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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209150/penicillin-production-in-industrial-strain-penicillium-chrysogenum-p2niad18-is-not-dependent-on-the-copy-number-of-biosynthesis-genes
#1
Sandra Ziemons, Katerina Koutsantas, Kordula Becker, Tim Dahlmann, Ulrich Kück
BACKGROUND: Multi-copy gene integration into microbial genomes is a conventional tool for obtaining improved gene expression. For Penicillium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin, many production strains carry multiple copies of the penicillin biosynthesis gene cluster. This discovery led to the generally accepted view that high penicillin titers are the result of multiple copies of penicillin genes. Here we investigated strain P2niaD18, a production line that carries only two copies of the penicillin gene cluster...
February 16, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207813/interacting-networks-of-resistance-virulence-and-core-machinery-genes-identified-by-genome-wide-epistasis-analysis
#2
Marcin J Skwark, Nicholas J Croucher, Santeri Puranen, Claire Chewapreecha, Maiju Pesonen, Ying Ying Xu, Paul Turner, Simon R Harris, Stephen B Beres, James M Musser, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D Bentley, Erik Aurell, Jukka Corander
Recent advances in the scale and diversity of population genomic datasets for bacteria now provide the potential for genome-wide patterns of co-evolution to be studied at the resolution of individual bases. Here we describe a new statistical method, genomeDCA, which uses recent advances in computational structural biology to identify the polymorphic loci under the strongest co-evolutionary pressures. We apply genomeDCA to two large population data sets representing the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus)...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207269/a-biocompatible-injectable-hydrogel-with-potent-wound-healing-and-antibacterial-properties
#3
Jiaul Hoque, Relekar G Prakash, Krishnamoorthy Paramanandham, Bibek R Shome, Jayanta Haldar
Two component injectable hydrogels that cross-link in-situ have been used as non-invasive wound-filling devices, i.e., sealants. These materials carry a variety of functions at the wound sites such as seal leaks, cease unwanted bleeding, bind tissues together, and assist in wound healing process. However, commonly used sealants typically lack antibacterial properties. Since bacterial infection at the wound site is very common, bioadhesive materials with intrinsic antibacterial properties are urgently required...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203096/burden-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia-among-hospitalized-patients-in-lebanon-and-saudi-arabia
#4
Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi, Madonna J Matar, Rima Moghnieh, Adel F Alothman, Thamer H Alenazi, Fayssal Farahat, Shelby Corman, Caitlyn T Solem, Nirvana Raghubir, Cynthia Macahilig, Seema Haider, Jennifer M Stephens
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. METHODS: A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011-2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197902/neuropsychiatric-effects-of-antimicrobial-agents
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas Zareifopoulos, George Panayiotakopoulos
Antimicrobial drugs used in clinical practice are selected on the basis of their selective toxicity against bacterial cells. However, all exhibit multiple offsite interactions with eukaryotic cell structures, resulting in adverse reactions during antimicrobial pharmacotherapy. A multitude of these side effects involve the nervous system as antimicrobials at clinically relevant concentrations seem to interact with many of the same molecules usually implicated in the action of psychotropic drugs. The importance of such events cannot be overstated, as the misdiagnosis of an adverse drug reaction as a symptom of a primary psychiatric or neurological disorder entails great suffering for the patient affected as well as significant costs for the healthcare system...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193649/pbp2x-in-streptococcus-pseudopneumoniae-an-insight-into-the-diversity-of-pbp2x-alleles-and-mutations-in-viridans-streptococci
#6
Mark van der Linden, Julia Otten, Carina Bergmann, Cristina Latorre, Josefina Liñares, Regine Hakenbeck
Speciation of commensal streptococci is an everlasting problem due to their ability for genetic transformation. A new challenge in this respect is the recently described S. pseudopneumoniae as a new species, distinguished from closely related pathogenic S. pneumoniae and commensal S. mitis by a variety of physiological and molecular biological tests. Fortyone atypical S. pneumoniae have been collected at the National Reference Center for Streptococci (NRSG) in Germany. MLST analysis confirmed the species S...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182801/acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-treated-with-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#7
W Cliff Rutter, Donna R Burgess, Jeffery C Talbert, David S Burgess
BACKGROUND: Empiric antimicrobial therapy often consists of the combination of gram-positive coverage with vancomycin (VAN) and gram-negative coverage, specifically an antipseudomonal beta-lactam such as piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ). Nephrotoxicity is commonly associated with VAN therapy; however, recent reports show higher nephrotoxicity rates among patients treated with the combination of VAN and PTZ. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of the VAN/PTZ combination on acute kidney injury (AKI) compared to VAN and PTZ monotherapies...
