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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924713/acetylcholinesterase-and-neuropathy-target-esterase-activities-in-11-cases-of-symptomatic-flight-crew-members-after-fume-events
#1
Astrid R R Heutelbeck, Catherine Bornemann, Martina Lange, Anke Seeckts, Michael M Müller
In modern aviation, so-called fume events such as exposure to an unknown mixture of chemicals introduced into the aircraft cabin with bleed air drawn off at the engines may occur. Human exposure may result in (neuro)toxic symptoms described as so-called "aerotoxic syndrome." Currently, among other agents organophosphates (OP) are regarded as a likely cause of the observed adverse effects. After fume events 11 flight crew members (9 female/2 male; ages 23-58 yr) were admitted for a medical examination within 5 d post exposure...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924711/occupational-risk-factors-for-relapse-free-survival-in-bladder-cancer-patients
#2
Silvia Selinski, Hannah Bürger, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Thomas Otto, Frank Volkert, Oliver Moormann, Hartmut Niedner, Jan G Hengstler, Klaus Golka
The influence of occupational risk factors on bladder cancer development is well investigated. However, studies on the influence on bladder cancer prognosis are rare. Therefore, it was of interest to investigate the time to first relapse in the follow-ups of three case-control series from Dortmund, Neuss, and Lutherstadt Wittenberg, Germany. Relapse-free survival of in total 794 urinary bladder cancer patients (Dortmund 174, Neuss 407, Lutherstadt Wittenberg 213) was derived from medical records. Cox regression models were used to determine the impact of profession and exposure to bladder carcinogens if the risk factor was present in at least four cases...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923764/applications-of-deep-eutectic-solvents-in-biotechnology-and-bioengineering-promises-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Yves Paul Mbous, Maan Hayyan, Adeeb Hayyan, Won Fen Wong, Mohd Ali Hashim, Chung Yeng Looi
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been touted recently as potential alternatives to ionic liquids (ILs). Although they possess core characteristics that are similar to those of ILs (e.g., low volatility, non-flammability, low melting points, low vapor pressure, dipolar nature, chemical and thermal stability, high solubility, and tuneability), DESs are superior in terms of the availability of raw materials, the ease of storage and synthesis, and the low cost of their starting materials. As such, they have become the subject of intensive research in various sectors, notably the chemical, electrochemical, and biological sectors...
December 3, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922762/nonchemotherapy-drug-induced-agranulocytosis-in-children-detected-by-a-prospective-pharmacovigilance-program
#4
Nicolás Medrano-Casique, Hoi Y Tong, Alberto M Borobia, Antonio J Carcas, Jesús Frías, Elena Ramírez
OBJECTIVES: A prospective evaluation of nonchemotherapy drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIA) cases, which are infrequent in the pediatric population. We characterize agranulocytosis cases and assess lab test differences between drug- and nondrug-induced agranulocytosis. METHODS: Through our Prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at Hospital we detected pediatric agranulocytosis cases from July 2007 to December 2010. This program estimates the incidence, drug causality, clinical features, outcomes of DIA pediatric cases, and assesses laboratory differences with respect to non-DIA...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922739/tyrosine-kinase-aurora-kinase-and-leucine-aminopeptidase-as-attractive-drug-targets-in-anticancer-therapy-characterisation-of-their-inhibitors
#5
Joanna Ziemska, Jolanta Solecka
Cancers are the leading cause of deaths all over the world. Available anticancer agents used in clinics exhibit low therapeutic index and usually high toxicity. Wide spreading drug resistance of cancer cells induce a demanding need to search for new drug targets. Currently, many on-going studies on novel compounds with potent anticancer activity, high selectivity as well as new modes of action are conducted. In this work, we describe in details three enzyme groups, which are at present of extensive interest to medical researchers and pharmaceutical companies...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920899/diagnosing-clean-margins-through-raman-spectroscopy-in-human-and-animal-mammary-tumour-surgery-a-short-review
#6
REVIEW
I A Birtoiu, C Rizea, D Togoe, R M Munteanu, C Micsa, M I Rusu, M Tautan, L Braic, L O Scoicaru, A Parau, N D Becherescu-Barbu, M V Udrea, A Tonetto, R Notonier, C E A Grigorescu
Breast cancer frequency in human and other mammal female populations has worryingly increased lately. The acute necessity for taxonomy of the aetiological factors along with seeking for new diagnostic tools and therapy procedures aimed at reducing mortality have yielded in an intense research effort worldwide. Surgery is a regular method to counteract extensive development of breast cancer and prevent metastases provided that negative surgical margins are achieved. This highly technical challenge requires fast, extremely sensitive and selective discrimination between malignant and benign tissues even down to molecular level...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918487/integrating-deoxyribozymes-into-colorimetric-sensing-platforms
#7
REVIEW
Dingran Chang, Sandy Zakaria, Mimi Deng, Nicholas Allen, Kha Tram, Yingfu Li
Biosensors are analytical devices that have found a variety of applications in medical diagnostics, food quality control, environmental monitoring and biodefense. In recent years, functional nucleic acids, such as aptamers and nucleic acid enzymes, have shown great potential in biosensor development due to their excellent ability in target recognition and catalysis. Deoxyribozymes (or DNAzymes) are single-stranded DNA molecules with catalytic activity and can be isolated to recognize a wide range of analytes through the process of in vitro selection...
