Read by QxMD icon Read

Beta lactam

Michele Bartoletti, Maddalena Giannella, Russell Edward Lewis, Sara Tedeschi, Pierluigi Viale
Introduction Bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with liver cirrhosis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early appropriated antibiotic treatment is essential for the correct management of these patients. Areas covered This review covers several aspects of how the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior of antimicrobials may change in patients with liver cirrhosis. Common features of cirrhosis, including hypoproteinemia, ascites, third space expansion and impairment of renal function may alter drug distribution in patients receiving hydrophilic drugs like β-lactams, which are frontline agents for the most common infections...
September 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Talal Alzahrani, Angelike P Liappis, Larry M Baddour, Pamela E Karasik
BACKGROUND: Cefazolin is used as standard preoperative prophylaxis for a variety of surgical procedures that involve the skin. In contrast, vancomycin is recommended for a minority of patients, specifically those with an IgE-mediated allergy to beta-lactams and considered in patients with known colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or at high risk for such. Vancomycin, however, has been overprescribed, has nephrotoxicity risk, and may be less effective due to its inferior coverage of methicillin-susceptible S...
September 17, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Lyssa Y Baker, Chelsea R Hobby, Andrew W Siv, William C Bible, Michael S Glennon, Derek M Anderson, Steven J Symes, David K Giles
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common opportunistic pathogen, is known to cause infections in a variety of compromised human tissues. An emerging mechanism for microbial survival is the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids to alter the cell's membrane phospholipid profile. With these findings, we show that exogenous fatty acid exposure leads to changes in bacterial membrane phospholipid structure, membrane permeability, virulence phenotypes and consequent stress responses that may influence survival and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 14, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Annabelle Arnold, Aine Sommerfield, Anoop Ramgolam, Kristina Rueter, Saravanan Muthusamy, Valerie Noble, Britta S von Ungern-Sternberg, Michaela Lucas
AIM: To determine if skin testing (ST) in addition to extended oral provocation challenge (OPC) is necessary for beta-lactam allergy verification in an Australian paediatric population. METHODS: This was a retrospective study (176 children) that undertook assessments for beta-lactam allergy from 2006 to 2015 at a tertiary paediatric hospital. Patients either underwent direct OPC without ST or ST plus challenge if ST was negative. RESULTS: The analysis included children with a history of varying rash types/severity as well as angioedema and reported anaphylaxis...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Khalid Eljaaly, Mushira A Enani, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Imipenem and meropenem are the recommended antipseudomonal carbapenems for nosocomial pneumonia per clinical practice guidelines. However, these agents have a relatively broader spectrum of activity than other antibiotics and need to be reserved. Carbapenems might cause higher rate of superinfection. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of superinfection between patients who received imipenem or meropenem versus those who received non-carbapenem treatment. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases and two trial registries were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials of hospitalized adults with pneumonia through February 24, 2017 without date or language restrictions...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Geoffrey Shumilak, Wendy I Sligl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite advances in diagnostic microbiology and sepsis management, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Current recommendations regarding the use of beta-lactams in combination with macrolides published in clinical practice guidelines are variable and based on low-quality evidence that is frequently retrospective, observational, and heterogeneous in nature. While population-based studies have historically suggested improved clinical outcomes with the routine use of macrolide combination therapy in hospitalized patients with CAP, emerging evidence from recent randomized controlled trials has challenged this practice...
