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Beta lactam

Michael J Pucci, Akash Jain, Luke Utley, Thomas Zabawa, Thomas R Parr
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens, particularly Gram-negative bacteria, have become increasingly challenging to successfully treat. The beta-lactam antibiotic subclass, the carbapenems, have proven valuable for the treatment of such Gram-negative bacterial infections due to their spectrum and β-lactamase stability properties. However, all marketed carbapenems to date are parenterally administered to adult patients. Areas covered: One carbapenem, tebipenem-pivoxil (TBPM-PI), is an oral prodrug that was approved in Japan for pediatric use only in 2009...
July 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Chris M Rands, Elizaveta V Starikova, Harald Brüssow, Evgenia V Kriventseva, Vadim M Govorun, Evgeny M Zdobnov
Antibiotic resistance is increasing among pathogens and the human microbiome contains a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Acidaminococcus intestini is the first Negativicute bacterium (Gram-negative Firmicute) shown to be resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. Resistance is conferred by the aci1 gene, but its evolutionary history and prevalence remain obscure. We discovered that ACI-1 proteins are phylogenetically distinct from beta-lactamases of Gram-positive Firmicutes and that aci1 occurs in bacteria scattered across the Negativicute clade, suggesting lateral gene transfer...
July 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Rosa García Rodríguez, Lucia Moreno Lozano, Alba Extremera Ortega, Jesús Borja Segade, Pedro Galindo Bonilla, Elisa Gómez Torrijos
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactam antibiotics are the most common trigger of reactions in children with most of them being nonimmediate (85.5%), but proven allergy after the allergological work-up is between 7% -10%. There is no agreement on how to perform the provocation tests in these type of hypersensitivity reactions. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether or not repeated doses of the beta-lactams are required to reproduce a nonimmediate reaction in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Wioletta Adamus-Białek, Anna Baraniak, Monika Wawszczak, Stanisław Głuszek, Beata Gad, Klaudia Wróbel, Paulina Bator, Marta Majchrzak, Paweł Parniewski
The spreading mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are related to many bacterial and environment factors. The overuse of antibiotics is leading to an unceasing emergence of new multidrug resistant strains. This problem also concerns uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, which is the most common pathogen causing urinary tract infections. The aim of this study was the genetic analysis of antibiotic resistance in comparison to the phenotypic background of E. coli strains. The characterized collection of E. coli strains isolated 10 years ago from the urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (the disc diffusion method) and analysis of antibiotic resistance genes (PCR reaction, sequencing)...
July 14, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Sofie A M Dhaese, Magalie De Kezel, Maxime Callant, Jerina Boelens, Liesbet De Bus, Pieter Depuydt, Jan J De Waele
BACKGROUND: Prolonged infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics is broadly recognized as a strategy to optimize antibiotic therapy by achieving a higher percentage of time that concentrations remain above the minimal inhibitory concentration (% fT>MIC ), i.e. the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index. However, %fT>MIC may not be the PK/PD index of choice for inhibition of resistance emergence and it is therefore unsure what impact prolonged infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics may have on the emergence of resistance...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Michal Beker, Simon Rose, Claus A Lykkebo, Stephen Douthwaite
Strains of the Pasteurellaceae bacteria Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica are major etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Treatment of BRD with antimicrobials is becoming more challenging due to the increasing occurrence of resistance in infecting strains. In Pasteurellaceae strains exhibiting resistance to multiple antimicrobials including aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, macrolides and sulfonamides, the resistance determinants are often chromosomally encoded within integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marco E Gudiño, Noel Blanco-Touriñán, Vicent Arbona, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Miguel A Blázquez, Federico Navarro-García
The presence of antibiotics in soils could be due to natural production by soil microorganisms or to the effect of anthropogenic activities. However, the impact of these compounds on plant physiology has not been thoroughly investigated. To evaluate the effect of beta-lactam antibiotics (carbenicillin and penicillin) on the growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana roots, plants were grown in the presence of different amounts and we found a reduction in root size, an increase in the size of root hairs as well as an abnormal position closer to tip of the roots...
July 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
George Sakoulas, Matthew Geriak, Victor Nizet
The majority of patients with reported penicillin allergy are not allergic when tested or challenged. Penicillin allergy testing has been shown to significantly reduce future annual healthcare expenditures. Data have emerged showing beta-lactams to be multi-dimensional antibacterial effects in vivo, far beyond what is appreciated in standard bacteriological susceptibility testing media. These include enhancing bacterial killing by the innate immune system. Supporting the clinical relevance of these secondary underappreciated effects are recent clinical and pharmaco-economic analyses that show worse outcomes in patients with reported penicillin allergies who receive non-beta lactam antibiotics when compared to their non-penicillin allergic counterparts...
July 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Valerie Leung, Michael Li, Julie Hui-Chih Wu, Bradley Langford, Rosemary Zvonar, Jeff Powis, Julie Longpre, Lizanne Béïque, Suzanne Gill, Grace Ho, Gary Garber
Background: Antimicrobial stewardship, a key component of an overall strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, has been recognized as a global priority. The ability to track and benchmark antimicrobial use (AMU) is critical to advancing stewardship from an organizational and provincial perspective. As there are few comprehensive systems in Canada that allow for benchmarking, Public Health Ontario conducted a pilot in 2016/2017 to assess the feasibility of using a point prevalence methodology as the basis of a province-wide AMU surveillance program...
