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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448981/treatment-and-prevention-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#1
A R Domínguez-Alegría, V Pintado, I Barbolla
Invasive pneumococcal disease is a severe infection that mainly affects patients with associated comorbidity. The paediatric conjugate vaccination has resulted in a change in the adult vaccination strategy. The antibiotic resistance of pneumococcus is not currently a severe problem. Nevertheless, the World Health Organisation has included pneumococcus among the bacteria whose treatment requires the introduction of new drugs, such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole. Although the scientific evidence is still limited, the combination of beta-lactams and macrolides is recommended as empiric therapy for bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia...
February 12, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448036/molecular-characterization-of-multidrug-pneumococcal-clones-colonizing-healthy-children-in-m%C3%A3-rida-venezuela
#2
Beatríz Quintero Moreno, María Araque
We analyzed genetics mechanisms of antibiotics resistance, clonal composition and pili in forty eight MDR-pneumococci isolated from healthy children in Mérida, Venezuela. Intermediate resistance to penicillin was related to variations on pbp2b and pbp2x genes. High-level resistance to penicillin, low susceptibility to cephalosporins and carbapenems were associated with alterations on pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x genes. Non-beta-lactam resistance was associated with Tn3872, Tn5253, Tn6002, Tn2010 transposons. Macrolide-resistant strains carried ermB or mefE, but not the mefA gene...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447079/flucloxacillin-induced-hypokalaemia-a-case-report
#3
Eva De Backer, Heidi Hannon
Objective and importance Flucloxacillin is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic with activity against penicillinase producing staphylococci and streptococci. Severe hypokalaemia is an uncommon, but serious adverse effect in patients treated with penicillin derivates. Clinical presentation We report a case of severe hypokalaemia in a patient treated with high dose intravenous flucloxacillin. Conclusion This case report highlights the importance of monitoring electrolytes during treatment with high dose flucloxacillin...
February 15, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444952/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-ampc-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#4
REVIEW
Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Isabel Machuca, Alvaro Pascual
Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443752/the-first-case-report-of-enterococcus-gallinarum-meningitis-in-neonate-a-literature-review
#5
Xiaoquan Li, Shujuan Fan, Xiaojie Lin, Li Liu, Jie Zheng, Xihui Zhou, Axel Heep
RATIONALE: Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis (EGM) is rarely found in normal adults and even rarer in children. To our knowledge, EGM in neonate has not been reported previously. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Here we reported the first case of EGM in neonate. Prolonged fever was the only manifestation for the case after admission. DIAGNOSES: Cerebrospinal fluid cultures showed that the isolate was Enterococcus gallinarum and sensitive to linezolid. INTERVENTIONS: Ceftriaxone, beta lactam type, and vancomycin were used respectively, but not effective...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442147/-urosepsis
#6
Mathias W Pletz, Sebastian Weis, Christina Forstner, Florian Wagenlehner
Urosepsis is defined as a severe disease due to organ failure caused by a urinary tract infection. An empirical antibiotic therapy should be instigated within the first hour after diagnosis. Urine cultures and blood cultures should be performed before antibiotic treatment. Further diagnostics should be carried out at an early stage to enable an interventional focus control in the case of urinary tract obstruction or abscess formation, if necessary. Gram-negative pathogens are most frequently isolated. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) forming bacteria as a cause of urosepsis are increasing...
February 7, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438523/reconsidering-cap-treatment-are-macrolides-beta-lactams-essential
#7
Harold Horowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432938/first-report-on-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-isolated-from-human-specimens-in-luanda-angola
#8
Moisés Francisco, Sofia Santos Costa, Adriana Belas, Jorge Ramos, Isabel Couto, Constança Pomba, Miguel Viveiros
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is a common infection in Africa and in spite of scarce surveillance reports, its incidence is commonly considered high by the Angolan Health system. Drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi has emerged, turning antimicrobial susceptibility testing essential to provide clinical guidance. This is the first report analyzing antimicrobial resistance patterns and population structure of the few S. enterica ser. Typhi isolated from patients with Typhoid fever in Luanda, Angola...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427962/complex-pollution-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-due-to-beta-lactam-and-aminoglycoside-use-in-aquaculture-farming
#9
Baowei Chen, Lan Lin, Ling Fang, Ying Yang, Enzhong Chen, Ke Yuan, Shichun Zou, Xiaowei Wang, Tiangang Luan
The prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the modern world has raised global concerns for public health. Establishing relationships between antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is essential to understanding the dissemination and accumulation of ARGs in a human-impacted environment. In this study, ARG profiles in the sediments from a bullfrog farm, where penicillin and amoxicillin (beta-lactams) and gentamicin (aminoglycoside) were used for prophylactic purposes, were analyzed using metagenomic approaches...
