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Nilva Lúcia Rech Stedile, Vania Elisabete Schneider, Monique Walltrick Nunes, Adriane Carine Kappes
The use of health indicators is indispensable for understanding the complex relationship between the environmental and health fields. For the proposition of environmental health indicators, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MH) recommends using a model proposed by the World Health Organization. This model is composed of the following elements: Driving Force, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, and Action; it is called the DPSEEA model. The objective of this study is to propose the application of this model in healthcare waste (HCW) management...
November 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Carolina Falcón García, Felix Stangl, Alexandra Götz, Weining Zhao, Stephan A Sieber, Madeleine Opitz, Oliver Lieleg
For the inactivation or removal of bacterial biofilms via chemical or physical processes, it is crucial to sufficiently wet the biofilm surface. However, many bacterial biofilms efficiently resist wetting by water, oil or even organic solvents. Here, we demonstrate how exposing the surface of mature biofilm colonies to concentrated ethanol, saline or glucose solutions results in topographical changes that enable their wettability. With this approach, even omniphobic biofilm colonies become wettable towards aqueous solutions and oils...
November 14, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Theodora A Manolis, Antonis A Manolis, Antonis S Manolis
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use has increased over the past several years as some countries have legalized its use for treatment of certain medical conditions and/or for recreational use. Thus, concerns have risen about potential adverse health effects. Increasing number of reports have associated cannabis use with serious cardiovascular (CV) complications. Furthermore, there appears to be a likeness in the harmful health effects, especially on the CV and respiratory systems, of cannabis smoking to those of tobacco smoking...
November 13, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Chiara Tonda-Turo, Irene Carmagnola, Gianluca Ciardelli
The Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) is a tool to measure mass and viscosity in processes occurring at or near surfaces, or within thin films. QCM-D is able to detect extremely small chemical, mechanical, and electrical changes taking place on the sensor surface and to convert them into electrical signals which can be investigated to study dynamic process. Surface nanotopography and chemical composition are of pivotal importance in biomedical applications since interactions of medical devices with the physiological environment are mediated by surface features...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Ting Zhang, Xirong Zheng, Kyungbo Kim, Fang Zheng, Chang-Guo Zhan
Heroin is a growing national crisis in America. There is an increasing frequency of heroin overdoses. All of the currently used therapeutic approaches to treatment of heroin abuse and other opioid drugs of abuse focus on antagonizing a brain receptor (particularly µ-opiate receptors). However, it has been known that the therapeutic use of certain µ-opiate receptor antagonist may actually increase heroin overdose. Once overdosed, heroin addicts may continue to get overdosed again and again until fatal. Here we report our design and validation of a novel therapeutic strategy targeting heroin activation based on our analysis of the chemical transformation and functional change of heroin in the body...
November 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohamed Sharafeldin, Abby Jones, James F Rusling
While the technology is relatively new, low-cost 3D printing has impacted many aspects of human life. 3D printers are being used as manufacturing tools for a wide variety of devices in a spectrum of applications ranging from diagnosis to implants to external prostheses. The ease of use, availability of 3D-design software and low cost has made 3D printing an accessible manufacturing and fabrication tool in many bioanalytical research laboratories. 3D printers can print materials with varying density, optical character, strength and chemical properties that provide the user with a vast array of strategic options...
August 7, 2018: Micromachines
Tomasz Szymborski, Paweł Jankowski, Dominika Ogończyk, Piotr Garstecki
Organic syntheses based on photochemical reactions play an important role in the medical, pharmaceutical, and polymeric chemistry. For years, photochemistry was performed using high-pressure mercury lamps and immersion-wells. However, due to excellent yield, control of temperature, selectivity, low consumption of reagents and safety, the microreactors made of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) tubings have recently been used more frequently. Fluoropolymers are the material of choice for many types of syntheses due to their chemical compatibility and low surface energy...
March 30, 2018: Micromachines
A R Firooz, M Movahedi, H Sabzyan
Accurate and fast measurement of the iron ion in biological, pharmaceutical and medical samples is of great applied importance. In this work, a novel optical sensor (optode) for the Fe(III) ion is fabricated based on the immobilization of morin (2',3,4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) on a triacetylcellulose membrane. Chemical binding of the Fe(III) ion with the immobilized morin is monitored spectrophotometrically at 334 nm. The prepared optode shows excellent response over a wide range of concentrations from 1...
January 1, 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Medi Eslani, Alireza Baradaran-Rafii, Albert Y Cheung, Khaliq H Kurji, Hamidreza Hasani, Ali R Djalilian, Edward J Holland
PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of conventional medical treatment versus combined medical treatment and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in the management of patients with Roper-Hall grade IV ocular chemical injury. DESIGN: Randomized, parallel-controlled clinical trial METHODS: Setting: Single tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS: 60 eyes of 60 patients with Roper-Hall grade IV ocular chemical injury with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were enrolled in the study...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Tim Ambrose, Alison Simmons
Cannabis sativa and its extracts have been used for centuries both medicinally and recreationally. There is accumulating evidence that exogenous cannabis and related cannabinoids improve symptoms associated with inflammatory bowel disease such as pain, loss of appetite, and diarrhoea. In vivo, exocannabinoids have been demonstrated to improve colitis, mainly in chemical models.Exocannabinoids signal through the endocannabinoid system, an increasingly understood network of endogenous lipid ligands and their receptors, together with a number of synthetic and degradative enzymes and the resulting products...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Stephanie Chiao, Howard Kipen, William K Hallman, David E Pollio, Carol S North
BACKGROUND: Following chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear disasters, medically unexplained symptoms have been observed among unexposed persons. OBJECTIVES: This study examined belief in exposure in relation to postdisaster symptoms in a volunteer sample of 137 congressional workers after the 2001 anthrax attacks on Capitol Hill. METHODS: Postdisaster symptoms, belief in exposure, and actual exposure status were obtained through structured diagnostic interviews and self-reported presence in offices officially designated as exposed through environmental sampling...
