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chemical medication

Caterina Ledda, Giuseppe La Torre, Diana Cinà, Gianluca Paravizzini, Ermanno Vitale, Piero Pavone, Ivo Iavicoli, Venerando Rapisarda
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a large group of man-made chemicals characterized by a completely fluorinated hydrophobic linear carbon chain attached to a hydrophilic head. The presence of PFCs has been related with various adverse effects on several organs and systems. 61 children (6 to 11 years of age) living in Sicily underwent medical examination and blood and urine routinary tests, as well as the serum concentration of 16 PFCs. These compounds (∑PFCs = 5.888 ng/mL, range 1.035-12.94 ng/mL) were widely detected in the samples of all children, showing that they had been extensively exposed to PFCs, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxs) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA)...
September 11, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Parviz Padisar, Roya Hashemi, Mohammadreza Naseh, Bahareh Abde Nikfarjam, Mahdi Mohammadi
Background: Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is based on induction of periodontal tissue remodeling. Mechanical tooth stimulation results in the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. These mediators cause bone resorption and deposition at the pressure and tension sites and play a role in OTM. Thus, assessment of chemical biomarkers can help determine the exact amount of load and its duration of application required for each tooth and select the most efficient treatment plan with minimal complications...
August 2018: Electronic Physician
Carly M Bond, Yi Tang
Simvastatin is a semisynthetic cholesterol-lowering medication and one of the top-selling statins in the world. Currently, industrial production of simvastatin acid (SVA) is a multistep process starting from the natural product lovastatin. For this reason, there is significant interest in direct production of simvastatin from a microbial host. In this study, six heterologous biosynthetic genes were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the acyl-donor dimethylbutyryl-S-methyl mercaptopropionate (DMB-SMMP) was added, resulting in initial production of 0...
September 10, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Hila Goldberg, Yoav Berger, Iris Ben Bassat, Irina Barequet
Purpose: To present a case of inadvertent corneal pigmentation as a complication of cosmetic eyelid tattooing. Observations: A 63 year old woman presented with left eye redness and irritation 3 days after undergoing permanent eyeliner tattooing of her upper and lower eyelids. On ocular examination a black pigmentation of the nasal cornea in her left eye was observed, with associated conjunctival injection. Initial slit lamp attempts of pigment removal were unsuccessful...
December 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Ashish Mourya, Leena Jain, Shalini Jadia, Sadat Qureshi
A hospital based prospective study to compare and evaluate the efficacy and convenience of various office procedures like chemical cauterization, fat plug myringoplasty and butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty. This interventional, prospective, longitudinal study carried out on 300 patients in the ENT department of a tertiary care medical college hospital in central India between January 2009 and January 2015. The success rate was found to be 94.54, 91.12 and 97% in chemical cauterization, fat plug and butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty respectively ( p value 0...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Matthias Roetting, Daniela Gompelmann, Felix J F Herth
In the last 14 years several endoscopic procedures have been developed to offer patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema further therapeutic options, complementary to a medical treatment. In addition to the established valve implantation, new approaches have been available since 2009. These procedures include bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation (BTVA) and polymeric lung volume reduction. Both therapies are independent of collateral ventilation (CV), are irreversible and can be used on segmental (BTVA) and sub-segmental level [polymeric lung volume reduction (PLVR)], in contrast to valve therapy...
August 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Richard D Lennox, Marie Cecchini-Sternquist
Objective Protracted drug withdrawal symptoms can last months or years after drug cessation, often precipitating a return to substance misuse. We evaluated the safety and preliminary health benefits of a unique chemical exposure regimen based on exercise, sauna and therapeutic nutrients. Methods This was a prospective evaluation of 109 individuals sequentially enrolled into a sauna detoxification component of a multi-modal, long-term residential substance abuse treatment centre. Results Data from medical charts, client self-reports and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) responses indicated that the Hubbard sauna detoxification method was well tolerated, with a 99% completion rate, including one human immunodeficiency virus and nine hepatitis C positive clients...
