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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237787/point-counterpoint-piperacillin-tazobactam-should-be-used-to-treat-infections-with-esbl-positive-organisms
#1
Audrey Schuetz, Sergio Reyes Salcedo, Pranita D Tamma
Beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs) are among the most controversial classes of antibiotic agents available for the treatment of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria (ESBL-GNR). Piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) is one of the most frequently utilized antibiotic agents for empiric gram-negative bacterial coverage and remains active against a large proportion of ESBL-GNR. Furthermore, good antimicrobial stewardship practices encourage the use of carbapenem-sparing treatment regimens for infections due to ESBL-GNR...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234355/treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-are-all-countries-treating-children-in-the-same-way-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Daniele Donà, Dora Luise, Liviana Da Dalt, Carlo Giaquinto
Background: Pneumonia represents an important threat to children's health in both developed and developing countries. In the last 10 years, many national and international guidelines on the treatment of pediatric CAP have been published, in order to optimize the prescription of antibiotics and limit their cost and side effects. However, the practical implementation of these guidelines is still limited. Main Text: We analyzed the current recommendations for the therapy of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that all converge on the identification of aminopenicillins and beta-lactams as the optimal treatment for CAP...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233117/elizabethkingia-miricola-as-an-opportunistic-oral-pathogen-associated-with-superinfectious-complications-in-humoral-immunodeficiency-a-case-report
#3
Przemysław Zdziarski, Mariola Paściak, Klaudia Rogala, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal, Andrzej Gamian
BACKGROUND: Elizabethkingia miricola is a rare Gram-negative bacterium found in water and clinical specimens. Typical culturing methods often misidentify Elizabethkingia spp. as Flavobacterium or Chryseobacterium. Although diagnosis is based on culturing samples taken from sterile sites, such as blood, a proper identification of this bacterium requires an expertise that goes beyond the capabilities of a typical clinical laboratory. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency was admitted to our center...
December 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232913/pharmacoeconomic-analysis-of-drugs-used-in-the-treatment-of-pneumonia-in-paediatric-population-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india-a-cost-of-illness-study
#4
Lekha Saha, Sharonjeet Kaur, Pratibha Khosla, Sweta Kumari, Alka Rani
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cost of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of pneumonia in the inpatient paediatric population can have a major impact on the healthcare expenditure. We planned to assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosis and medical treatment of paediatric patients with community acquired pneumonia who are hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS: 125 children with a diagnosis of pneumonia who were admitted to the inpatient department of a paediatric hospital receiving antibiotic treatment were observed...
December 11, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228168/glutamate-residues-at-positions-162nd-and-164th-influence-the-beta-lactamase-activity-of-shv-14-obtained-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
Gaurav Kumar, Sarmistha Biswal, Soshina Nathan, Anindya S Ghosh
Extensive production of SHV-14 beta-lactamase makes Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to beta-lactams. The presence of omega-loop has been reported to influence the beta-lactamase activity, which is also present in SHV-14. Its omega-loop has three glutamates in nearly alternating positions, 162, 164 and 167 but their concise role on the behaviour of SHV-14 is unknown. To uncover the influence of each glutamate on SHV-14, we replaced glutamates with alanine and estimated the effect of each mutation by assessing the change in beta-lactam sensitivities in the surrogate Escherichia coli cells and catalytic efficiencies for hydrolysis with the purified proteins...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225790/update-on-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Francois Timsit, Wafa Esaied, Mathilde Neuville, Lila Bouadma, Bruno Mourvllier
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent life-threatening nosocomial infection in intensive care units. The diagnostic is difficult because radiological and clinical signs are inaccurate and could be associated with various respiratory diseases. The concept of infection-related ventilator-associated complication has been proposed as a surrogate of VAP to be used as a benchmark indicator of quality of care. Indeed, bundles of prevention measures are effective in decreasing the VAP rate. In case of VAP suspicion, respiratory secretions must be collected for bacteriological secretions before any new antimicrobials...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220754/association-of-high-mortality-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-esbl-positive-cultures-in-community-acquired-infections
#7
Sumit Ray, Dimple Anand, Sankalp Purwar, Arijit Samanta, Kaustubh V Upadhye, Prasoon Gupta, Debashis Dhar
PURPOSE: Infections due to multidrug resistant organisms have become a serious health concern worldwide. The present study was conducted to investigate the spectrum of microbial resistance pattern in the community and their effects on mortality. METHODS: A retrospective review and analysis of prospectively collected data was done of all patients admitted with diagnosis of sepsis in two tertiary care ICU's for a period of two years. Demographics, culture positivity, microbial spectrum, resistance pattern and outcome data were collected...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212704/performance-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-etest-mic-test-strips-and-disk-diffusion-as-compared-to-reference-broth-microdilution-for-beta-lactam-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates
#8
Romney M Humphries, Janet A Hindler, Paul Magnano, Annie Wong-Beringer, Robert Tibbetts, Shelley A Miller
The performance of ceftolozane-tazobactam Etest (bioMerieux, Marcy L'Etoile, France), MIC Test Strips (MTS, Liofilchem, Italy) and disk diffusion (Hardy, Santa Ana, CA) were evaluated for a collection of 308 beta-lactam resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from three institutions in Los Angeles, CA. Reference testing was performed by reference broth microdilution (rBMD). MIC and disk results were interpreted using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Overall, 72.5% of isolates were susceptible to C/T by rBMD...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203432/propionibacterium-acnes-prosthetic-joint-infection-diagnosis-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
P Boisrenoult
Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal skin bacterium, regularly implicated in prosthetic joint infection, particularly of the shoulder. Diagnosis has been improved by progress in bacteriological techniques: longer culture time, liquid medium culture, MALDI-TOF mass spectrography, and universal 16S rRNA PCR, associated by some authors to sonication of ablated implants. P. acnes pathogenicity involves many virulence factors, notably including biofilm formation. P. acnes may lead to infection that is clinically evident or, frequently, relatively asymptomatic...
