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Avena breeding

Yong-Bi Fu
Cultivated hexaploid oat has three different sets of nuclear genomes (A, C, D), but its evolutionary history remains elusive. A multiplexed shotgun sequencing procedure was explored to acquire maternal phylogenetic signals from chloroplast and mitochondria genomes of 25 Avena species. Phylogenetic analyses of the acquired organelle SNP data revealed a new maternal pathway towards hexaploids of oat genome evolution involving three diploid species (A. ventricosa, A. canariensis and A. longiglumis) and two tetraploid species (A...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Howard W Rines, Marisa E Miller, Martin Carson, Shiaoman Chao, Tyler Tiede, Jochum Wiersma, Shahryar F Kianian
Oat crown rust is one of the most damaging diseases of oat. We identified a new source of resistance and developed KASP and TaqMan markers for selection in breeding programs. A new highly effective resistance to oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) was identified in the diploid oat Avena strigosa PI 258731 and introgressed into hexaploid cultivated oat. Young plants with this resistance show moderate susceptibility, whereas older plant tissues and adult plants are resistant with no virulent isolates encountered in over 8 years of testing...
March 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Eric S Nazareno, Feng Li, Madeleine Smith, Robert F Park, Shahryar F Kianian, Melania Figueroa
Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Pca) causes crown rust disease in cultivated and wild oat (Avena spp.). The significant yield losses inflicted by this pathogen make crown rust the most devastating disease in the oat industry. Pca is a basidiomycete fungus with an obligate biotrophic lifestyle, and is classified as a typical macrocyclic and heteroecious fungus. The asexual phase in the life cycle of Pca occurs in oat, whereas the sexual phase takes place primarily in Rhamnus species as the alternative host...
May 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Charles-Antoine Dedryver, Joël Bonhomme, Jean-François Le Gallic, Jean-Christophe Simon
Many aphid species exhibit a variation in reproductive mode which is influenced by winter climate regimes, with cyclical parthenogenetic (CP) lines dominating in cold winter areas (because they produce cold-resistant eggs) and obligate parthenogenetic (OP) ones in mild winter regions (because of their parthenogenetic overwintering). Genetic studies on several aphid species have shown that the OP trait can be transmitted during sexual events involving the 2 types of lines. This genetic system could be considered as a local safeguarding mechanism for OP alleles in case severe frost would have killed all parthenogenetically overwintering individuals...
June 13, 2017: Insect Science
Takayoshi Ishii
Wide hybridization is a one of the important techniques in plant breeding. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) belong to different subfamilies of Poaceae. In generally, such distant relative species show uniparental chromosome elimination after successful fertilization. However, all seven pearl millet chromosomes are retained beside the genome of oat during embryogenesis. Hybrid seedlings develop, but show necrosis after light irradiation. Here, a detailed protocol for wide hybridization between oat and pearl millet is described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ailton B Santa Brigida, Cristian A Rojas, Clícia Grativol, Elvismary M de Armas, Júlio O P Entenza, Flávia Thiebaut, Marcelo de F Lima, Laurent Farrinelli, Adriana S Hemerly, Sérgio Lifschitz, Paulo C G Ferreira
Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa...
2016: PloS One
Louisa R Winkler, J Michael Bonman, Shiaoman Chao, B Admassu Yimer, Harold Bockelman, Kathy Esvelt Klos
Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pawan Sharma, Sharad Tiwari, Niraj Tripathi, Anoop K Mehta
Present investigation was carried out to evaluate genetic diversity among 38 M6 population of oat cv. JO-1. To validate the observed morpho-physiological variations, these lines were analyzed with 21 ISSR primers. A total of 132 loci were amplified by these 21 ISSR markers and 116 loci were found to be polymorphic (87.87 %). The genetic similarity coefficient values among 39 oat genotypes based on ISSR analysis ranged from 0.305 to 0.957. The cluster analysis divided the oat genotypes into two groups. Mutants JMO 81 and JMO 82 were found to be most divergent, hence can be used as parents in breeding program for the development of superior cultivars...
January 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Paul Chew, Kendra Meade, Alec Hayes, Carlos Harjes, Yong Bao, Aaron D Beattie, Ian Puddephat, Gabe Gusmini, Steven D Tanksley
Using next-generation DNA sequencing, it was possible to clarify the genetic relationships of Avena species and deduce the likely pathway from which hexaploid oat was formed by sequential polyploidization events. A sequence-based diversity study was conducted on a representative sample of accessions from species in the genus Avena using genotyping-by-sequencing technology. The results show that all Avena taxa can be assigned to one of four major genetic clusters: Cluster 1 = all hexaploids including cultivated oat, Cluster 2 = AC genome tetraploids, Cluster 3 = C genome diploids, Cluster 4 = A genome diploid and tetraploids...
July 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Diana Tomás, Joana Rodrigues, Ana Varela, Maria Manuela Veloso, Wanda Viegas, Manuela Silva
Genomic diversity of Portuguese accessions of Avena species--diploid A. strigosa and hexaploids A. sativa and A. sterilis--was evaluated through molecular and cytological analysis of 45S rDNA, and other repetitive sequences previously studied in cereal species--rye subtelomeric sequence (pSc200) and cereal centromeric sequence (CCS1). Additionally, retrotransposons and microsatellites targeting methodologies--IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism)--were performed...
