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chemical medication

S Sindhu
Stripped of any sense of comfort or dignity on that hospital bed, my 84-year-old father, my best friend, was enduring raw, intrusive medical procedures against his own wish; defenseless, vulnerable, agonized. A feeding tube went in through his nose; catheter tubes drained urine out of his bladder; a suction pump drew out fluid from his airway. A needle jammed into the central line, making it impossible for him to turn his head. Dialysis took over the job of his kidneys. But no painkillers were given for fear his weak heart could not take more chemicals...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
D-X Ban, Y Liu, T-W Cao, S-J Gao, S-Q Feng
STUDY DESIGN: The rat's acellular spinal cord scaffold (ASCS) and spinal cord neurons were prepared in vitro to explore their biocompatibility. OBJECTIVES: The preparation of ASCS and co-culture with neuron may lay a foundation for clinical treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, ChinaMethods:ASCS was prepared by chemical extraction method. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), myelin staining and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the surface structure of ASCS...
October 25, 2016: Spinal Cord
Peter E Ghaly, Rabab M Abou El-Magd, Cassandra D M Churchill, Jack A Tuszynski, F G West
Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and the novel compound...
June 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Qikang Wei, Tao Chen, Ruifeng Xu, Yulan He, Lin Gui
The recognition of disease and chemical named entities in scientific articles is a very important subtask in information extraction in the biomedical domain. Due to the diversity and complexity of disease names, the recognition of named entities of diseases is rather tougher than those of chemical names. Although there are some remarkable chemical named entity recognition systems available online such as ChemSpot and tmChem, the publicly available recognition systems of disease named entities are rare. This article presents a system for disease named entity recognition (DNER) and normalization...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Ali Ghanchi
On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations...
October 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Alejandra Prieto-Davó, Tiago Dias, Sofia E Gomes, Sara Rodrigues, Yessica Parera-Valadez, Pedro M Borralho, Florbela Pereira, Cecilia M P Rodrigues, Ilda Santos-Sanches, Susana P Gaudêncio
Marine-derived actinomycetes have demonstrated an ability to produce novel compounds with medically relevant biological activity. Studying the diversity and biogeographical patterns of marine actinomycetes offers an opportunity to identify genera that are under environmental pressures, which may drive adaptations that yield specific biosynthetic capabilities. The present study describes research efforts to explore regions of the Atlantic Ocean, specifically around the Madeira Archipelago, where knowledge of the indigenous actinomycete diversity is scarce...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Trond Myhrer, Pål Aas
The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side effects in a small number of individuals. A comprehensive research on animals has been performed to clarify effects on behavior. The results from these studies are far from unambiguous, since pyridostigmine may produce adverse effects on behavior in animals in relatively high doses, but not in a consistent way...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Kadir Ozaltin, Marián Lehocký, Zdenka Kuceková, Petr Humpolíček, Petr Sáha
Polymeric biomaterials are widely used in medical applications owing to their low cost, processability and sufficient toughness. Surface modification by creating a thin film of bioactive agents is promising technique to enhance cellular interactions, regulate the protein adsorption and/or avoid bacterial infections. Polyethylene is one of the most used polymeric biomaterial but its hydrophobic nature impedes its further chemical modifications. Plasma treatment is unique method to increase its hydrophilicity by incorporating hydrophilic oxidative functional groups and tailoring the surface by physical etching...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jaqueline de Paula Rezende, Guilherme Max Dias Ferreira, Gabriel Max Dias Ferreira, Luis Henrique Mendes da Silva, Maria do Carmo Hepanhol da Silva, Maximiliano Soares Pinto, Ana Clarissa Dos Santos Pires
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been recognized as a marker of the cow's health, milk quality, an allergenic protein and as a carrier. Its detection is important in the food, pharmaceutical and medical industries. However, traditional techniques used to detect BSA are often time-consuming, expensive, and show limited sensitivity. This paper describes properties of polydiacetylene-triblock copolymer (L64) nanosensors, synthesized to easily detect BSA. Sensor efficiency was studied as a function of nanosensor composition, polydiacetylene chemical structures, BSA conformation and hydrophobic domain availability, using spectroscopic, calorimetric, light scattering, and electrokinetic analyses...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Gaurav Kumar Pal, P V Suresh
Collagen and collagen fibers have been widely documented as a potential and competitive biomaterial for medical applications. However, the searches for safe and realistic new collagen sources are still underway. Currently, fishery by-products (scales), a promising collagen source are usually discarded. In the present study, in vitro fibril-forming ability of the extracted fish scale collagen is reported. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the concomitant comparison of fibril-forming abilities and characteristics of acid and pepsin soluble collagens from the scales of Indian major carp catla (Catla catla) and rohu (Labeo rohita)...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Afghany Mostavan, Carlo Paternoster, Ranna Tolouei, Edward Ghali, Dominique Dubé, Diego Mantovani