September 13, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Mehmet Varol, Kadriye Benkli, Ayşe T Koparal, Rakibe B Bostancıoğlu
Drug design and discovery studies are important because of the prevalence of diseases without available medical cures. New anticancer agents are particularly urgent because of the high mortality rate associated with cancer. A series of mononuclear gold (III) and platinum (II) complexes based on boronated phenylalanine (BPA) were designed and synthesized using 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridyl (L1) or 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dion (L2) ligands to obtain promising anticancer drug candidates. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses were utilized for chemical characterizations...
September 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Dimitrios A Giannakoudakis, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Panagiota Tsafrakidou, Konstantinos S Triantafyllidis, Michael Kornaros, Ioannis Anastopoulos
Aloe vera has been cultivated for many centuries for its beneficial properties, finding application in a wide range of medical and health products. Nowadays, the research has also focused on an alternative use of Aloe vera which is related to environmental applications such as clean water technology/wastewater treatment process. In recent years, biosorption has been shown to be a cost-effective and efficient alternative method for removing various pollutants from wastewater and water. This work provides a comprehensive review on using Aloe vera waste biomass-based sorbents, as well as modified counterparts, for the removal of heavy metals, dyes and other pollutants from aqueous media...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jillian M Staugler, Michael C Babin, M Claire Matthews, Matthew K Brittain, Mark R Perry
OBJECTIVE: Cyanide is a highly toxic chemical, and acute exposure depletes cells and tissue of oxygen, depressing the respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological systems and potentially leading to death. Cyanide has been used as a weapon since ancient Rome and continues to pose a potential threat today. A well-characterized animal model is necessary for the development of novel methods of rapid detection and treatment. This manuscript describes the development of an inhalation exposure system designed to evaluate the lethality of acute cyanide inhalation in the porcine model...
September 10, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Amarpreet Sabharwal, Isaac S Gomes-Filho, Elizabeth Stellrecht, Frank A Scannapieco
The goal of this review is to summarize the results of randomized trials reported since 2010 that assessed the effect of periodontal interventions on at least one systemic outcome in human subjects of any age, gender or ethnicity. Oral outcome measures included gingivitis, pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and/or radiographic bone loss and oral hygiene indices. Studies were excluded if the trial was not completed or if treatment was not randomized. The results suggest that nonsurgical periodontal intervention provided to pregnant women is safe and improves periodontal status without preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
Hannah B T Moran, Joanna L Turley, Mats Andersson, Ed C Lavelle
The introduction of vaccines is regarded as one of the most successful medical interventions to date. However, there is a clear need for the development of new vaccines for diseases which require the induction of a potent cellular immune response. Advancements in the field of vaccine research have resulted in a move away from the use of whole organisms and towards the use of subunit vaccines which consist of highly purified antigens with an improved safety profile. Adjuvants are immunostimulatory components that are included in subunit vaccine formulations to help direct and amplify adaptive immune responses...
August 30, 2018: Biomaterials
Faik Gökalp
Garlic has been used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Garlic reduces the risk of some diseases. This protective effect is due to the organosulfur compounds of garlic. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition effects of garlic-derived compounds on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and as the most important anti-HIV-1 medicine. The activation of saquinavir is believed to be the principal mechanism behind the protective effects of HIV-1. Our theoretical calculations are performed for blood phase by using the density functional theory for the main compounds of garlic...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Daniel Groelz, Christian Viertler, Daniela Pabst, Nadine Dettmann, Kurt Zatloukal
RNA and DNA analyses from paraffin-embedded tissues (PET) are an important diagnostic tool for characterization of a disease, exploring biomarkers and treatment options. Since nucleic acids from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue are of limited use for molecular analyses due to chemical modifications of biomolecules alternate, formalin-free fixation reagents such as the PAXgene Tissue system are of evolving interest. Furthermore, biomedical research and biomarker development critically relies on using long-term stored PET from medical archives or biobanks to correlate molecular features with long-term disease outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Sergio F Estrada-Orihuela, Carlos Ibarra-Pérez
Lasalocid, a specific mobile membrane ionophore for calcium, dopamine and norepinephrine was assayed in its capacity to reduce or maintain unaltered the cardiovascular function in conditions of imminent myocardial injury. In experiments of coronary blockade and reperfusion carried out in rat heart, it was found that when administered from 5 to 30 minutes prior to the induction of coronary blockade, at a concentration of 2 mg/kg of body weight, the ionophore immediately, simultaneously, and completely interrupts the blood pressure decay, cardiac frequency increase, electrical ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, as well as the fall of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and decay of mitochondrial oxygen uptake provoked by the induced myocardial injury...