February 4, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Minghui Zheng, Hai Long, Yun Zhao, Lin Li, Delin Xu, Haili Zhang, Feng Liu, Guangbing Deng, Zhifen Pan, Maoqun Yu
One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae). These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection) juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing...
2015: PloS One
Ling-An Kong, Du-Qing Wu, Wen-Kun Huang, Huan Peng, Gao-Feng Wang, Jiang-Kuan Cui, Shi-Ming Liu, Zhi-Gang Li, Jun Yang, De-Liang Peng
BACKGROUND: Cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae, an important soil-borne pathogen in wheat, causes numerous annual yield losses worldwide, and use of resistant cultivars is the best strategy for control. However, target genes are not readily available for breeding resistant cultivars. Therefore, comparative transcriptomic analyses were performed to identify more applicable resistance genes for cultivar breeding. METHODS: The developing nematodes within roots were stained with acid fuchsin solution...
2015: BMC Genomics
José M Fedriani, Pedro José Garrote, María del Mar Delgado, Vincenzo Penteriani
Inland vertebrate predators could enrich of nutrients the local top soils in the area surrounding their nests and dens by depositing faeces, urine, and prey remains and, thus, alter the dynamics of plant populations. Surprisingly, and in contrast with convincing evidence from coastal habitats, whether and how this phenomenon occurs in inland habitats is largely uncertain even though these habitats represent a major fraction of the earth's surface. We investigated during two consecutive breeding seasons the potential enrichment of the top-soils associated with inland ground-nesting eagle owls Bubo bubo, as well as its possible consequences in the growth of two common annual grasses in southern Spain...
2015: PloS One
Kun Luo, Gaisheng Zhang, Chunping Wang, Thérèse Ouellet, Jingjing Wu, Qidi Zhu, Huiyan Zhao
The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a common worldwide pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The use of improved resistant cultivars by the farmers is the most effective and environmentally friendly method to control this aphid in the field. The winter wheat genotypes 98-10-35 and Amigo are resistant to S. avenae. To identify genes responsible for resistance to S. avenae in these genotypes, differential-display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the corresponding differentially expressed sequences in current study...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ll Castells, A Bach, M Terré
Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings...
July 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Gracia Montilla-Bascón, Nicolas Rispail, Javier Sánchez-Martín, Diego Rubiales, Luis A J Mur, Tim Langdon, Catherine J Howarth, Elena Prats
Diseases caused by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) are among the most important constraints for the oat crop. Breeding for resistance is one of the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control these diseases. The purpose of this work was to identify elite alleles for rust and powdery mildew resistance in oat by association mapping to aid selection of resistant plants. To this aim, 177 oat accessions including white and red oat cultivars and landraces were evaluated for disease resistance and further genotyped with 31 simple sequence repeat and 15,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to reveal association with disease resistance traits...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xianrong Zhou, Weijing Lin, Litao Tong, Xingxun Liu, Kui Zhong, Liya Liu, Lili Wang, Sumei Zhou
BACKGROUND: β-Glucan is widely considered to be the major ingredient responsible for the hypolipidaemic effects of oat. Determination of the β-glucan content in naked oat cultivars in China has been largely performed for breeding and food processing. Since oat is generally consumed as oat flakes in China, evaluation of the bioactivity of oat flakes might be more direct and comprehensive than determination of the internal β-glucan. However, the hypolipidaemic activity of oat flakes processed from Chinese oat cultivars has rarely been reported...
January 30, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Wenzhu Guan, Natalie Ferry, Martin G Edwards, Howard A Bell, Hamizah Othman, John A Gatehouse, Angharad M R Gatehouse
The grain aphid Sitobion avenae (F.) is a major pest of wheat, acting as a virus vector as well as causing direct plant damage. Commonly grown wheat varieties in the UK have only limited resistance to this pest. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of a diploid wheat line (ACC20 PGR1755), reported as exhibiting resistance to S. avenae, to serve as a source of resistance genes. The diploid wheat line was confirmed as partially resistant, substantially reducing the fecundity, longevity and growth rate of the aphid...
2015: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Roger Clemens, B Jan-Willem van Klinken
In May 2012, an oats workshop was held in New York to convene a group of international experts to discuss the implications and applications of oats relative to human health. These diverse experts represented disciplines including, but not limited to, epidemiology, food regulation, nutrition and food science, grain breeding and plant genetics, food processing, medicine and public-health policy. This ensuing series addresses three important aspects pertinent to oats: a brief overview of the dynamics of oats; the spectrum of established and emerging research in agriculture and health; and the options and opportunities for future applications of oats that extend beyond dietary fibre...
October 2014: British Journal of Nutrition
Derek Stewart, Gordon McDougall
Oats are undervalued in comparison with wheat, rice and barley, despite their unique composition that includes many of the nutrients required for health and a reduced risk of degenerative disease incidence. Furthermore, oats as whole grain and some of their associated products also contain β-glucan, a complex polysaccharide that has an approved health claim to reduce blood cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of CHD incidence if consumed at ≥ 3 g/d. At the agronomic level, oats exhibit optimal growth in regions of moderate temperature and long day length...
October 2014: British Journal of Nutrition
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