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Beta lactam

Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari, Patrick Boerlin, John F Prescott
NetF-producing type A Clostridium perfringens, a pathotype of C. perfringens, causes necrotizing enteritis in neonatal foals and necrotizing and hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. Recent core genome multilocus sequence typing study revealed that netF+ C. perfringens strains belong to two distinct clonal populations (clonal complexes I and II). There are no reports on susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs of isolates from this pathotype. The susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial drugs of 49 netF+ strains recovered from foals or dogs with necrotizing enteritis in Canada, the United States, and Switzerland was assessed using a commercial microdilution panel designed for anaerobic human pathogens...
November 15, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Shalini Anandan, V Ramasubramanian, Subramanian Swaminathan, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Rajeev Soman, O C Abraham, Vinod C Ohri, Kamini Walia
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health concern across the globe, and it is increasing at an alarming rate. Multiple classes of antimicrobials have been used for the treatment of infectious diseases. Rise in the AMR limits its use and hence the prerequisite for the newer agents to combat drug resistance. Among the infections caused by Gram-negative organisms, beta-lactams are one of the most commonly used agents. However, the presence of diverse beta-lactamases hinders its use for therapy. To overcome these enzymes, beta-lactamase inhibitors are being discovered...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Junyan Liu, Ling Yang, Yuchao Hou, Thanapop Soteyome, Bingbing Zeng, Jianyu Su, Lin Li, Bing Li, Dingqiang Chen, Yanyan Li, Aiwu Wu, Mark E Shirtliff, Janette M Harro, Zhenbo Xu, Brian M Peters
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the representative foodborne pathogens which forms biofilm. Antibiotics are widely applied in livestock husbandry to maintain animal health and productivity, thus contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant livestock and human pathogens, and pose a significant public health threat. Effect of antibiotic pressure on S. aureus biofilm formation, as well as the mechanism, remains unclear. In this study, the regulatory mechanism of low concentration of ampicillin on S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lise Schotte, Magali Wautier, Delphine Martiny, Denis Piérard, Melissa Depypere
Haemophilus influenzae, a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tract, is the causative agent of several clinically important infections. In cases that require therapeutic intervention, laboratory susceptibility testing can detect beta-lactam antibiotic resistance and guide the best treatment course. In the absence of a beta-lactamase, beta-lactam resistance may be due to an altered form of the PBP3 protein, encoded by the ftsI gene. While these so-called beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains are of serious clinical interest, identification in the clinical laboratory is not always straightforward...
October 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Manal Tadros, Lee Goneau, Alexander Romaschin, Michael Jarvis, Larissa Matukas
Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are becoming a global healthcare concern. Current laboratory methods for the detection of CPE include screening followed by confirmatory phenotypic and genotypic tests. These processes would generally take ≥72 hours, which could negatively impact patient care and Infection Control practices. To this end, we developed a protocol for rapid resistance testing (RRT) to detect hydrolysis in a panel of beta lactam antibiotics consisting of ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime and imipenem, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
2018: PloS One
Ishmael Festus Jaja, Nolwazi Londiwe Bhembe, Ezekiel Green, James Oguttu, Voster Muchenje
Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries, causing significant economic losses on humans and animals worldwide. There are several routes for contracting salmonellosis, but the consumption of contaminated foods is by far the most frequent cause of human infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and resistance determinants of S. enterica isolates obtained from meat. Swab samples from meat were cultured for the identification of Salmonella spp...
November 5, 2018: Acta Tropica
Yingying Hao, Chunhong Shao, Yuanyuan Bai, Yan Jin
Infections due to New Delhi metallo-beta lactamase (NDM)-7-producing Escherichia coli are infrequent and sporadic. In this study, we report one case of recurrent urinary tract infection caused by bla NDM-7 -producing E. coli belonging to phylogenetic group A, sequence type (ST) 167. In this study, we aimed to describe the genotype and phenotype of bla NDM-7 -producing E. coli in China. The isolate exhibited resistance to β-lactam antimicrobials, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and aminoglycosides...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ahmed Gaballah, Amira Elbaradei, Amel Elsheredy, Ola Kader
Thirty-three Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, resistant to one or more β-lactams, were included in this study. Identification of tested strains was confirmed using MALDI-TOF/MS. Phenotypic and genotypic β-lactamase patterns were investigated. Most of the isolates were resistant to carbapenems (32 out of 33) and to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) (30 out of 33). Phenotypically, the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), metallo-β-lactamases (MBL), and carbapenemases was detected in 10, 23, and 9 isolates, respectively...
November 7, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Clifford A Reilly, Grant Backer, Danielle Basta, Natalie B V Riblet, Pamela M Hofley, Megan C Gallagher
Background: The majority of patients for elective surgery and with a history of penicillin allergy are placed on alternative prophylactic antibiotic therapies, which have been associated with the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and increased morbidity and mortality rates. However, self-reporting of penicillin allergy alone may overestimate the prevalence of penicillin allergy in the population. Objective: To assess the effects of preoperative antibiotic allergy testing protocols in reducing the use of non-beta-lactam antibiotics...
November 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Jianing Xie, Sijing Xue, Eduardo C Escudero-Adán, Arjan W Kleij
Tertiary allylic alcohols equipped with a carboxyl group can be smoothly aminated under ambient conditions by a conceptually new and stereoselective protocol under palladium catalysis. The in situ formed Z-configured γ-amino acid cyclizes to afford an α,β-unsaturated γ-lactam, releasing water as the only byproduct. This practical catalytic transformation highlights the use of a carboxyl group acting as an activating and stereodirecting functional group to provide a wide series of pharma-relevant building blocks...