September 6, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ian R Driscoll, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas, Nathan L Boyer, Jeremy C Pamplin, Maria L Serio-Melvin, Jose Salinas, Matthew A Borgman, Robert L Sheridan, John J Melvin, Wylan C Peterson, John C Graybill, Julie A Rizzo, Booker T King, Kevin K Chung, Leopoldo C Cancio, Evan M Renz, Zsolt T Stockinger
Management of wartime burn casualties can be very challenging. Burns frequently occur in the setting of other blunt and penetrating injuries. This clinical practice guideline provides a manual for burn injury assessment, resuscitation, wound care, and specific scenarios including chemical and electrical injuries in the deployed or austere setting. The clinical practice guideline also reviews considerations for the definitive care of local national patients, including pediatric patients, who are unable to be evacuated from theater...
September 1, 2018: Military Medicine
C Brenker, A Rehfeld, C Schiffer, M Kierzek, U B Kaupp, N E Skakkebæk, T Strünker
STUDY QUESTION: Does the chemosensory activation of CatSper Ca2+ channels in human sperm give rise to additive, sub-additive or even synergistic actions among agonists? SUMMARY ANSWER: We show that oviductal ligands and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) activate human CatSper highly synergistically. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In human sperm, the sperm-specific CatSper channel controls the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and, thereby, several crucial stages toward fertilization...
September 5, 2018: Human Reproduction
Chi-Wen Luo, I-Ling Hsiao, Jaw-Yuan Wang, Chun-Chieh Wu, Wen-Chun Hung, Yu-Han Lin, Tzu-Yi Chen, Yin-Chou Hsu, Tian-Lu Cheng, Mei-Ren Pan
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer that is widely used in many consumer products and medical devices. Humans can be exposed to DEHP through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal absorption. Previous studies on DEHP have focused on its role as an endocrine-disrupting chemical leading to endocrine-related diseases. However, the correlation between DEHP exposure and the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), an active metabolite of DEHP, on the progression of CRC...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xubin Suo, Brittany N Eldridge, Han Zhang, Chengqiong Mao, Yuanzeng Min, Yao Sun, Ravi Singh, Xin Ming
P-glycoprotein (Pgp) medicated multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a formidable challenge to cancer therapy. As conventional approaches using small molecule inhibitors failed in clinical development due to the lack of cancer specificity, we develop Pgp-targeted carbon nanotubes to achieve highly cancer specific therapy through combining antibody-based cancer targeting and locoregional tumor ablation with photothermal therapy. Through a dense coating with phospholipid-poly(ethylene glycol), we have engineered multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) that show minimum non-specific cell interactions and maximum intercellular diffusion...
September 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nasser Keikha, Mahdieh Shafaghat, Seyed Mohamad Mousavia, Mahdiyeh Moudi, Farshid Keshavarzi
Background and Purpose: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections in female genital organs, which is caused by Candida species. Candida albicans is the causative agent of more than 80% of infections, and the role of non- Candida strains in the disease etiology is less prominent. The expansion of Azoles resistance among C. albicans strains is considered an important medical problem. According to previous studies, Vitex agnus-castus (vitex) has some antimicrobial effects...
March 2018: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
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