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Jennifer Oates, Toby Brandon, Carole Burrell, Selma Ebrahim, John Taylor, Paul Veitch
The 2007 amendments to the Mental Health Act, 1983 in England and Wales enabled non-medics to take on the role of legally 'responsible clinician' for the overall care and treatment of service users detained under the Act, where previously this was the sole domain of the psychiatrist as Responsible Medical Officer. Following state sanction as an 'Approved Clinician', certain psychologists, nurses, social workers or occupational therapists may be allocated as a Responsible Clinician for specific service users...
September 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Qaojuan Yan, Hongye Yang, Zhengqiang Jiang, Erwei Liu, Shaoqing Yang
Fermentation conditions for β-1,3-1,4-glucanase (TaGlu34) production in submerged culture by a thermophilic fungus, Thermoascus aurantiacus CAU830 were optimized. The highest enzyme activity of 3741 U/mL was obtained, and the crude enzyme was purified to homogeneity with a purification fold of 7.3 and a recovery yield of 11.6%. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be approximately 34 kDa on SDS-PAGE. TaGlu34 was most active at pH 6.0 and 75 °C, respectively. It showed excellent thermostability with thermal denaturing half-lives of 209, 130 and 69 min at 50, 60 and 70 °C, respectively...
September 5, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Carlos Nordt, Marc Vogel, Michelle Dey, Andreas Moldovanyi, Thilo Beck, Toni Berthel, Marc Walter, Erich Seifritz, Kenneth M Dürsteler, Marcus Herdener
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is currently the most effective treatment for people with opioid dependence. In most countries, however, access to the whole range of effective medications is restricted. This study aims to model the distribution of different OAT medications within a naturalistic and relatively unrestricted treatment setting (Zurich, Switzerland) over time, and to identify patient characteristics associated with each medication. METHODS: We used generalized estimating equation analysis with data from the OAT register of Zurich and the Swiss register for heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) to model and forecast the annual proportion of opioids applying exponential distributions until 2018 and patient characteristics between 1992 and 2015...
September 12, 2018: Addiction
Matthias Zielonka, Maximilian Breuer, Jürgen Günther Okun, Matthias Carl, Georg Friedrich Hoffmann, Stefan Kölker
Hyperammonemia is the common biochemical hallmark of urea cycle disorders, activating neurotoxic pathways. If untreated, affected individuals have a high risk of irreversible brain damage and mortality. Here we show that acute hyperammonemia strongly enhances transamination-dependent formation of osmolytic glutamine and excitatory glutamate, thereby inducing neurotoxicity and death in ammoniotelic zebrafish larvae via synergistically acting overactivation of NMDA receptors and bioenergetic impairment induced by depletion of 2-oxoglutarate...
2018: PloS One
T S Dennis, F X Suarez-Mena, T M Hill, J D Quigley, R L Schlotterbeck, R N Klopp, G J Lascano, L Hulbert
The objectives of this study were to evaluate calf performance, diet digestibility, and behaviors when feeding 4 milk replacer (MR) programs with different MR rates, weaning ages, and MR reduction steps. Male Holstein calves (n = 96; 40 ± 1 kg of body weight; 1 to 2 d of age) were housed in individual pens for 56 d. Feeding programs for MR were 0.66 kg for 35 d then 0.33 kg for 7 d fed only in the a.m. (0.6 kg); 0.66 kg for 7 d, 0.82 kg for 35 d, 0.33 kg for 4 d in a.m. only, and 0.22 kg for 3 d in a.m. only (0...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Muthukumaran Jayachandran, Jiali Chen, Stephen Sum Man Chung, Baojun Xu
The β-glucans are the glucose polymers present in the cells walls of yeast, fungi and cereals. β-Glucans are the major compositions of various nutritional diets such as oats, barley, seaweeds and mushrooms. Various biological activities of β-glucans have been reported such as anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects. The importance of β-glucans in food processing industries such as bread preparation, yogurt and pasta have been well elucidated. In recent findings on food science research gut microbiota plays a significant role and vastly studied for its intermediate role in regulating health...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ana Ivkovic, Sarah Wakeman