September 6, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Daniel B Knight, Susan D Rudin, Robert A Bonomo, Philip N Rather
Acinetobacter nosocomialis is a member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex. Increasingly, reports are emerging of the pathogenic profile and multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype of this species. To define novel therapies to overcome resistance, we queried the role of the major efflux pumps in A. nosocomialis strain M2 on antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A. nosocomialis strains with the following mutations were engineered by allelic replacement; Δ adeB , Δ adeJ , and Δ adeB/adeJ ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Emily Black, Heather Neville, Mia Losier, Megan Harrison, Kim Abbass, Kathy Slayter, Lynn Johnston, Ingrid Sketris
Background: Point prevalence surveys are used to monitor antimicrobial use and identify targets for improvement through antimicrobial stewardship activities. Few studies have evaluated antimicrobial use in Nova Scotia acute care institutions. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of antimicrobial use in Nova Scotia hospitals. Methods: A point prevalence survey was conducted between June and November 2015 for patients admitted to hospitals with at least 30 acute care beds...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Axel Kaehne, Stephen J Milan, Lambert M Felix, Emer Sheridan, Paul A Marsden, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of bronchiectasis is defined by abnormal dilation of the airways related to a pathological mechanism of progressive airway destruction that is due to a 'vicious cycle' of recurrent bacterial infection, inflammatory mediator release, airway damage, and subsequent further infection. Antibiotics are the main treatment option for reducing bacterial burden in people with exacerbations of bronchiectasis and for longer-term eradication, but their use is tempered against potential adverse effects and concerns regarding antibiotic resistance...
September 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bryan G Shaw, Inela Masic, Nancy Gorgi, Niree Kalfayan, Elise M Gilbert, Viktorija O Barr, Michael G Ison, Milena M McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: Many patients with a self-reported penicillin allergy go on to tolerate beta-lactam antibiotics. Allergy specialists may be consulted to determine the nature and extent of the allergy. However, electronic allergy records must be appropriately updated such that recommendations are carried forward. OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of patients who have their electronic allergy record updated after an allergy service consult (ASC). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with at least 1 documented beta-lactam allergy and had an ASC during (inpatient) or prior to (outpatient) hospital admission at Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Prentice Women's Hospital in Chicago, Illinois...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Paul-Louis Woerther, Raphaël Lepeule, Charles Burdet, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Étienne Ruppé, François Barbier
The on-going pandemic of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) is responsible for a global rise in carbapenem consumption that may hasten the dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Hence, carbapenem sparing through the use of alternative beta-lactams is increasingly considered as potential option in patients with ESBLE infections. Still, at the individual level, this strategy implies an in-depth understanding of how carbapenems and their alternatives impair the gut microbiota, especially the anaerobic bacteria and the colonization resistance (CR) that it confers...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Anna R Wolfson, Li Zhou, Yu Li, Neelam A Phadke, Ohn A Chow, Kimberly G Blumenthal
BACKGROUND: Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare but severe hypersensitivity reaction that remains poorly characterized in the US. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify and describe DRESS syndrome cases in an integrated healthcare system using electronic health record (EHR) allergy module free text searches. METHODS: We identified DRESS syndrome cases with rash, absolute eosinophil count ≥500/L, organ involvement, and RegiSCAR (European Registry of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions [SCAR]) to Drugs and Collection of Biological Samples) score ≥2 by reviewing patients from 1980-2016 whose EHR allergic reaction matched DRESS-related keywords...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Dagan O Lonsdale, Emma H Baker, Karin Kipper, Charlotte Barker, Barbara Philips, Andrew Rhodes, Mike Sharland, Joseph F Standing
AIMS: Beta-lactam dose optimisation in critical care is a current priority. We aimed to review the PK of three commonly used beta-lactams (amoxicillin+/-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam and meropenem) to compare PK parameters reported in critically and non-critically ill neonates, children and adults, and to investigate whether allometric and maturation scaling principles could be applied to describe changes in PK parameters through life. METHODS: A systematic review of PK studies of the three drugs was undertaken using MEDLINE and EMBASE...
September 3, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Amy D Robertson, Chenghui Li, Drayton Hammond, Tiffany A Dickey
INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin (VAN) is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). There is conflicting evidence regarding the risk of AKI when VAN is combined with an anti-pseudomonal beta-lactam. OBJECTIVES: To determine the comparative incidence of AKI when VAN is combined with piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) or meropenem (MER). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of acutely ill adults receiving the combination of VAN and PTZ or MER for at least 48 hours between November 1, 2014 and October 31, 2016 in a tertiary care hospital...
