucinous neoplasms, for which optimal therapy is poorly described. We examined prognostic clinical and treatment factors in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with GCC from 1984 to 2014 were identified from the British Columbia Cancer Agency and the Vancouver Lower Mainland Pathology Archive. RESULTS: Of 88 cases with confirmed appendiceal GCCs, clinical data were available in 86 cases (annual population incidence: 0...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Geoffrey W Siegel, J Sybil Biermann, Anda-Alexandra Calinescu, Daniel E Spratt, Nicholas J Szerlip
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to examine the recent changes in the surgical treatment of bone metastases and how the treatment paradigm has shifted with the improvement of adjuvant therapies. How surgery fits into the local and systemic treatment was reviewed for bone metastases in different areas. RECENT FINDINGS: The more common use of targeted chemotherapies and focused high-dose radiation have altered the treatment paradigm of bone metastases...
June 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Başak Altıparmak, Nalan Çelebi, Özgür Canbay, Melike K Toker, Banu Kılıçarslan, Ülkü Aypar
To assess the effects of magnesium on the depth of anesthesia and to determine the effects of magnesium on incidence of awareness and postoperative pain after caesarean section.  Methods: The study was designed as a double-blind, controlled, randomized study and conducted in Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey  between January 2015 and March 2016. A total of 100 pregnant healthy women who were between 17 and 41 years old, ASA II, and scheduled for an elective cesarean section with general anesthesia were included in the study...
June 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Brenna E Swift, Eric Leung, Danielle Vicus, Allan Covens
This study evaluates a novel technique of laparoscopic ovarian transposition performed by Gynecologic Oncologists prior to pelvic radiation for gynecologic cancer. A retrospective review was completed of all patients that underwent laparoscopic ovarian transposition from February 2007 to June 2017 at one tertiary care cancer. The technique involves salpingectomy, followed by retroperitoneal dissection to move the ovaries lateral to the hepatic and splenic flexures of the colon. Normal ovarian function was defined by the absence of vasomotor symptoms, FSH and menstrual history (if menstruating)...
May 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Dalong Sun, Jing Chen, Longzi Liu, Guangxi Zhao, Pingping Dong, Bingrui Wu, Jun Wang, Ling Dong
A robust and accurate gene expression signature is essential to assist oncologists to determine which subset of patients at similar Tumor-Lymph Node-Metastasis (TNM) stage has high recurrence risk and could benefit from adjuvant therapies. Here we applied a two-step supervised machine-learning method and established a 12-gene expression signature to precisely predict colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) prognosis by using COAD RNA-seq transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The predictive performance of the 12-gene signature was validated with two independent gene expression microarray datasets: GSE39582 includes 566 COAD cases for the development of six molecular subtypes with distinct clinical, molecular and survival characteristics; GSE17538 is a dataset containing 232 colon cancer patients for the generation of a metastasis gene expression profile to predict recurrence and death in COAD patients...