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is an increasing public health problem. Transplant centers worldwide are being confronted with increasing numbers of patients with opioid use disorder and end stage organ disease. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT; i.e. methadone, buprenorphine, and buprenorphine/naloxone) is a scientifically proven, effective, physician-prescribed treatment for OUD. Although data in transplant populations remains limited, studies suggest that OAT does not appear to negatively affect graft or patient survival...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Yining Niu, Luke D Bainard, William E May, Zakir Hossain, Chantal Hamel, Yantai Gan
The association of plants and microbial communities is crucial for crop production, and host plants influence the composition of rhizosphere microbiomes. Pulse crops play an important role in the development of sustainable cropping systems, and producers in the Canadian prairies often increase the frequency of pulses in their cropping systems. In this study, we determined the shifts in the fungal community of pea ( Pisum sativum L.) rhizosphere, as influenced by the frequency of pulses in rotation, using high throughput sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Linda H Münger, Samy Boulos, Laura Nyström
Dietary plant foods are characterized by a vast molecular diversity of glycosylated sterols (SG) that differ in the structure of the steryl backbone. The identification of these polar steryl conjugates represents a major challenge as they are structurally highly similar, and commercial standards are limited to a few naturally abundant species. Spectral databases do not yet contain MS/MS spectra of these sterol conjugates obtained by electrospray ionization (ESI), which would facilitate their reliable identification...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Vanessa Bullón-Vela, Gladys Valdiviezo, Nelly Baiocchi, Miguel Campos, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Theresa J Ochoa
OBJECTIVE.: To determine the acceptability of purified fish protein (FPi) in cereal and pseudocereal-based drinks. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: The study was carried out at Centro de Desarrollo Integral Familiar "Año Nuevo" belonging to the INABIF Program in the district of Comas in Lima. FPi (0-4 g per serving) was administered daily for 3 months mixed with cereal and pseudocereal-based drinks. The acceptability of FPi was measured by direct weighing in children under 6 years of age and by the hedonic facial scale in school-age children...
April 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Xianliang Huang, Deguang Liu, Xiaoning Cui, Xiaoqin Shi
Insects may develop different behavioral phenotypes in response to heterogeneous environments (e.g., host plants), but the plasticity of their feeding behaviors has been rarely explored. In order to address the issue, clones of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), were collected from wheat, and their probing behaviors were recorded on three plants. Our results demonstrated that S. avenae individuals on the alternative plants (i.e., barley and oat) tended to have higher frequency of non-probing (Np), increased duration of the pathway phase, increased phloem salivation, and decreased phloem ingestion (E2), compared to those on the source plant (i...
2018: PloS One
Lindsay B Kock, Yolanda Brummer, Tracy Exley, Camille Rhymer, Joanne Storsley, Kenny Xie, YiFang Chu, Boxin Ou, Nancy P Ames, Susan M Tosh, Nicolas Bordenave
The purpose of this inter-laboratory study was to test the repeatability and reproducibility of an in vitro method aimed at analyzing the physicochemical properties under physiological conditions of β-glucans from foods. After evaluating β-glucans molar mass and quantification methods using five β-glucan controls, four laboratories ran six oat-based products through in vitro digestion, measured β-glucans solubility and viscosity and molar mass of solubilized β-glucans. The determination of the molar mass of β-glucan controls, their viscosity in solution and β-glucans content in food samples exhibited relative standard reproducibility of 20...
November 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Miranda L Davies-Tuck, Euan M Wallace, Mary-Ann Davey, Vickie Veitch, Jeremy Oats
BACKGROUND: The outcomes for planned homebirth in Victoria are unknown. We aimed to compare the rates of outcomes for high risk and low risk women who planned to birth at home compared to those who planned to birth in hospital. METHODS: We undertook a population based cohort study of all births in Victoria, Australia 2000-2015. Women were defined as being of low or high risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes according to the eligibility criteria for homebirth and either planning to birth at home or in a hospital setting at the at the onset of labour...