June 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Tolbert Sonda, Happiness Kumburu, Marco van Zwetselaar, Michael Alifrangis, Blandina T Mmbaga, Frank M Aarestrup, Gibson Kibiki, Ole Lund
Background: Limited information regarding the clonality of circulating E. coli strains in tertiary care hospitals in low and middle-income countries is available. The purpose of this study was to determine the serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Further, we carried out a phylogenetic tree reconstruction to determine relatedness of E. coli isolated from patients in a tertiary care hospital in Tanzania. Methods: E. coli isolates from inpatients admitted at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre between August 2013 and August 2015 were fully genome-sequenced at KCMC hospital...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Adam L Bailey, Tom Armstrong, Hari-Prakash Dwivedi, Gerald A Denys, Janet Hindler, Shelley Campeau, Maria Traczewski, Romney Humphries, C A Burnham
Ceftolozane-tazobactam (C/T) is a novel beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination antibiotic approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (in combination with metronidazole) and complicated urinary tract infections. Here, we evaluated the performance of the C/T ETEST®, a gradient diffusion method. C/T ETEST® was compared to broth microdilution (BMD) for 51 Enterobacteriaceae challenge isolates and 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge isolates at three clinical sites...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Li Lian Kuan, Katherine Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Aleksandar Siljanoski, Renata Ciglarič, Tomaž Pezdir, Petra R Lainšček, Jožica Dolenc, Jože Starič, Ksenija Šinigoj-Gačnik
The purpose of this study was to determine tetracycline and other antimicrobial residues in milk from dairy cows treated for clinical mastitis. Data on cow health and drugs used were obtained from the farm veterinarians. A milk sample from each affected udder quarter of each cow was taken for bacterial identification before treatment. All 35 cows in the study were treated with an intramammary product containing tetracycline, neomycin, bacitracin, and prednisolone (tetracycline injector) and also simultaneously with other drugs via the intramammary or parenteral route...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Emily L Heil, David P Nicolau, Andras Farkas, Jason A Roberts, Kerri A Thom
This was a prospective study to determine if pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD)-based antibiotic dosing software aids in achieving concentration targets in critically ill patients receiving cefepime (n=10), meropenem (n=20), or piperacillin/tazobactam (n=19). Antibiotic calculator doses targeting >90% probability of target attainment (PTA) differed from package-insert doses for 22.4% (11/49) patients. Target attainment was achieved for 98% of patients (48/49). A PK/PD based antibiotic dosing calculator provides beta-lactam doses with high likelihood of PTA in critically ill patients...
July 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Eric Batard, François Javaudin, Erwan Kervagoret, Emmanuel Caruana, Quentin Le Bastard, Guillaume Chapelet, Nicolas Goffinet, Emmanuel Montassier
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess whether treatment with ceftriaxone/cefotaxime was associated with lower in-hospital mortality than amoxicillin-clavulanate in patients hospitalized in medical wards for community-onset pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective and multicentre study of patients hospitalized in French medical wards for community-onset pneumonia between 2002 and 2015. Treatments with ceftriaxone/cefotaxime or amoxicillin-clavulanate were defined by their start in the Emergency Department for a duration of 5 days or more and no other beta-lactam...
June 28, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Hadhemi Ben Cheikh, Sara Domingues, Eduarda Silveira, Yosr Kadri, Natasha Rosário, Maha Mastouri, Gabriela Jorge Da Silva
The aim of this study was to identify the carbapenemases from clinical carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex (CRABC) isolates and to assess their potential dissemination by conjugation and natural transformation. CRABC ( n  = 101) were collected consecutively from inpatients of the University Hospital of Monastir, Tunisia, from 2013 to 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and E-test. Carbapenemase-encoding genes were screened by PCR...
July 2018: 3 Biotech
John Thegerström, Viktor Månsson, Kristian Riesbeck, Fredrik Resman
There is consensus that definitive therapy for infections with H. influenzae should include antimicrobial agents with clinical breakpoints against the bacterium. In Scandinavia, benzylpenicillin is the recommended empirical treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) except in very severe cases. However, the effect of benzylpenicillin on H. influenzae infections has been debated. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients given benzylpenicillin with patients given wide-spectrum beta-lactams (WSBL) as empirical treatment of lower respiratory tract H...
June 30, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
B C Millar, J C Rendall, D G Downey, J E Moore
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Ivacaftor is a novel potentiator of defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which corrects the gating defect and increases ion-function of activated cell-surface CFTR. Bacteria also regulate their physiology through ion channels. However, little is known about the potential effects of ivacaftor on bacterial ion channels, which, in turn, may have a potential effect on transport across the bacterial cell membrane. Therefore, any change in the ability to transport molecules across cell membranes in bacteria could have an important impact on bacterial transport physiology...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
J Sánchez Jorge, A Sánchez, R Cardona
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Many patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) identify different drugs as triggers of their symptoms and often make restrictions without enough information. Objective: To estimate the clinical impact of the drugs most frequently reported as suspects of CSU exacerbations by patients. METHODS: All subjects were questioned about their clinical history of urticaria and drug reactions. Drug challenge tests were performed on each patient with the suspicious drugs...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Sung Pil Yun, Hyung-Il Seo
Bile is aseptic; under conditions of no external influx, there is a less than 30% chance of isolating bacteria even in acute cholecystitis. This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of biliary microflora and most common biliary microflora and resistance to antibiotics in patients with cholecystitis, as well as predict situations that do not require the use of prophylactic antibiotics.Bile samples were collected for culture using standard methods during all cholecystectomies performed from January 2015 to December 2015 in the Department of Surgery, Pusan National University Hospital...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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