September 2, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Pasqualina Laganà, Gabriella Caruso, Ilaria Corsi, Elisa Bergami, Valentina Venuti, Domenico Majolino, Rosabruna La Ferla, Maurizio Azzaro, Simone Cappello
The retrieval of a polystyrene macro-plastic piece stranded on the shores in King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica) gave the opportunity to explore the associated bacterial flora. A total of 27 bacterial isolates were identified by molecular 16s rRNA gene sequencing and 7 strains were selected and screened for their ability to produce biofilm and antibiotic susceptibility profiles. All the bacterial isolates were able to produce biofilm. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test to 34 antibiotics showed multiple antibiotic resistances against the molecules cefuroxime and cefazolin (belonging to cephalosporins), cinoxacin (belonging to quinolones) and ampicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, carbenicillin and mezlocillin (belonging to beta-lactams)...
August 30, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Misha Devchand, Karen Urbancic, Sharmila Khumra, Abby Douglas, Olivia Smibert, Emma Cohen, Michael Sutherland, Elizabeth J Phillips, Jason A Trubiano
The validation of a beta-lactam antibiotic allergy assessment allows non-allergists to effectively phenotype patient-reported antibiotic allergies and direct them to appropriate 'de-labeling' stratergies.
August 29, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Yolanda Guillén, Marc Noguera-Julian, Javier Rivera, Maria Casadellà, Alexander S Zevin, Muntsa Rocafort, Mariona Parera, Cristina Rodríguez, Marçal Arumí, Jorge Carrillo, Beatriz Mothe, Carla Estany, Josep Coll, Isabel Bravo, Cristina Herrero, Jorge Saz, Guillem Sirera, Ariadna Torrella, Jordi Navarro, Manuel Crespo, Eugènia Negredo, Christian Brander, Julià Blanco, Maria Luz Calle, Nichole R Klatt, Bonaventura Clotet, Roger Paredes
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection causes severe gut and systemic immune damage, but its effects on the gut microbiome remain unclear. Previous shotgun metagenomic studies in HIV-negative subjects linked low-microbial gene counts (LGC) to gut dysbiosis in diseases featuring intestinal inflammation. Using a similar approach in 156 subjects with different HIV-1 phenotypes, we found a strong, independent, dose-effect association between nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and LGC. As in other diseases involving intestinal inflammation, the gut microbiomes of subjects with LGC were enriched in gram-negative Bacteroides, acetogenic bacteria and Proteobacteria, which are able to metabolize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; and were depleted in oxygen-sensitive methanogenic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria...
August 31, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Diana J Schreier, Kianoush B Kashani, Ankit Sakhuja, Kristin C Mara, Mohammad S Tootooni, Heather A Personett, Sarah Nelson, Andrew D Rule, James M Steckelberg, Aaron J Tande, Erin F Barreto
Background: Nephrotoxins contribute to 20-40% of acute kidney injury (AKI) cases in the intensive care unit (ICU). The combination of piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin (PTZ/VAN) has been identified as nephrotoxic, but existing studies focus on extended durations of therapy rather than the brief empiric courses often used in the ICU. Objective: Compare the risk of AKI with a short course of PTZ/VAN to other anti-pseudomonal beta-lactam/vancomycin combinations...
August 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Gary Wu, Eunah Cheon
Meropenem-vaborbactam is a new beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination that combines a carbapenem antibiotic with a first-in-class, boronic acid pharmacophore, serine beta-lactamase inhibitor which has potent inhibitory activity against class A carbapenemases, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), in addition to other class A and class C beta-lactamases. The US Food and Drug Administration has recently approved meropenem-vaborbactam for the treatment of adult patients with complicated urinary tract infections including acute pyelonephritis...
August 30, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Chaoyi Xu, Ting Zhang, Jingxiao Cai, Zhiliang Yu, Juanping Qiu, Jianhua Yin
Beta-lactams are the most widely used antibiotics. One of the principle mechanisms for Gram-negative bacteria to resist β-lactams is by producing β-lactamases that degrade β-lactams. This review highlights two regulatory mechanisms for inducing β-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria. In the ampR-ampC paradigm, the induction of β-lactamase is intimately linked to peptidoglycan recycling. AmpR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, plays a central role in regulating expression of β-lactamase. Recent studies found that two-component signal transduction pathway is activated by β-lactams, which in turn induces the expression of β-lactamase...
August 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"