November 12, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Zeyang Liu, Dajiang Song, Zan Li, Xiaowei Peng, Bo Zhou, Chunliu Lü, Wen Peng, Yan Ou, Huangxing Mao, Hui Li
Objective: To summarize the application progress of indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in breast reconstruction. Methods: The literature about the application of ICG angiography in breast reconstruction was reviewed and analyzed, including its history, chemical composition, principles, usages, and attentions. Results: ICG is a kind of fluorescent substance used in medical diagnosis and various surgical fields, especially in intraoperative vascular angiography...
November 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Matthew Becton, Rodney D Averett, Xianqiao Wang
Medical studies have consistently shown that the best defense against cancer is early detection. Due to this, many efforts have been made to develop methods of screening patient blood quickly and cheaply. These methods range from separation via differences in size, electrostatic potential, chemical potential, antibody-binding affinity, among others. We propose a method of separating cells which have similar size and outer coatings, but which differ in their elastic properties. Such a method would be useful in detecting cancerous cells, which may have similar properties to leukocytes or erythrocytes but differ in their stiffness and deformation response...
November 11, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Sebastiano Barco, Carmen Fucile, Luca Manfredini, Elisa De Grandis, Marcella Gherzi, Antonietta Martelli, Gino Tripodi, Francesca Mattioli, Giuliana Cangemi
AIM: Monitoring of blood levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) is necessary for optimization of administration of medical cannabis. We describe the validation of a ultra-HPLC-MS/MS method for quantifying THC and CBD from plasma and decoctions and its application for therapeutic drug monitoring.Materials & methods: Analyses were performed by using a TSQ Quantiva™ Triple Quadrupole coupled to a Ultimate 3000 UHPLC system with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization after sample preparation with a straightforward method with deuterated internal standards...
November 6, 2018: Bioanalysis
Maha Nasr, Hrushikesh Karandikar, Rasha Ta Abdel-Aziz, Noha Moftah, Anant Paradkar
OBJECTIVES: Hot melt extrusion is a continuous process with wide industrial applicability. Till current date, there have been no reports on the formulation of extrudates for topical treatment of dermatological diseases. METHODS: The aim of the present work was to prepare and characterize medicated hot melt extrudates based on Soluplus polymer and nicotinamide, and to explore their applicability in acne treatment. The extrudates were characterized using DSC, FTIR, XRD, and DVS...
November 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Diogo Ferreira do Amaral, Mateus Flores Montalvão, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Amanda Pereira da Costa Araújo, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
The increasing consumption of medications by humans has negative effects such as the increased disposal of these compounds in the environment. Little is known about how the disposal of a "drug mix" (DM) in aquatic ecosystems can affect their biota. Thus, we evaluated whether the exposure of Lithobates casteibeianus tadpoles to a DM composed of different medication classes (antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, anxiolytic, analgesic, and antacid drugs)-at environmentally relevant concentrations-may change their oral morphology, trigger behavioral disorders, and have mutagenic effects on erythrocyte cells...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Glenn Goodwin, Dyana Picache, Nicholas Gaeto, Brian J Louie, Tarik Zeid, Paxton P Aung, Sonu Sahni
Background Despite advances in resuscitation science and public health, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) has an average survival rate of only 12% nationwide, compared to 24.8% of patients who suffer from cardiac arrest while in hospital. Additionally, gender is an important element of human health, and there is a clear pattern for gender-specific survivability in cardiac arrest. This study examined differences in presentations, treatment, management, and outcomes. Aim The primary focus of this study was to shed light on differences in presentations, treatments, and outcomes between men and women suffering from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and the accompanying contributing factors...
August 30, 2018: Curēus
Mary Ann Madsen, Stefan Semerdzhiev, Anna Amtmann, Thierry Tonon
The genetic engineering of microbial cell factories is a sustainable alternative to the chemical synthesis of organic compounds. Successful metabolic engineering often depends on manipulating several enzymes, requiring multiple transformation steps and selection markers, as well as protein assembly and efficient substrate channeling. Naturally occurring fusion genes encoding two or more enzymatic functions may offer an opportunity to simplify the engineering process and to generate ready-made protein modules, but their functionality in heterologous systems remains to be tested...
November 8, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Akmaral K Zhumalina, Erbol Zh Bekmukhambetov, Balash T Tusupkaliev, Mairamkul B Zharlikasinova
Environmental pollution in many regions of Kazakhstan poses a threat to the growth and development of local children. For children living the near the Aral Sea, chrome processing and gas processing regions, we undertook a medical examination, including physical and sexual development parameters, laboratory studies (complete blood count, urinalysis, blood chemistry), bone age, blood levels of microelements (chromium, manganese, nickel, lead, copper) and hormones [thyroid (T3, T4, TSH), sexual (LH, FSH), growth (STH, IGF-1)], in consultation with relevant specialist doctors...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Hui Li, Wei Shi, Jian Song, Hyun-June Jang, Jennifer Dailey, Junsheng Yu, Howard E Katz
The strong and controllable chemical sensitivity of organic semiconductors (OSCs) and the amplification capability of transistors in circuits make use of OSC-based field-effect transistors compelling for chemical sensors. Analytes detected and assayed range from few-atom gas-phase molecules that may have adverse health and security implications to biomacromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids) that may be markers for physiological processes and medical conditions. This review highlights recent progress in organic field-effect transistor (OFET) chemical sensors, emphasizing advances from the past 5 years and including aspects of OSC morphology and the role of adjacent dielectrics...
November 7, 2018: Chemical Reviews
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