December 3, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916310/effects-of-chronic-dietary-exposure-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-on-the-serum-protein-profile-of-juvenile-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#8
Latifeh Chupani, Eliška Zusková, Hamid Niksirat, Aleš Panáček, Vanessa Lünsmann, Sven-Bastiaan Haange, Martin von Bergen, Nico Jehmlich
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been dramatically used in industry, biology, and medicine. Despite their interesting physico-chemical properties for application in various industrial, medical, and consumer products, safe use of ZnO NPs are under challenges due to the inadequate information related to their toxicological endpoints. Proteomics was applied to evaluate the sub-lethal effects of dietary exposure to ZnO NPs on serum proteome profile of juvenile common carp, (Cyprinus carpio). Therefore, ZnO NPs solution (500mgkg(-1) of feed) was added to a commercial carp feed for six weeks...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916124/alkaline-phosphatase-fused-repebody-as-a-new-format-of-immuno-reagent-for-an-immunoassay
#9
Hyo-Deok Seo, Joong-Jae Lee, Yu Jung Kim, Oliver Hantschel, Seung-Goo Lee, Hak-Sung Kim
Enzyme-linked immunoassays based on an antibody-antigen interaction are widely used in biological and medical sciences. However, the conjugation of an enzyme to antibodies needs an additional chemical process, usually resulting in randomly cross-linked molecules and a loss of the binding affinity and enzyme activity. Herein, we present the development of an alkaline phosphatase-fused repebody as a new format of immuno-reagent for immunoassays. A repebody specifically binding to human TNF-α (hTNF-α) was selected through a phage display, and its binding affinity was increased up to 49 nM using a modular engineering approach...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915023/anisotropic-noble-metal-nanoparticles-synthesis-surface-functionalization-and-applications-in-biosensing-bioimaging-drug-delivery-and-theranostics
#10
REVIEW
Gokul Paramasivam, Namitharan Kayambu, Arul Maximus Rabel, Ashok K Sundramoorthy, Anandhakumar Sundaramurthy
Anisotropic nanoparticles have fascinated scientists and engineering communities for over a century because of their unique physical and chemical properties. In recent years, continuous advances in design and fabrication of anisotropic nanoparticles have opened new avenues for application in various areas of biology, chemistry and physics. Anisotropic nanoparticles have the plasmon absorption in the visible as well as near-infrared (NIR) region, which enable them to be used for crucial applications such as biological imaging, medical diagnostics and therapy ("theranostics")...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915018/design-and-surface-immobilization-of-short-anti-biofilm-peptides
#11
Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Radha M Golla, Xiuqing Wang, Guangshun Wang
: Short antimicrobial peptides are essential to keep us healthy and their lasting potency can inspire the design of new types of antibiotics. This study reports the design of a family of eight-residue tryptophan-rich peptides (TetraF2W) obtained by converting the four phenylalanines in temporin-SHf to tryptophans. The temporin-SHf template was identified from the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Remarkably, the double arginine variant (TetraF2W-RR) was more effective in killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, but less cytotoxic to human skin HaCat and kidney HEK293 cells, than the lysine-containing dibasic combinations (KR, RK and KK)...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911352/medical-equipment-antiseptic-processes-using-the-atmospheric-plasma-sprayed-copper-coatings
#12
M Goudarzi, Sh Saviz, M Ghoranneviss, A Salar Elahi
Antibacterial surfaces such as copper coatings are able to reduce the growth of bacteria. In this study, copper coatings was deposited on the 316 stainless steel substrates by a handmade device operating as an atmospheric plasma spraying system. The chemical composition microstructure and morphology surface of the coatings are examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and back scattering electron microscope (BSE). Micro hardness as one of the key properties of the coating is characterized based on cross-section...