2018: PeerJ
Bharat Panuganti, Ea-Sle Chang, Cyril W Helm, Theresa Schwartz, Eddy C Hsueh, Jinhua Piao, Jinping Lai, Jula Veerapong
Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) are combined to treat peritoneal surface malignancies (PSM). The objective of cytoreduction is to eradicate macroscopic disease, while HIPEC addresses residual microscopic disease. Currently, there are no protocols guiding treatment of cirrhotic patients with PSM. We report the case of a cirrhotic patient with signet ring cell (SRC) appendiceal adenocarcinoma who underwent normothermic, as opposed to hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC)...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Shin-Ichiro Fujii, Satoru Yamasaki, Yusuke Sato, Kanako Shimizu
Vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases have been developed and tested. Although there have been some notable successes, most are less than optimal or have failed outright. There has been discussion about whether either B cells or dendritic cells (DCs) could be useful for the development of antimicrobial vaccines with the production of high titers of antibodies. Invariant (i)NKT cells have direct antimicrobial effects as well as adjuvant activity, and iNKT-stimulated antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can determine the form of the ensuing humoral and cellular immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ravul Jindal, D B Dekiwadia, Pinjala Rama Krishna, Ajay K Khanna, Malay D Patel, Shoaib Padaria, Roy Varghese
Venous ulcer is an extremely common aetiology of lower extremity ulceration, which affects approximately 1% population in most of the countries, and the incidence rate increases with age and female gender. Proper assessment and diagnosis of both the patient and ulcer are inevitable in order to differentiate venous ulcers from other lower extremity ulceration and to frame an adequate and individualised management plan. Venous ulcers generally persist for weeks to many years and are typically recurrent in nature...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Surgery
Masataka Sawaki, Kenji Tamura, Akihiko Shimomura, Yumiko Taki, Fumio Nagashima, Hiroji Iwata
Information on patterns of clinical care for elderly breast cancer patients is lacking. The aims of this study are two-fold, firstly, to clarify daily practice treatments for elderly breast cancer patients in Japan, and secondly, to plan a prospective clinical trial to address unresolved clinical questions. We investigated practice care of elderly breast cancer patients in 38 institutions of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG). Questionnaires asked: (1) definition of "elderly" for each treatment, (2) clinical standard anti-HER2 therapy in each age-group, (3) recommended docetaxel dose in each age-group, (4) considerations for future clinical trials, and (5) other information about geriatric oncology concerning breast cancer...
May 2018: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Hongmei Jiao, Hui Yang, Dan Zhao, Jin Chen, Qianyun Zhang, Jiankun Liang, Yinyan Yin, Guimei Kong, Guocai Li
Gonorrhea, an important sexually transmitted disease, is becoming a growing public health problem around the globe. Vaccination is considered the best long-term approach for control of infection. In this study, we designed a novel Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) DNA vaccine delivered by bacterial ghosts and characterized its immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that bacterial ghosts greatly promoted BMDCs maturation and activation. Bacterial ghosts loaded with N. gonorrhoeae DNA vaccine were efficiently taken up by mouse macrophage RAW264...
June 15, 2018: Vaccine
S Kallel, R Kallel, S Ayadi, A Ghorbel
INTRODUCTION: We report the first case of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid gland coexisting with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis and discuss various theories concerning the histogenesis of SCC of the thyroid gland and the optimal treatment strategy. CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old woman presented with an anterior neck mass measuring 4cm on clinical examination. Imaging showed a suspicious thyroid nodule invading the trachea. Total thyroidectomy with bilateral central lymph node resection was performed...
June 15, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Jonathan Chen, Xian Wu, Paul Christos, Weisi Yan, Akkamma Ravi
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer patients with tumors > 5 cm but without nodal disease who undergo mastectomy present a clinical challenge regarding the appropriate adjuvant treatment. Traditionally, postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) was the standard of care. However, recent studies have suggested local failure rates without PMRT might be low enough to omit RT. This might be especially true in the elderly. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women aged ≥ 75 years with a diagnosis of T3N0 breast cancer who had undergone mastectomy were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 database...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Nienke Hoekstra, Emmanuelle Fleury, Tomas Rodrigo Merino Lara, Peter van der Baan, Andy Bahnerth, Gerson Struik, Mischa Hoogeman, Jean-Philippe Pignol
INTRODUCTION: For early stage breast cancer patients, non-breast cancer mortality including secondary cancers and cardiac events can overshadow the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy. This study evaluates the excess risk of secondary cancer for various breast radiotherapy techniques including accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). METHODS: Secondary cancers Lifetime Attributable Risks (LAR) were calculated using a modified BEIR-VII formalism to account for the specific survival of breast cancer patients...
June 15, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Dandan Xu, Ge Yu, Pinggen Xi, Xiangyu Kong, Qi Wang, Lingwang Gao, Zide Jiang
Botrytis cinerea is the pathogen of gray mold disease affecting a wide range of plant hosts, with consequential economic losses worldwide. The increased frequency of fungicide resistance of the pathogen challenges its disease management, and thus the development of alternative control strategies are urgently required. In this study, we showed excellent synergistic interactions between resveratrol and pyrimethanil. Significant synergistic values were recorded by the two-drug combination on the suppression of mycelial growth and conidia germination of B...
June 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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