February 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182026/prevalence-of-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-beta-lactamase-genes-in-the-urinary-isolates-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#8
Trupti Bajpai, M Pandey, M Varma, G S Bhatambare
INTRODUCTION: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are the major cause of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams. They are derived from the narrow-spectrum beta-lactamases (TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1) by mutations that alter the amino acid configuration around the enzyme active site. AIM: To determine the prevalence of ESBL (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV) genes among the members of Enterobacteriaceae. METHODOLOGY: The present prospective study was carried out from January 2015 to June 2015 in the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine of a Teaching Tertiary Care Hospital...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175945/-neuroborreliosis-diagnostics-treatment-and-course
#9
R Dersch, S Rauer
Lyme neuroborreliosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Clinical manifestations are classified as early and late Lyme neuroborreliosis. Early manifestations are much more common than late manifestations. Serological testing should only be performed when typical neurological symptoms are present because false positive results are common due to a high seroprevalence in the population. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis should be performed if Lyme neuroborreliosis is suspected...
February 7, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174310/the-antituberculosis-drug-ethambutol-selectively-blocks-apical-growth-in-cmn-group-bacteria
#10
Karin Schubert, Boris Sieger, Fabian Meyer, Giacomo Giacomelli, Kati Böhm, Angela Rieblinger, Laura Lindenthal, Nadja Sachs, Gerhard Wanner, Marc Bramkamp
: Members of the genus Mycobacterium are the most prevalent cause of infectious diseases. Mycobacteria have a complex cell envelope containing a peptidoglycan layer and an additional arabinogalactan polymer to which a mycolic acid bilayer is linked; this complex, multilayered cell wall composition (mAGP) is conserved among all CMN group bacteria. The arabinogalactan and mycolic acid synthesis pathways constitute effective drug targets for tuberculosis treatment. Ethambutol (EMB), a classical antituberculosis drug, inhibits the synthesis of the arabinose polymer...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159672/influence-of-vancomycin-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-on-the-outcome-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-left-sided-infective-endocarditis-treated-with-anti-staphylococcal-beta-lactam-antibiotics-a-prospective-cohort-study-by-the-international
#11
Juan M Pericàs, Julia A Messina, Cristina Garcia-de-la-Maria, Lawrence Park, Batu K Sharma-Kuinkel, Francesc Marco, Dannah Wray, Zeina Kanafani, Manuela Carugati, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Pierre Tattevin, Vivian H Chu, Asuncion Moreno, Vance G Fowler, Jose M Miró
OBJECTIVES: A recent study showed a poorer prognosis in left-sided MSSA endocarditis treated with cloxacillin when the vancomycin MIC was ≥1.5 mg/L. We aimed to validate these results using the International Collaboration on Endocarditis cohort and to analyze whether specific genetic characteristics were associated with a high vancomycin MIC (≥1.5 mg/L) phenotype. METHODS: All patients with left-sided MSSA IE treated with anti-staphylococcal beta-lactam antibiotics between 2000 and 2006 with available isolates were included...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157141/icu-acquisition-rate-risk-factors-and-clinical-significance-of-digestive-tract-colonization-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Marios Detsis, Styliani Karanika, Eleftherios Mylonakis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acquisition rate, identify risk factors, and estimate the risk for subsequent infection, associated with the colonization of the digestive tract with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae during ICU-hospitalization. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, and reference lists of all eligible articles. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies provided data on ICU-acquired colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in previously noncolonized and noninfected patients and used the double disk synergy test for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae phenotypic confirmation...
February 2, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153711/fluoroquinolone-users-select-fluoroquinolone-resistant-esbl-pe-data-of-prospective-traveller-study
#13
Anu Kantele, Sointu Mero, Juha Kirveskari, Tinja Lääveri
BACKGROUND: One third of travellers to the poor regions of the (sub)tropics become colonized by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). Co-resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics complicates the treatment of potential ESBL-PE infections. METHODS: We analysed co-resistance to non-beta-lactams among travel-acquired ESBL-PE isolates of 90 visitors to the (sub)tropics with respect to major risk factors of colonization: destination, age, travellers' diarrhoea (TD) and antibiotic (AB) use...