With its proven biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties, iron is an excellent source material for clinical cardiac and vascular applications. However, its relatively low degradation rate limits its use for the healing and remodeling of diseased blood vessels. To address these issues, a multi-purpose fabrication process to develop a bilayer alloy composed of electroformed iron (E-Fe) and iron-phosphorus (Fe-P) was employed. Bilayers of Fe/Fe-P were produced in an electrolytic bath. The effects of electrolyte chemical composition and deposition current density (idep) on layer structure and chemical composition were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Rocío Carmona, Cristina Linares, Cristina Ortiz, Blanca Vázquez, Julio Díaz
BACKGROUND: Although the effects of noise on population morbidity and mortality have been observed both in the short and long term, the morbidity and mortality indicators used to date have not enabled information on such health effects to be accessed in real time. At an international level, there are relatively few studies, mostly recent, which have considered an alternative indicator, such as the demand for medical attention provided by emergency services, taking into account environmental factors other than noise...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
M I Boguś, E Włóka, A Wrońska, A Kaczmarek, M Kazek, K Zalewska, M Ligęza-Żuber, M Gołębiowski
Entomopathogenic fungi infect insects via penetration through the cuticle, which varies remarkably in chemical composition across species and life stages. Fungal infection involves the production of enzymes that hydrolyse cuticular proteins, chitin and lipids. Host specificity is associated with fungus-cuticle interactions related to substrate utilization and resistance to host-specific inhibitors. The soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Constantin) (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) shows virulence against susceptible species...
October 22, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
H Liu, R Tariq, G L Liu, H Yan, A D Kaye
The intrathecal space has become an important anatomic site for medical intervention not only in anesthesia practice, but also in many other medical specialties. Undesired/inadvertent intrathecal injections (UII) are generally rare. There is tremendous variation in reported inadvertent administrations via an intrathecal route in the literature, mainly as individual cases and very small case-series reports. This review aims to identify potential sources of UII, its clinical presentations, and appropriate management...
October 21, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Hassan Taghipour, Mina Alizadeh, Reza Dehghanzadeh, Mohammad Reza Farshchian, Mohammad Ganbari, Mohammad Shakerkhatibi
Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment) was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Hao Huang, Linfu Li, Weimei Shi, Hai Liu, Jianqiong Yang, Xiaoliang Yuan, Longhuo Wu
Nobiletin (NOB) chemically known as 5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone is a dietary polymethoxylated flavonoid found in Citrus fruits. Recent evidences show that NOB is a multifunctional pharmaceutical agent. The various pharmacological activities of NOB include neuroprotection, cardiovascular protection, antimetabolic disorder, anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation. These events may be underpinned by modulation of signaling cascades, including PKA/ERK/MEK/CREB, NF-κB, MAPK, Ca(2+)/CaMKII, PI3K/Akt1/2, HIF-1α, and TGFβ signaling pathways...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Ahu Gümrah Dumanlı
Cellulose is a natural linear biopolymer, which constitutes through the assembly of cellulose nanofibrils in a hierarchical order. Nanocelluloses in particular show great promise as a cost-effective advanced material for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, with their chemical functionality they can be easily modified to yield useful products. While nature uses the hierarchical nanostructure of the cellulose as the load-bearing constituent in plants, a significant amount of research has been directed toward the fabrication of advanced cellulosic materials with various nanostructures and functional properties...
October 14, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Vojtěch Ledvina, Eva Janečková, Eva Matalová, Karel Klepárník
Analysing the chemical content of individual cells has already been proven to reveal unique information on various biological processes. Single-cell analysis provides more accurate and reliable results for biology and medicine than analyses of extracts from cell populations, where a natural heterogeneity is averaged. To meet the requirements in the research of important biologically active molecules, such as caspases, we have developed a miniaturized device for simultaneous analyses of individual cells. A stainless steel body with a carousel holder enables high-sensitivity parallel detections in eight microvials...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Alejandra Itzel González-Ramírez, Adrián Ramírez-Granillo, María Gabriela Medina-Canales, Aída Verónica Rodríguez-Tovar, María Angeles Martínez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are a highly structured consortia of microorganisms that adhere to a substrate and are encased within an extracellular matrix (ECM) that is produced by the organisms themselves. Aspergillus fumigatus is a biotechnological fungus that has a medical and phytopathogenic significance, and its biofilm occurs in both natural and artificial environments; therefore, studies on the stages observed in biofilm formation are of great significance due to the limited knowledge that exists on this specific topic and because there are multiple applications that are being carried out...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
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