October 29, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Stéphanie Note, Patrick Soentjens, Marie Van Laer, Philippe Meert, Peter Vanbrabant
 A patient presenting with fever and purpura after a stay in the tropics tempts a physician to make a differential diagnosis mainly focusing on imported diseases. Although the importance of considering a tropical disease is obvious, the fact that cosmopolitan infections account for one third of the cases in a febrile returning traveler must not be overseen. Toxic Shock Syndrome is amongst the most notorious diseases due to the high mortality when inappropriately managed and the association with necrotizing fasciitis...
October 27, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Tim Boehmer, Amy J Vogler, Astrid Thomas, Sabine Sauer, Markus Hergenroether, Reinhard K Straubinger, Dawn Birdsell, Paul Keim, Jason W Sahl, Charles H D Williamson, Julia M Riehm
Asymptomatic colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae has been described for humans, various mammal species, and birds. Here, antimicrobial resistant bacteria were recovered from dog feces originating in Germany, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Croatia, and Ukraine, with a subset of mostly E. coli isolates obtained from a longitudinal collection over twelve months. In vitro antimicrobial resistance testing revealed various patterns of resistance against single or all investigated beta-lactam antibiotics, with none of the 101 isolates resistant against two tested carbapenem antibiotics...
2018: PloS One
Åse ÖstholmBalkhed, Maria Tärnberg, Maud Nilsson, Lennart E Nilsson, Håkan Hanberger, Anita Hällgren
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we found that 30% of individuals travelling outside Scandinavia acquired extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in their faecal flora. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of travel-associated faecal colonisation with ESBL-PE, to assess risk factors for prolonged colonisation and to detect changes in antibiotic susceptibility during prolonged colonisation. METHODS: Individuals with travel-associated colonisation with ESBL-PE submitted faecal samples every 3rd month over a one-year period...
2018: PloS One
Dinesh Subedi, Ajay Kumar Vijay, Gurjeet Singh Kohli, Scott A Rice, Mark Willcox
The large and complex genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which consists of significant portions (up to 20%) of transferable genetic elements contributes to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance. The whole genome sequences of 22 strains isolated from eye and cystic fibrosis patients in Australia and India between 1992 and 2007 were used to compare genomic divergence and phylogenetic relationships as well as genes for antibiotic resistance and virulence factors. Analysis of the pangenome indicated a large variation in the size of accessory genome amongst 22 stains and the size of the accessory genome correlated with number of genomic islands, insertion sequences and prophages...
October 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Antoine Couture-Cossette, Alex Carignan, Adam Mercier, Claudine Desruisseaux, Louis Valiquette, Jacques Pépin
OBJECTIVES: To examine secular changes in the incidence of invasive beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, and to assess the efficacy of immunoglobulins and clindamycin as adjunctive therapies in the management of Streptococcus pyogenes infections. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all cases of invasive group A (GAS), B (GBS), C or G (GCGS) streptococcal infections managed in a Canadian tertiary center from 1996-2016. Population incidence was measured for diabetics and non-diabetics...
2018: PloS One
Veena Venugopalan, Kayihura Manigaba, Samuel J Borgert, Jessica Cope, Charles A Peloquin, Kenneth P Klinker
Background: The antibiotic armamentarium used to combat multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) include carbapenems. Continuous infusion (CI) dosing is frequently employed to maximize beta-lactam efficacy; however, use of meropenem CI has been limited due to concerns with product instability. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to quantify meropenem serum concentrations to reflect drug stability when administered as CI over 8- or 12-h exchanges. In addition, a stability experiment was performed to further establish meropenem integrity over 12 h...
2018: Microbiology Insights
M Dinleyici, G K Yildirim, O Aydemir, T B Kaya, Y Bildirici, K B Carman
OBJECTIVE: It is important to identify undesirable toxins and metabolites present in human milk that may be passed on to nursing infants. Such residues may derive from the antibiotics that are widely used to treat infectious diseases in both humans and food-producing animals. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature on human milk antibiotic residue levels. PATIENT AND METHODS: As a part of the Human Milk Artificial Pollutants (HUMAP) study, we aimed to evaluate human milk antibiotic residues among mothers with 7 to 90-day-old babies...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Amihai Rottenstreich, Shmuel Benenson, Gabriel Levin, Geffen Kleinstern, Allon E Moses, Sharon Amit
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, risk factors, clinical course and outcomes of pregnancy-related group A streptococcus (GAS) infection. METHODS: A retrospective 13-year cohort study of culture-proven pregnancy-related GAS infection was performed at two university hospitals, serving heterogeneous, multicultural, urban and rural populations. RESULTS: Of 124 women diagnosed with pregnancy-related GAS infection, 115 (93%) were in the puerperium, an incidence of 0...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Iman Dandachi, Selma Chabou, Ziad Daoud, Jean-Marc Rolain
In recent years, extended ESBL and carbapenemase producing Gram negative bacteria have become widespread in hospitals, community settings and the environment. This has been triggered by the few therapeutic options left when infections with these multi-drug resistant organisms occur. The emergence of resistance to colistin, the last therapeutic option against carbapenem-resistant bacteria, worsened the situation. Recently, animals were regarded as potent antimicrobial reservoir and a possible source of infection to humans...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jackson A Buss, Vadim Baidin, Michael A Welsh, Josué Flores-Kim, Hongbaek Cho, B McKay Wood, Tsuyoshi Uehara, Suzanne Walker, Daniel Kahne, Thomas G Bernhardt
New antibiotics are needed to combat the growing problem of resistant bacterial infections. An attractive avenue towards the discovery of such next generation therapies is to identify novel inhibitors of clinically validated targets like cell wall biogenesis. We have therefore developed a pathway-directed, whole-cell screen for small molecules that block the activity of the Rod system of Escherichia coli This conserved multi-protein complex is required for cell elongation and the morphogenesis of rod-shaped bacteria...
October 15, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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