December 1, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198902/inoculum-effect-of-high-concentrations-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-on-the-efficacy-of-cefazolin-and-other-beta-lactams
#10
Masachika Saeki, Masaaki Shinagawa, Yuki Yakuwa, Shinya Nirasawa, Yuki Sato, Nozomi Yanagihara, Satoshi Takahashi
The existence of a cefazolin inoculum effect (InE) of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), which is speculated to be a reason for cefazolin treatment failure in MSSA infections, is controversial. In Japan, although cefazolin is one of the therapeutic choices for patients with MSSA infection, there are few reports of this effect. Additionally, the association between InE and blaZ type in beta-lactams other than cefazolin has not been well documented. In this study, we confirmed an MSSA InE in several beta-lactams, including cefazolin, and its relationship with blaZ, using 52 MSSA isolates from blood cultures...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194931/antibiotic-resistome-in-a-large-scale-healthy-human-gut-microbiota-deciphered-by-metagenomic-and-network-analyses
#11
Jie Feng, Bing Li, Xiaotao Jiang, Ying Yang, George F Wells, Tong Zhang, Xiaoyan Li
The human gut microbiota is an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). A metagenomic approach and network analysis were used to establish a comprehensive antibiotic resistome catalog and to obtain co-occurrence patterns between ARGs and microbial taxa in fecal samples from 180 healthy individuals from 11 different countries. In total, 507 ARG subtypes belonging to 20 ARG types were detected with abundances ranging from 7.12 × 10-7 to 2.72 × 10-1 copy of ARG/copy of 16S-rRNA gene. Tetracycline, multidrug, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, bacitracin, vancomycin, beta-lactam and aminoglycoside resistance genes were the top seven most abundant ARG types...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186260/acute-generalized-exanthematous-pustulosis-induced-by-hydroxychloroquine-a-case-with-atypical-clinical-presentation
#12
Hatice Duman, Ilteris Oguz Topal, Emek Kocaturk, Kubra Cure, Ilknur Mansuroglu
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare drug-induced eruption that is characterized by acute, nonfollicular sterile pustules on an erythematous and edematous base. The most frequently implicated drugs are beta-lactam antibiotics. Hydroxychloroquine has been widely used to treat dermatologic and rheumatologic diseases and has been reported as a rare cause of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. A 42-year-old female presented with pustular lesions on the skin surface with erythema, facial edema, and occasional atypical target-like lesions after 21 days of treatment with 200mg/day hydroxychloroquine for rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed one month previously...
May 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186015/establishing-genotype-to-phenotype-relationships-in-bacteria-causing-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-a-prelude-to-the-application-of-clinical-metagenomics
#13
REVIEW
Etienne Ruppé, Abdessalam Cherkaoui, Vladimir Lazarevic, Stéphane Emonet, Jacques Schrenzel
Clinical metagenomics (CMg), referred to as the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to clinical samples, is a promising tool for the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). Indeed, CMg allows identifying pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), thereby providing the information required for the optimization of the antibiotic regimen. Hence, provided that CMg would be faster than conventional culture, the probabilistic regimen used in HAP could be tailored faster, which should lead to an expected decrease of mortality and morbidity...