September 4, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Yoshinobu Nakamura, Takeo Nakanishi, Ikumi Tamai
Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is a well-established lipid mediator that plays a role in diverse functions and diseases of the brain. Cyclooxygenase and PGE synthase have been extensively studied as molecular determinants of extracellular concentration of PGE2 near prostanoid E receptors since the brain has limited capacity of PG metabolism. There is accumulating evidence that several members of the solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamilies regulate PGE2 distribution in brain capillary endothelial cells, choroid plexus (CP) and arachnoid epithelium, and different parenchyma cells such as neuronal and glial cells...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Chao Huang, Sujitraj Sheth, Mengyuan Li, Guoxia Ran, Qijun Song
First time the luminescent switch-on probe using novel water-soluble cyclometallated iridium complex (Ir-dc) has been developed for sensitive and selective detection of gluten in the presence of several interfering elements. Linear concentration range of gluten is obtained from 5 to 200 µg/mL with a limit of detection 2.6 µg/mL. The Ir-dc complex responded to the broad pH range which is advantageous for the detection of gluten in various food samples. Additionally, It has been successfully employed for the detection of gluten in commercial food samples of wheat flour and oats with highest recovery values, indicating applicability of Ir-dc for practical usage...
December 1, 2018: Talanta
Yubin Zhao, Fanrong Sun, Jiadong Yu, Yafan Cai, Xiaosha Luo, Zongjun Cui, Yuegao Hu, Xiaofen Wang
Impacts of adding different amounts of cow manure (CM) on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of oat straw (OS) with total solids content (TS) values of 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% was assessed over 50 days using batch experiments. A modified Gompertz model was introduced to predict the methane yield and determine the kinetic parameters. The optimum addition was a 1:2 ratio of CM to the OS added, which resulted in a suitable C/N ratio of 27 and a higher degradation rate of lignocellulose. The best cumulative methane yield of 841...
August 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Obert C Chikwanha, Voster Muchenje, Joubert E Nolte, Michael E R Dugan, Cletos Mapiye
This study investigated the effects of feeding graded levels of sun-dried red grape pomace (GP; 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) on growth, carcass and meat physico-chemical quality attributes of Dohne Merino lambs for 42 days. Dry matter intake increased quadratically with a critical value (i.e., optimum inclusion level) of 11.3% GP (P ≤ 0.05). Diet exhibited similar quadratic responses for average daily gain, live, hot and cold carcass weights with optimum inclusion levels at 9.6, 9.7, 12, 2 and 12.1, respectively (P ≤ 0...
August 28, 2018: Meat Science
Stefan H M Gorissen, Julie J R Crombag, Joan M G Senden, W A Huub Waterval, Jörgen Bierau, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
The postprandial rise in essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations modulates the increase in muscle protein synthesis rates after protein ingestion. The EAA content and AA composition of the dietary protein source contribute to the differential muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of different proteins. Lower EAA contents and specific lack of sufficient leucine, lysine, and/or methionine may be responsible for the lower anabolic capacity of plant-based compared with animal-based proteins. We compared EAA contents and AA composition of a large selection of plant-based protein sources with animal-based proteins and human skeletal muscle protein...
August 30, 2018: Amino Acids
Sarbast K Kheravii, Robert A Swick, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
Structure of fibre has been reported to enhance performance, intestinal function and modify the composition and quantity of the microbial population in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. It is hypothesised that insoluble fibre in oat hulls may improve gut health and reduce intestinal Clostridium perfringens number. This research assessed the effect of free choice oat hulls (OH) on performance and gut microbiota in broilers during a mild (subclinical) necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge. A total of 240 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 24 cages in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments...
March 2018: Animal nutrition
Salwa M El Shebini, Maha I A Moaty, Suzanne Fouad, Nihad H Ahmed, Salwa T Tapozada
BACKGROUND: The recognition of the complications of obesity in various organs and systems should make clinicians and dietitians aware of the importance of early strategies to fight obesity in all age groups. AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the early effect of using Avena sativa (oat) flour supplement compared to a hypocaloric diet in the management of obesity-related metabolic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Snack was prepared from wholemeal wheat flour (100% extraction) and oat flour...
August 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
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