February 3, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403465/deletion-of-lytic-transglycosylases-increases-beta-lactam-resistance-in-shewanella-oneidensis
#10
Jianhua Yin, Yiyang Sun, Yijuan Sun, Zhiliang Yu, Juanping Qiu, Haichun Gao
Production of chromosome-encoded β-lactamases confers resistance to β-lactams in many Gram-negative bacteria. Some inducible β-lactamases, especially the class C β-lactamase AmpC in Enterobacteriaceae, share a common regulatory mechanism, the ampR-ampC paradigm. Induction of ampC is intimately linked to peptidoglycan recycling, and the LysR-type transcriptional regulator AmpR plays a central role in the process. However, our previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of class D β-lactamase gene blaA in Shewanella oneidensis is distinct from the established paradigm since an AmpR homolog is absent and major peptidoglycan recycling enzymes play opposite roles in β-lactamase expression...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383926/piperacillin-tazobactam-anaphylaxis-a-rare-cause-of-occupational-disease
#11
J Gaspar-Marques, E Finelli, P C Martins, S Prates, P Leiria-Pinto
Piperacillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic of penicillin family. Some penicillins were report-ed as occupational diseases cause, but piperacillin anaphylaxis with occupational sensi-tization is rare. We describe the case of a female nurse with recurrent anaphylaxis in last few months without apparent cause, only in work environment. Latex allergy was excluded after negative latex glove provocation. Later during diagnostic workup, the patient reported a similar reaction minutes after piperacillin preparation. She denied any previous antibiotic therapeutic exposure...
November 20, 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382892/analysis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-wall-teichoic-acid-glycoepitopes-by-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-provides-novel-insights-into-the-staphylococcal-glycocode
#12
Tom Grunert, Dijana Jovanovic, Wanchat Sirisarn, Sophia Johler, Christopher Weidenmaier, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Guoqing Xia
Surface carbohydrate moieties are essential for bacterial communication, phage-bacteria and host-pathogen interaction. Most Staphylococcus aureus produce polyribitolphosphate type Wall teichoic acids (WTAs) substituted with α- and/or β-O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine (α-/β-O-GlcNAc) residues. GlcNAc modifications have attracted particular interest, as they were shown to govern staphylococcal adhesion to host cells, to promote phage susceptibility conferring beta-lactam resistance and are an important target for antimicrobial agents and vaccines...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380224/prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-caused-by-propionibacterium-species-a-national-registry-based-study-of-51-swedish-cases
#13
Fredrik Lindell, Bo Söderquist, Kristina Sundman, Lars Olaison, Jan Källman
Propionibacterium spp. are a rare cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The diagnosis is difficult because the bacteria are slow-growing and growth in blood cultures is often misinterpreted as contamination from the skin flora. The aim of this study was to describe all cases of Propionibacterium spp. endocarditis in the Swedish national registry of IE. The registry was searched for all cases of IE from 1995 to 2016 caused by Propionibacterium spp. Data concerning clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome were registered...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377759/stability-study-of-veterinary-drugs-in-standard-solutions-for-lc-ms-ms-screening-in-food
#14
Aurélien Desmarchelier, Philipp Feuerrigel, Hassan Fathi Ahmed, Julie Moulin, Andrea Beck, Claudia Mujahid, Thomas Bessaire, Marie-Claude Savoy, Pascal Mottier
A study on stability of veterinary drugs in standard solutions stored at -80 °C and at -20 °C was conducted over one year. Data were acquired on 152 individual stock standard solutions and also on 15 family mixes and 2 working standard solutions. All solutions were prepared, stored and compared one year later against freshly prepared ones by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A statistical analysis was performed to set acceptability criteria, taking into account the variability of standard preparations...