November 30, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908256/a-review-on-nano-antimicrobials-metal-nanoparticles-methods-and-mechanisms
#13
Edris Hoseinzadeh, Pouran Makhdoumi, Parisa Taha, John Stelling, Hooshyar Hossini, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the Nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal application. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have been interested by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide Nanoparticles including; Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900785/a-tryptoline-ring-distortion-strategy-leads-to-complex-and-diverse-biologically-active-molecules-from-the-indole-alkaloid-yohimbine
#14
Nicholas Paciaroni, Ranjala Ratnayake, James Matthews, Verrill Norwood, Austin Arnold, Long Dang, Hendrik Luesch, Robert William Huigens Iii
High-throughput screening (HTS) is the primary driver to current drug discovery efforts. New therapeutic agents that enter the market are a direct reflection of the structurally simple compounds that make up screening libraries. Unlike medically relevant natural products (e.g., morphine), small molecules currently being screened have low fraction sp3 character and few, if any, stereogenic centers. Although simple compounds have been useful in drugging certain biological targets (e.g., protein kinases), more sophisticated targets (e...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894688/dna-and-chromosomal-damage-in-medical-workers-exposed-to-anaesthetic-gases-assessed-by-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cbmn-assay-a-critical-review
#15
REVIEW
Pavel Vodicka, Ludovit Musak, Giovanni Fiorito, Veronika Vymetalkova, Ludmila Vodickova, Alessio Naccarati
The lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay has been applied in hundreds of in vivo biomonitoring studies of humans exposed either environmentally or occupationally to genotoxic chemicals. However, there is an emerging need to re-evaluate the use of MN and other biomarkers within the lymphocyte CBMN cytome assay as quantitative indicators of exposure to main classes of chemical genotoxins. The main aim of the present report is to systematically review published studies investigating the use of the lymphocyte CBMN assay to determine DNA damage in subjects exposed to anaesthetic gases...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894687/reprint-of-biomonitoring-of-genotoxic-effects-for-human-exposure-to-nanomaterials-the-challenge-ahead
#16
REVIEW
Laetitia Gonzalez, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
Exposures to nanomaterials (NMs), with their specific physico-chemical characteristics, are likely to increase over the next years, as their production for industrial, consumer and medical applications is steadily rising. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the implementation of human biomonitoring studies of genotoxic effects after NM exposures in order to monitor and assure safety for workers and the general population. In this review, most commonly used biomarkers of early genetic effects were analyzed for their adequacy after NM exposures...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890031/a-national-assessment-of-the-health-and-safety-of-emergency-medical-services-professionals
#17
Melissa A Bentley, Roger Levine
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to assess changes in (1) health and physical fitness, (2) the prevalence of selected health problems, (3) risk behaviors, (4) ambulance safety issues, and (5) the preparedness of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals. In addition, the incidence of patient-initiated violence directed toward EMS personnel and associated factors were assessed. METHODS: Data were obtained from a sample of nationally certified EMS professionals via annual questionnaires between 1999 and 2008...
November 28, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885153/karl-otto-landsteiner-1868-1943-physician-biochemist-immunologist
#18
Armond S Goldman, Frank C Schmalsteig
Karl Landsteiner applied the sciences of biochemistry, pathology, microbiology, and immunology in medical research to great success during the first half of the 20th century. Although he is principally known for elucidating the major blood group antigens A and B and their isoantibodies for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Landsteiner made many other important medical discoveries. In that respect, he ascertained that paralytic poliomyelitis was due to a virus, the pancreas was damaged in cystic fibrosis, simple chemicals called haptens were able to combine with antibodies, and the Rh antigen that was later found to be the principal cause of hemolytic anemia of the newborn was found in most humans...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884742/antifungals
#19
REVIEW
Sonia Campoy, José L Adrio
The need for new antifungal agents is undeniable. Current therapeutics choices for the treatment of invasive fungal infections are limited to three classes of drugs. Most used antifungals agents are not completely effective due to the development of resistance, host toxicity and undesirable side effects that limit their use in medical practice. Invasive fungal infections have significantly increased over the last decades and the mortality rates remain unacceptably high. More threatening, new resistance patterns have been observed including simultaneous resistance to different antifungal classes...
November 21, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878619/an-open-prospective-study-evaluating-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-new-medical-device-for-rectal-application-of-activated-carbon-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-uncomplicated-perianal-fistulas
#20
Antoni Zawadzki, Louis Banka Johnson, Måns Bohe, Claes Johansson, Mats Ekelund, Ole Haagen Nielsen
PURPOSE: It has been proposed that biological/chemical substances in the intestine might play a role in the occurrence and deterioration of perianal fistulas. Elimination of such unidentified factors from the lower gastrointestinal tract might offer a new strategy for the management of anal fistulas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects on non-Crohn's disease perianal fistula healing, and the safety and tolerability of a new medical device that applies high-purity, high-activity granular activated carbon locally into the rectum twice daily of patients with perianal fistulas without any concomitant medication...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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