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Wen-Sheng Liu, Yen-Ting Lai, Hsiang-Lin Chan, Szu-Yuan Li, Chih-Ching Lin, Chih-Kuang Liu, Han-Hsing Tsou, Tsung-Yun Liu
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are commonly used perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). PFCs are mainly excreted by urine. Uremic patients tend to accumulate toxins in their body and have poor functional status. We investigated the associations between PFCs and the clinical profile of uremic patients under hemodialysis (HD). Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isotope dilution was used to quantify PFOA and PFOS. We enrolled 126 patients under regular HD. Compared with previous research, the concentration of PFOA was lower, but that of PFOS was higher in uremic patients than in the general population...
2018: PloS One
S Vetter, T Miron, M Wilchek
Since the importance of the high affinity between avidin and biotin, Kd  = 3 × 10-16  M, gained universal recognition, numerous chemical, biological and medical avidin-biotin based applications have been developed. However, in some cases the high affinity may be a disadvantage, as this interaction is irreversible under physiological conditions. The dye, 4'-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid (HABA), binds avidin, at the biotin binding site, as determined by X-ray, at a much lower affinity constant, Kd  = 6 × 10-6  M...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Sharda Shah Peshin, Y K Gupta
Extensive use of different chemicals in various fields and their easy availability has led to an increased incidence of accidental and intentional poisoning in developing countries including India. A diverse range of household products commonly used for domestic purposes comprise pesticides, household cleaners, thermometer mercury, antiseptics, kerosene, paint thinners etc. Any of these products, if misused or mishandled can cause poisoning. In India, the National Poisons Centre (NPIC) at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, provides information on management of poisoning to treating physicians...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Laís C Brazaca, Camila B Bramorski, Juliana Cancino-Bernardi, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Regina P Markus, Bruno C Janegitz, Valtencir Zucolotto
Melatonin, the 'chemical signal of darkness', is responsible to regulate biological rhythms and different physiological processes. It is mainly produced by the pineal gland as a hormone in a rhythmic daily basis, but it may also be synthesized by other tissues, such as immune cells, under inflammatory conditions. Its abnormal circulating levels have been related to several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and some types of cancer. Currently, melatonin is exclusively quantified by ELISA or radioimmunoassays, which although are very sensitive techniques and present low detection limits, usually require specialized personal and equipment, restricting the tests to a limited number of patients...
July 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
György Csaba
The hormesis concept demonstrates that in contrast to the toxic effect of high doses of materials, irradiation, etc., low doses of them are beneficial and, in addition, help to eliminate (prevent) the deleterious effect of high doses given after it. By this effect, it is an important factor of (human) evolution protecting man from harmful impacts, similarly to the role of immunity. However, immunity is also continuously influenced by hormetic effects of environmental [chemical (pollutions), physical (background irradiations and heat), etc...
July 17, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Hannah Finke, Bernd Koos, Helge Fischer-Brandies, Martha Es-Souni
PURPOSE: Miniscrews are an important choice for orthodontic anchorage. Yet reports on failures do exist, and attempts have been made to elucidate the causes. Clinical outcomes may be compromised not only by the mechanical implications of miniscrew design and the location of anchorage but also by poor biocompatibility. Hence, this study deals with the surface roughness and elemental composition of miniscrews and how these properties may affect the in vitro biocompatibility of four commercially available miniscrews...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
Ankit Parikh, Krishna Kathawala, Chun Chuan Tan, Sanjay Garg, Xin-Fu Zhou
Background: Edaravone (EDR) is known for its free radical scavenging, antiapoptotic, antinecrotic, and anticytokine effects in neurological and non-neurological diseases. It is currently available clinically as Radicava® and Radicut® , intravenous medications, recently approved for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral infarction. However, the oral use of EDR is still restricted by its poor oral bioavailability (BA) due to poor aqueous solubility, stability, rapid metabolism, and low permeability...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Kenji Fujita, Rebekah J Moles, Timothy F Chen
OBJECTIVE: All healthcare systems require valid ways to evaluate service delivery. The objective of this study was to identify existing content validated quality indicators (QIs) for responsible use of medicines (RUM) and classify them using multiple frameworks to identify gaps in current quality measurements. DESIGN: Systematic review without meta-analysis. SETTING: All care settings. SEARCH STRATEGY: CINAHL, Embase, Global Health, International Pharmaceutical Abstract, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched up to April 2018...
July 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Xiaochai Zhu, Xiao Liu, Ke Pei, Yu Duan, Hui Zhu, Jia Ma, Yinghui Xu, Zejun Wu, Qigang Zhou, Baochang Cai
According to traditional Chinese medical theory, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen needs to be stir-fried before clinical application for its sedative-hypnotic effect enhancement. A rapid and comprehensive analysis strategy of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multiple data analysis platforms was developed for the efficient and sensitive identification of components in crude and parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen to explore the composition changes that happen during the stir-frying process...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Kai Zhao, Hon-Cheong So
Development of new medications is a lengthy and costly process, and drug repositioning might help to shorten the development cycle. We present a machine learning (ML) workflow to drug discovery or repositioning by predicting indication for a particular disease based on drug expression profiles, with a focus on applications in psychiatry. Drugs that are not originally indicated for the disease but with high predicted probabilities serve as candidates for repurposing. This approach is widely applicable to any chemicals or drugs with expression profiles measured, even if drug targets are unknown...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Mostafa Haghi, Regina Stoll, Kerstin Thurow
A novel hardware approach with four physical layers and several integrated and add-on sensors for a comprehensive physical and chemical environmental parameter (toxic gases, sound level, air pressure, humidity, temperature, and motion tracking) monitoring is introduced in this paper. To provide flexibility, the system is modular and each sensor functions independently. The whole solution is small, compact, light, and wrist worn. It is working in low power consumption mode and operates for several hours. The device has two layers to implement the sensors and one layer for a warning system driver to enable the vibrating motor and beeper in emergency status...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Clive H Wilder-Smith, Søren S Olesen, Andrea Materna, Asbjørn M Drewes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are defined by broad phenotypic descriptions and exclusion of recognizable disease. FGIDs cause multi-organ symptoms and abnormal results in a wide range of laboratory tests, indicating broad mechanisms of pathogenesis. Many patients with FGID develop symptoms following ingestion of fermentable sugars; we investigated the associations between symptoms and intestinal gas production following sugar provocation tests, to elucidate mechanisms of FGID...