January 29, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374344/assessment-of-antimicrobial-drug-administration-and-antimicrobial-residues-in-food-animals-in-enugu-state-nigeria
#15
Emmanuel Okechukwu Njoga, Joseph I Onunkwo, Chinwe E Okoli, Wilfred I Ugwuoke, John A Nwanta, Kennedy F Chah
Imprudent administration of antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals can facilitate the development and spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and also enhance the occurrence of antimicrobial residue in animal products. This study was undertaken to assess antimicrobial drug administration to food animals in livestock farms in Enugu State and determine livestock farmers' awareness on the consequences of imprudent antimicrobial administration to food animals and finally the prevalence of antimicrobial drug residues in edible tissues of cattle and pigs in the state...
January 26, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374204/a-retrospective-clinical-comparison-of-daptomycin-vs-daptomycin-and-a-beta-lactam-antibiotic-for-treating-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bloodstream-infections
#16
Yu-Chung Chuang, Pao-Yu Chen, Chi-Ying Lin, Yee-Chun Chen, Jann-Tay Wang, Shan-Chwen Chang
There is limited clinical evidence to support the combination of daptomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics (DAP + BLA) for treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) bloodstream infections (BSI). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of VRE-BSI during 2010-2015. The primary endpoint was mortality at the end of treatment. We included 114 patients who received DAP for VRE-BSI. Of these 87 (76.3%) received DAP + BLA. There were no significant differences in mortality between the DAP and DAP + BLA groups on univariable analysis (10/27 vs...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373965/empiric-antibiotic-therapy-in-urinary-tract-infection-in-patients-with-risk-factors-for-antibiotic-resistance-in-a-german-emergency-department
#17
Sebastian Bischoff, Thomas Walter, Marlis Gerigk, Matthias Ebert, Roger Vogelmann
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify clinical risk factors for antimicrobial resistances and multidrug resistance (MDR) in urinary tract infections (UTI) in an emergency department in order to improve empirical therapy. METHODS: UTI cases from an emergency department (ED) during January 2013 and June 2015 were analyzed. Differences between patients with and without resistances towards Ciprofloxacin, Piperacillin with Tazobactam (Pip/taz), Gentamicin, Cefuroxime, Cefpodoxime and Ceftazidime were analyzed with Fisher's exact tests...
January 26, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369602/evaluation-of-the-amoxicillin-concentrations-in-amniotic-fluid-placenta-umbilical-cord-blood-and-maternal-serum-two-hours-after-oral-administration
#18
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Amoxicillin is a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. Due to its low toxicity, it is commonly used in obstetrics. The objective of this study was to assess amoxicillin concentrations in amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, placenta and maternal serum two hours following oral administration among pregnant women at term and to assess obstetric and non-obstetric factors that might affect amoxicillin's penetration of these tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 full-term pregnant women who qualified for elective Caesarean delivery were included in the study...
December 25, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363950/new-developments-in-glycopeptide-antibiotics
#19
Mark Arnold Thomas Blaskovich, Karl A Hansford, Mark Stuart Butler, ZhiGuang Jia, Alan Edward Mark, Matthew A Cooper
Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPA) are a key weapon in the fight against drug resistant bacteria, with vancomycin still a mainstream therapy against serious Gram-positive infections more than 50 years after it was first introduced. New, more potent semisynthetic derivatives that have entered the clinic, such as dalbavancin and oritavancin, have superior pharmacokinetic and target engagement profiles that enable successful treatment of vancomycin-resistant infections. In the face of resistance development, with multi-drug resistant (MDR) S...
January 24, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363049/beta-lactams-in-continuous-infusion-for-gram-negative-bacilli-osteoarticular-infections-an-easy-method-for-clinical-use
#20
Alba Ribera, Laura Soldevila, Raul Rigo-Bonnin, Fe Tubau, Ariadna Padullés, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Javier Ariza, Oscar Murillo
Continuous infusion (CI) of beta-lactams could optimize their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices, especially in difficult-to-treat infections. PURPOSE: To validate an easy-to-use method to guide beta-lactams dosage in CI (formula). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of a prospectively collected cohort (n = 24 patients) with osteoarticular infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) managed with beta-lactams in CI. Beta-lactams dose was calculated using a described formula (daily dose = 24 h × beta-lactam clearance × target "steady-state" concentration) to achieve concentrations above the MIC...
January 23, 2018: Infection
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