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Zhiqian Lyu, Bingbing Huang, Zhongchao Li, Zhenyu Wang, Yifan Chen, Shuai Zhang, Changhua Lai
The objectives of this experiment were to (a) determine the effects of fiber increase in diets on heat production (HP), (b) determine the net energy (NE) of oat bran (OB), wheat bran (WB), and palm kernel expellers (PKE) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC). Twenty-four growing barrows (29.2 ± 2.6 kg) were randomly allotted to one of four diets with six replicate pigs per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and three test diets containing 30% OB, WB or PKE, respectively. During each period, pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 20 days, including 14 days to adapt to the diets...
November 15, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Gunilla Huledal, Birgitta Olsson, Kristin Önnestam, Per Dalén, Daniel Lindqvist, Matthias Kruse, Anders Bröijersén
PURPOSE: Nitisinone inhibits the cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamilies CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 and the organic anion transporter (OAT) isoforms OAT1 and OAT3 in vitro. Since the effect of nitisinone on these enzymes and transporters in humans is still unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitisinone on these CYP subfamilies and OAT isoforms. METHODS: This was an open-label, nonrandomized, two-arm, phase 1 study (EudraCT: 2016-004297-17) in healthy volunteers...
November 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Bernhard Schauberger, Tamara Ben-Ari, David Makowski, Tomomichi Kato, Hiromi Kato, Philippe Ciais
France is a major crop producer, with a production share of approx. 20% within the European Union. Yet, a discussion has recently started whether French yields are stagnating. While for wheat previous results are unanimously pointing to recent stagnation, there is contradictory evidence for maize and few to no results for other crops. Here we analyse a data set with more than 120,000 yield observations from 1900 to 2016 for ten crops (barley, durum and soft wheat, maize, oats, potatoes, rapeseed, sugar beet, sunflower and wine) in the 96 mainland French départements (NUTS3 administrative division)...
November 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jessica L McIntyre
Presented is a case report of a young man dependent on fentanyl who did not receive opioid agonist therapy (OAT) during incarceration. Highlighted are the barriers to accessing OAT in custody, which exacerbates problems with drug-seeking behavior, diversion, and recidivism. Discussed are the implications for correctional healthcare, including the benefits of utilizing telehealth services to maximize accessibility to OAT in correctional institutions that will not only enhance the quality of patient care but also address the growing opioid epidemic across Canada...
October 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Marija Zekušić, Ana Škaričić, Ksenija Fumić, Dunja Rogić, Tamara Žigman, Danijela Petković Ramadža, Nenad Vukojević, Véronique Rüfenacht, Valentina Uroić, Ivo Barić
Gyrate atrophy (GA) of the choroid and retina is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that occurs due to deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine aminotransferase (OAT). Hyperornithinemia causes degeneration of the retina with symptoms like myopia, reduced night vision and progressive vision loss. Our patient is a 10-year-old girl with impaired vision and strabismus. As part of the metabolic work-up, plasma amino acid analysis revealed significantly increased concentration of ornithine (1039 μmol/L; reference interval 20 - 155 μmol/L)...
October 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
Thomas Louveau, Anastasia Orme, Hans Pfalzgraf, Michael Stephenson, Rachel E Melton, Gerhard Saalbach, Andrew M Hemmings, Aymeric Leveau, Martin Rejzek, Robert John Vickerstaff, Tim Langdon, Rob Field, Anne E Osbourn
Glycosylation of small molecules is critical for numerous biological processes in plants, including hormone homeostasis, neutralization of xenobiotics, and synthesis and storage of specialized metabolites. Glycosylation of plant natural products is usually carried out by uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Triterpene glycosides (saponins) are a large family of plant natural products that determine important agronomic traits such as disease resistance and flavor and have numerous pharmaceutical applications...
November 14, 2018: Plant Cell
Dorsaf Hmidi, Chedly Abdelly, Habib-Ur-Rehman Athar, Muhammad Ashraf, Dorsaf Messedi
The short time response to salt stress was studied in Cakile maritima . Plants were exposed to different salt concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) and harvested after 4, 24, 72 and 168 h of treatment. Before harvesting plants, tissue hydration, osmotic potential, inorganic and organic solute contents, and ornithine-δ-aminotransferase activity were measured. Plants of C. maritima maintained turgor and tissue hydration at low osmotic potential mainly at 400 mM NaCl. The results showed that, in leaves and stems, Na+ content increased significantly after the first 4 h of treatment...