July 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
Kuo-Ming Yu, Johnson Yiu-Nam Lau, Manson Fok, Yuk-Keung Yeung, Siu-Ping Fok, Tsan-Lin Hu, Yuan-Jang Tsai, Qui-Lim Choo
Treating thrombocytopenia induced by chemotherapy remains an unmet-medical need. The use of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) requires repeated injections and induces significant fluid retention in some patients. Modification of human interleukin-11 with chemically inert polyethylene glycol polymer (PEG) may extend the peripheral circulation half-life leading to an improved pharmacokinetic and pharmadynamic profile. In this study, a number of rhIL-11 PEG conjugates were created to determine the optimal approach to prolong circulating half-life with the most robust pharmacological effect...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Albert Y Cheung, Enrica Sarnicola, Medi Eslani, Khaliq H Kurji, Brad M Genereux, Amit Govil, Edward J Holland
PURPOSE: To describe the rate, clinical/microbiological characteristics, and outcomes of infectious keratitis in eyes with limbal stem cell deficiency after ocular surface stem cell transplantation (OSST). METHODS: In this retrospective chart review of 278 eyes that underwent OSST between January 2006 and December 2016, eyes treated for previous infectious keratitis (bacterial, fungal, or viral) were included. Demographics, risk factors, course, microbiological characteristics, and outcomes were assessed...
July 10, 2018: Cornea
David Alan Winkler, Ira Katz, Géraldine Farjot, Aaron Thornton, Andrew Warden
The chemically inert noble gases display a surprisingly rich spectrum of useful biological properties. Relatively little is known about molecular mechanisms behind these effects. It is clearly not feasible to conduct large numbers of pharmacological experiments on noble gases to identify activity. Computational studies of binding of noble gases and proteins can address this paucity of information and provide insight into mechanisms of action. We employed bespoke computational grid calculations to predict the positions of energy minima in the interactions of noble gases with diverse proteins...
July 12, 2018: ChemMedChem
Adam Pérez, John Pierce Wise
The One Environmental Health research approach, a subspecialty of the One Health initiative, focuses on toxic chemicals. Distinct disciplines work together to give a holistic perspective of a health concern through discrete disciplines, including, but not limited to, public health and the medical and veterinary sciences. In this article, we illustrate the concept of One Environmental Health with two case studies. One case study focuses on alligators and contributions to the field of endocrine disruption. The other case study focuses on whales and contributions to understanding carcinogenic metals...
2018: F1000Research
Agnieszka Zabłotni, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Dominika Drzewiecka, Alexander S Shashkov, Yuriy A Knirel
The current serological classification scheme of the medically important bacteria from the genus Proteus consists of 80 O serogroups, the last four of which (O77-O80) were created from clinical strains from Łódź, Poland. There are more serologically unique strains isolated from patient that do not fit into the existing scheme, such as Proteus mirabilis strain Sm 99 isolated from urine of a 74-year-old woman in Łódź. Serological investigation involving ELISA and Western blotting failed to classify the Proteus mirabilis strain Sm 99 into any of the 80 Proteus O serogroups...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Simonetta Viviani, Anna Guidetti
Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) patients refractory to first line therapy or relapsed after autologous stem cell transplant have a dismal prognosis and their treatment represents an unmet medical need. Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is a second-generation antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) constituted by an anti-CD30 antibody linked to the cytotoxic drug monomethyl auristatin E. First administration of BV in relapsed and refractory HL patients in phase I study showed an impressive anti-lymphoma activity and prompted development of the drug...
July 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Kevin Wonner, Mathies V Evers, Kristina Tschulik
Despite the frequent use of silver nanoparticles in consumer products and medical treatments, their reactivity and degra-dation in aqueous suspensions is still under debate. Here we elucidate this reactivity by an in situ opto- and spectro-electrochemical approach. Using dark-field microscopy coupled to a spectrophotometer and to an electrochemical cell, redox reactions of individual silver nanoparticles are studied in the presence of chloride. The intensity and spectral position of the plasmon resonance of an individual particle are tracked simultaneously in real-time during cyclic voltammetry...
July 11, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lotta Schepel, Lasse Lehtonen, Marja Airaksinen, Outi Lapatto-Reiniluoto
OBJECTIVES: High-alert medications may cause significant patient harm when used in error. Hospital-specific safety data should be used to customize high-alert medication lists to fit the local context. The aim of this study was to identify organizational high-alert medications by evaluating university hospital's data on adverse drug reaction (ADR) and medication error (ME). METHODS: The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes and top active substances in ADR (n = 401) and ME (n = 11,668) reports of Helsinki University Hospital from 2015-2016 were analyzed and compared with hospitals' drug consumption and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices' (ISMP) list of high-alert medications...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
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