January 30, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150578/resistotyping-phenotyping-and-genotyping-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-ndm-among-gram-negative-bacilli-from-iranian-patients
#14
Dariush Shokri, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani, Seyed Masih Fatemi, Abbas Soleimani-Delfan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was investigation of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) production among gram negative bacilli. METHODOLOGY: Antibiogram-Resistotyping and detection of NDM in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and comparative evaluation of the diagnostic performance of three phenotypic methods for NDM detection considering PCR as gold standard were performed. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of antibiotics against NDM positive strains by E-test and clonal relationship analysis using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) in these strains were determined...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149601/continuous-infusion-of-beta-lactams-a-blissful-option-for-the-intensive-care-unit
#15
EDITORIAL
Andrew F Shorr, Marya D Zilberberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143440/emergence-and-spread-of-a-new-community-genotype-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clone-in-colombia
#16
Javier Escobar-Perez, Niradiz Reyes, Ricaurte Alejandro Marquez-Ortiz, Juan Rebollo, Hernando Pinzón, Catalina Tovar, Jaime Moreno-Castañeda, Zayda Lorena Corredor, Betsy Esperanza Castro, Maria Victoria Moncada, Natasha Vanegas
BACKGROUND: Community-genotype methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CG-MRSA) clones are a global concern due to their resistance and increased virulence and their ability to cause infections both hospitalized patients and healthy people in the community. Here, we characterize 32 isolates of a new CG-MRSA clone. These isolates were identified in four cities in Colombia, South America. METHODS: The isolates were recovered from four different epidemiological and prospective studies that were conducted in several regions of Colombia...
January 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140512/lineal-and-cyclic-depsipeptidomimetics-with-a-beta-lactam-core-a-class-of-new-alphavbeta3-integrin-receptor-inhibitors
#17
José Ignacio Ganboa, Nerea Zabala, José Ignacio Miranda, Antonio Laso, Claudio Palomo
The αvβ3 integrin receptor plays an important role in tumor metastasis and tumor-induced angiogenesis. The inhibition of this receptor using diverse ligands, antibodies or cyclic peptides, is a promising research field for the treatment of a variety of tumors. The replacement of N(Me)V amino acid residue by a β-lactam ring in Cilengitide leads to new products that show higher inhibitory activity respect to native cyclopeptide. In particular, substitution of a peptide bond β-lactam-NH-Arg by one β-lactam-O-Arg ester linkage, increases the activity of the new cyclodepsipeptide...
January 31, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139430/prevalence-of-mcr-1-in-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-recovered-from-bloodstream-infections-in-china-a-multicentre-longitudinal-study
#18
Jingjing Quan, Xi Li, Yan Chen, Yan Jiang, Zhihui Zhou, Huichuan Zhang, Lu Sun, Zhi Ruan, Ye Feng, Murat Akova, Yunsong Yu
BACKGROUND: Polymyxin antibiotics are used as last-resort therapies to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinant MCR-1 has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae in China. We did this study to investigate the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in clinical isolates from patients with bloodstream infections in China. METHODS: Clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were collected from patients with bloodstream infections at 28 hospitals in China, then screened for colistin resistance by broth microdilution and for the presence of the mcr-1 gene by PCR amplification...
January 27, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139320/extended-use-of-perioperative-antibiotics-in-head-and-neck-microvascular-reconstruction
#19
Stefanie Saunders, Stephen Reese, Jimmy Lam, Jacqueline Wulu, Scharkuh Jalisi, Waleed Ezzat
PURPOSE: Many head and neck surgical procedures are considered clean-contaminated wounds and antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended. Despite prophylaxis, the incidence of surgical site infections remains significant - especially in the setting of free tissue transfer. The antibiotic course is often of a longer duration after free tissue transfer than the recommended 24hour post-operatively. Currently, there is no consensus on appropriate antibiotic regimen or duration at this time. This study investigates the outcomes of a 7-day perioperative antibiotic regimen after microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck at our institution...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138376/survey-of-ctx-m-gene-frequency-in-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-using-the-combination-disk-and-pcr-methods-in-ahvaz-iran
#20
Mojtaba Moosavian, Nazanin Ahmadkhosravy
BACKGROUND: A common mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamase by Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, nonderivative extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) from the TEM and SHV enzymes, such as CTX-M, that were related to different geographical regions have been recognized. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the CTX-M gene in ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in hospitalized patients in the teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran...
November 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
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