November 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Haohao Wang, Suping Wang, Lei Cheng, Yaling Jiang, Mary Anne S Melo, Michael D Weir, Thomas W Oates, Xuedong Zhou, Hockin H K Xu
Recurrent caries often occurs and is a primary reason for the failure of dental composite restorations. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a bioactive composite containing dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), (2) investigate its antibacterial effects and suppression on biofilm growth, and (3) investigate its ability to modulate biofilm species composition for the first time. DMAHDM was incorporated into a composite at mass% of 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25% and 3%. A commercial composite Heliomolar served as a comparative control...
January 1, 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yuxiao Xia, Nikitas Papadopoulos, Yue Chen, Yanhong Zhao
Osteoarticular tuberculosis (OAT) is not uncommon in children. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid ultimately long-term disabilities. Nicolas Andry (1658-1742) gave for the first time the name of the specialty of Orthopedics (L'Orthopedie) and its symbol of the crooked tree, in a paper in which he suggested how to avoid and to treat rachitis in children. We review the correlative-imaging findings and provide insights regarding the strengths and limitations of the conventional imaging modalities and those of nuclear medicine for the diagnosis of OAT and its differential diagnosis from other diseases...
November 10, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Mohammad Reza Abdollahi, Faegheh Zaefarian, Hayley Hunt, Muhammad Naveed Anwar, David G Thomas, Velmurugu Ravindran
A 21-day experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of wheat particle size, insoluble fibre source and whole wheat (WW) inclusion on the gizzard musculature, intestinal architecture and nutrient utilisation of broiler chickens. The following seven treatments, all in mash form, were tested: control diet using finely ground wheat (Fine); control diet using medium-ground wheat (Medium); control diet using coarsely ground wheat (Coarse); fine diet diluted with 10 g/kg lignocellulose (LC); fine diet diluted with 30 g/kg oat hulls (OH); fine diet diluted with 30 g/kg wood shavings (WS); and ground wheat in the fine diet replaced with 50 and 100 g/kg WW during the second (day 8-14) and third (day 15-21) weeks of the study respectively...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Pieter Van den Abbeele, Alison Kamil, Lisa Fleige, Yongsoo Chung, Peter De Chavez, Massimo Marzorati
We used a standardized in vitro simulation of the intestinal environment of three human donors to investigate the effect of six oat ingredients, which were produced by the application of different processing techniques, on the gut microbial community. Fructooligosaccharide was used as the positive control. Consistent changes in pH and gas production, on average -0.4 pH units and +32 kPa, indicated the high fermentability of the oat ingredients, and the resulting increased production of metabolites that are considered as beneficial for human health...
October 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Eloise Moss, Jasmine McEachern, Lauren Adye-White, Kelsey C Priest, Lauren Gorfinkel, Evan Wood, Walter Cullen, Jan Klimas
Urine drug screening (UDS) is commonly used to detect or validate self-reported substance use, particularly when beginning and maintaining opioid agonist therapy (OAT). However, there is currently no summary of the published clinical practice guidelines for UDS in Canada, and no measure of the consistency with which different provinces suggest administering UDS. Therefore, we conducted a policy scan of UDS guidelines, examining the published clinical practice guidelines for each Canadian province and extracting all relevant data in March 2017...