November 29, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184412/a-6-year-study-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-southern-china-prevalence-antibiotic-resistance-clinical-and-economic-outcomes
#14
Xiaoyan Li, Yunqin Chen, Weiguo Gao, Hao Ye, Zhongchao Shen, Zehuai Wen, Jia Wei
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common nosocomial infections. This study evaluated the prevalence, pathogens, antibiotic resistances, clinical outcomes, and hospitalization costs associated with complicated UTIs in southern China, and risk factors delaying patient discharge. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of 4,284 (61.4% women) complicated UTI-related hospitalizations from 2008 to 2013. Average patient age was 61.1 years and median hospital stay was 11 days. Pathogens were isolated from 1,071 urine and 148 blood specimens...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179769/catalogue-of-antibiotic-resistome-and-host-tracking-in-drinking-water-deciphered-by-a-large-scale-survey
#15
Liping Ma, Bing Li, Xiao-Tao Jiang, Yu-Lin Wang, Yu Xia, An-Dong Li, Tong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Excesses of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which are regarded as emerging environmental pollutants, have been observed in various environments. The incidence of ARGs in drinking water causes potential risks to human health and receives more attention from the public. However, ARGs harbored in drinking water remain largely unexplored. In this study, we aimed at establishing an antibiotic resistome catalogue in drinking water samples from a wide range of regions and to explore the potential hosts of ARGs...
November 28, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175796/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-organisms-isolated-from-sputum-culture-of-karachi-pakistan
#16
Salman Mansoor, Shayan Qadir, Sehrish Javed, Faisal Shah Jehan, Maryam Kundi
Our study aims to contribute to developing antibiotics prescription guidelines at a national and a regional level directed by the antibiotics susceptibility patterns and rapidly emerging resistant organisms. This study is designed to observe the antimicrobial susceptibility in sputum culture isolates and drug resistance patterns against various antimicrobials. This was a retrospective cohort study; data was collected from two laboratories from 1st Jan to 15 July 2007. All laboratory reports were analyzed using SPSS version 19...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175371/natural-history-of-benign-nonimmediate-allergy-to-beta-lactams-in-children-a-prospective-study-in-retreated-patients-after-a-positive-and-a-negative-provocation-test
#17
Aude Tonson la Tour, Marine Michelet, Philippe A Eigenmann, Jean-Christoph Caubet
BACKGROUND: The drug provocation test (DPT) is considered as the gold standard to diagnose drug allergy and is particularly important in the diagnosis of nonimmediate beta-lactam (BL) allergy in children. The natural history of BL allergy remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our main aim was to evaluate the natural history of nonimmediate BL hypersensitivity and the long-term tolerance acquisition, and our secondary objective was to determine the negative predictive value (NPV) of the DPT following a 2-day protocol...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174734/rpob-gene-sequencing-highlights-the-prevalence-of-an-e-miricola-cluster-over-other-elizabethkingia-species-among-uk-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#18
Dervla T D Kenna, Alice Fuller, Kate Martin, Claire Perry, Rachel Pike, Phillipa J Burns, Omendra Narayan, Stuart Wilkinson, Robert Hill, Neil Woodford, Julie M J Logan, Jane F Turton
Difficulties in distinguishing species of the Elizabethkingia genus by MALDI-TOF prompted use of rpoB sequencing to investigate species distribution among 44 isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Forty-three isolates from 38 patients formed a cluster comprising E. miricola and proposed novel species E. bruuniana sp. nov., the exception clustering with proposed species E. ursingii sp. nov., also part of this wider cluster. All 44 isolates were PCR-positive for urease gene ureG, whereas only one of 23 E...
October 26, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173791/new-antimicrobial-agents-for-the-treatment-of-staphylococcal-infections-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Roopali Sharma, Densley Francois, Margaret R Hammerschlag
Several new antimicrobial agents-daptomycin, ceftaroline, telavancin, dalbavancin, and-tedizolid have been approved for the treatment of staphylococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in adults. Ceftaroline and daptomycin have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in children. Ceftaroline, a beta-lactam antibiotic with activity against MRSA, has been approved for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and complicated skin and skin structure infections...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163422/a-novel-inca-c1-group-conjugative-plasmid-encoding-vim-1-metallo-beta-lactamase-mediates-the-acquisition-of-carbapenem-resistance-in-st104-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-neonates-in-the-intensive-care-unit-of-v-monaldi-hospital-in-naples
#20
Eliana P Esposito, Stefano Gaiarsa, Mariateresa Del Franco, Valeria Crivaro, Mariano Bernardo, Susanna Cuccurullo, Francesca Pennino, Maria Triassi, Piero Marone, Davide Sassera, Raffaele Zarrilli
The emergence of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae has raised major public health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology and the mechanism of carbapenem resistance acquisition of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 20 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the V. Monaldi Hospital in Naples, Italy, from April 2015 to March 2016. Genotype analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) identified PFGE type A and subtypes A1 and A2 in 17, 2, and 1 isolates, respectively, and assigned all isolates to sequence type (ST) 104...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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