June 2018: The Canadian journal of addiction
Amin Sayyari, Tore Framstad, Anette Kristine Krogenæs, Tore Sivertsen
Background: The most prevalent Fusarium mycotoxin in grains is deoxynivalenol (DON). Contamination of swine feed with DON can result in reduced consumption and poor growth performance. Gestating and lactating sows need sufficient feed intake for fetus development during late gestation and milk production and body maintenance during lactation. Therefore, there is considerable concern in modern piglet production about the effects of DON contamination in sow feed. Most previous studies in sows have been done under experimental conditions, with DON levels ≥2...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Elif Yaver, Nermin Bilgiçli
The influence of different dephytinisation methods such as malt flour addition, phytase enzyme application and citric acid addition on some properties of commercial bread and traditional flat bread containing 25% of cereal-legume (rye, barley, oat, chickpea, soy and lupin) flours was investigated. Ash, protein, crude fat, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and mineral matters of both breads increased with the usage of cereal-legume flour blend. Cereal-legume flour blend also resulted in increments on phytic acid content of commercial bread (330 mg/100 g) and traditional flat bread (422 mg/100 g) compared to its controls (98 and 152 mg/100 g, respectively)...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Lynn M Schriml, Elvira Mitraka, James Munro, Becky Tauber, Mike Schor, Lance Nickle, Victor Felix, Linda Jeng, Cynthia Bearer, Richard Lichenstein, Katharine Bisordi, Nicole Campion, Brooke Hyman, David Kurland, Connor Patrick Oates, Siobhan Kibbey, Poorna Sreekumar, Chris Le, Michelle Giglio, Carol Greene
The Human Disease Ontology (DO) (, database has undergone significant expansion in the past three years. The DO disease classification includes specific formal semantic rules to express meaningful disease models and has expanded from a single asserted classification to include multiple-inferred mechanistic disease classifications, thus providing novel perspectives on related diseases. Expansion of disease terms, alternative anatomy, cell type and genetic disease classifications and workflow automation highlight the updates for the DO since 2015...
November 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Francielle R D Lima, Mateus M Engelhardt, Isabela C F Vasques, Gabriel C Martins, Geraldo S Cândido, Polyana Pereira, Rayner H C L Reis, Aline O Silva, Luiz Roberto G Guilherme, João José Marques
Mercury is a metal which is potentially toxic for the environment. Many factors control its retention in the soil, such as cation exchange capacity, pH, clay content, organic matter, and redox potential. It is important to know the phytotoxic effects of soil Hg to prevent environmental contamination and its entry into the food chain. Several analytical methods are used to measure metal phytoavailability in soils, but none has been reported for Hg in Oxisols, the most common soil class in Brazil and a very important soil class throughout the tropics...
November 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
B Gail Demko
Oral appliance therapy (OAT) for the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea is accepted as the most effective noninvasive therapy second only to continuous positive airway pressure. This article explains the innovations of the previous 200 years and how they laid the groundwork for OAT today. The expansion of this treatment over the past 40 years has been explosive and evidence based. The future will be linked to changes in the medical field, continued research on appliance design, and development of personalized medicine that will appropriately identify therapy options...
December 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
Antonielle Vieira Monclaro, Guilherme Lima Recalde, Francides Gomes da Silva, Sonia Maria de Freitas, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho
A 22 kDa xylanase (AtXyl1) from Aspergillus tamarii was purified by two chromatographic steps and presented preference for oat spelt (OSX), birchwood (BrX) and beechwood (BeX) xylans respectively, as substrates. AtXyl1 displays the highest activity at pH 5.5 and 55 °C and showed tolerance over a range of different phenolic compounds. The activity of AtXyl1 was not inhibited when the enzyme was incubated with ferulic acid (FA) using OSX or BrX as substrate. On the other hand, the incubation of AtXyl1 with BeX and FA resulted in an increase in enzyme activity...
January 2019: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Fei Han, Fenli Han, Yong Wang, Liuping Fan, Ge Song, Xi Chen, Ping Jiang, Haijiang Miao, Yangyang Han
True ileal digestibility (TID) values of amino acid (AA) obtained using growing rats are often used for the characterisation of protein quality in different foods and acquisition of digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in adult humans. Here, we conducted an experiment to determine the TID values of AA obtained from nine cooked cereal grains (brown rice, polished rice, buckwheat, oats, proso millet, foxtail millet, tartary buckwheat, adlay and whole wheat) fed to growing Sprague-Dawley male rats...
November 6, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Bin Wu, Yarvaan Munkhtuya, Jianjiang Li, Yani Hu, Qian Zhang, Zongwen Zhang
Salinity is one of the major abiotic factors that affect productivity in oat. Here, we report a comparison of the transcriptomes of two hexaploid oat cultivars, 'Hanyou-5' and 'Huazao-2', which differ with respect to salt tolerance, in seedlings exposed to salt stress. Analysis of the assembled unigenes from the osmotically stressed and control libraries of 'Hanyou-5' and 'Huazao-2' showed that the expression of 21.92% (36,462/166,326) of the assembled unigenes was differentially regulated in the two cultivars after different durations of salt stress...
November 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
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