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S P Ndou, H M Tun, E Kiarie, M C Walsh, E Khafipour, C M Nyachoti
The establishment of a healthy gastrointestinal milieu may not only offer an opportunity to reduce swine production costs but could also open the way for a lifetime of human health improvement. This study investigates the effects of feeding soluble fibre from flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM) and insoluble fibre from oat hulls-containing diet (OH) on histomorphological characteristics, digesta- and mucosa-associated microbiota and their associations with metabolites in pig intestines. In comparison with the control (CON) and OH diets, the consumption of FM increased (P < 0...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huwei Hou, Ya Hu, Qian Wang, Xiongbiao Xu, Yajuan Qian, Xueping Zhou
In this study, we used high-throughput deep nucleotide sequencing to characterize the global transcriptional response of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to transient expression of the RepA protein from Oat dwarf virus (ODV). We identified 7,878 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that mapped to 125 pathways, suggesting that comprehensive networks are involved in regulation of RepA-induced cell death. Of the DEGs, 202 DEGs associated with photosynthesis, expression of 195 was found out to be down-regulated, indicating a significant inhibition of photosynthesis in response to RepA expression, which is associated with chloroplast disruption and physiological changes...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Wiktor Berski, Rafał Ziobro, Mariusz Witczak, Halina Gambuś
The influence of glucose syrup on the retrogradation of cereal starches was investigated. Laboratory isolated starches from wheat (WS) and oats (OS - oat starch and ROS - residual oat starch) were used in this research. ROS was isolated from the flour left after the industrial separation of β-glucans. Gelatinization temperature of oat starches (63.82 °C and 64.01 °C for OS and ROS, respectively) was higher than for WS (62.26 °C), whereas gelatinization enthalpy for oat starches (8.87 J/g and 9.09 J/g for OS and ROS, respectively) was lower than for WS (9...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tushar Verma, Xinyao Wei, Soon Kiat Lau, Andreia Bianchini, Kent M Eskridge, Jayne Stratton, Nathan M Anderson, Harshavardhan Thippareddi, Jeyamkondan Subbiah
An increase in the number of foodborne outbreaks and recalls due to Salmonella in low-moisture foods has resulted in the need for the development and validation of process controls to ensure their microbiological safety. Furthermore, the Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls for Human Food final rule requires food processors to validate their process controls to ensure food safety. The objective of this study was to develop a response surface model to predict Salmonella inactivation in oat flour, as affected by moisture, fat content, screw speed, and temperature...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Aisling A Geraghty, Alexandra Sexton-Oates, Eileen C O'Brien, Goiuri Alberdi, Peter Fransquet, Richard Saffery, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
The epigenetic profile of the developing fetus is sensitive to environmental influence. Maternal diet has been shown to influence DNA methylation patterns in offspring, but research in humans is limited. We investigated the impact of a low glycaemic index dietary intervention during pregnancy on offspring DNA methylation patterns using a genome-wide methylation approach. Sixty neonates were selected from the ROLO (Randomised cOntrol trial of LOw glycaemic index diet to prevent macrosomia) study: 30 neonates from the low glycaemic index intervention arm and 30 from the control, whose mothers received no specific dietary advice...
April 6, 2018: Nutrients
Takayuki Katsube, Shiro Miyazaki, Yukitoshi Narukawa, Martha Hernandez-Illas, Toshihiro Wajima
PURPOSE: Cefiderocol, a siderophore cephalosporin, will be used concomitantly with other medications for treatment of bacterial infections. In vitro studies demonstrated inhibition potential of cefiderocol on organic anion transporter (OAT) 1, OAT3, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, OCT2, multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) 2-K, and organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3. The aim of this study was to assess in vivo drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of cefiderocol using probe substrates for these transporters...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
M Eugenia Socias, Keith Ahamad, Bernard Le Foll, Ron Lim, Julie Bruneau, Benedikt Fischer, T Cameron Wild, Evan Wood, Didier Jutras-Aswad
BACKGROUND: Rates of non-medical use of opioids, and opioid use disorders (OUD) have been rising throughout North America. Methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone are the recommended first-line treatment options for OUD in Canada. Most studies to date have been conducted among heroin users, in controlled settings, and using similar strict dosing schedules (i.e., daily witnessed ingestion) despite buprenorphine/naloxone's superior safety profile, which allows a more flexible take-home dosing schedule...
April 5, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Laura LLeras Forero, Rachna Narayanan, Leonie F A Huitema, Maaike VanBergen, Alexander Apschner, Josi Peterson-Maduro, Ive Logister, Guillaume Valentin, Luis G Morelli, Andrew Oates, Stefan Schulte-Merker
Segmentation of the axial skeleton in amniotes depends on the segmentation clock which patterns the paraxial mesoderm and the sclerotome. While the segmentation clock clearly operates in teleosts, the role of the sclerotome in establishing the axial skeleton is unclear. We severely disrupt zebrafish paraxial segmentation, yet observe a largely normal segmentation process of the chordacentra. We demonstrate that axial entpd5+ notochord sheath cells are responsible for chordacentrum mineralization, and serve as a marker for axial segmentation...
April 6, 2018: ELife
N Siwińska, A Żak, M Słowikowska, K Kubiak, Z Jaworski, A Niedzwiedź
Hair is a more biologically stable material than other tissues and contains a relatively constant level of minerals, drugs or toxins. The content of essential elements in hair depends on dietary and non-dietary factors. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effect of diet on the elemental composition and morphological properties of the hair of healthy Polish Konik horses. Mane hair was collected from 19 horses living in The National Park in Popielno in Poland. Six of these horses were free-ranged all year with permanent access to pasture, while 13 horses were kept in the stable and fed oats, hay and straw...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Seda Karabulut, Özlem Aksünger, Can Ata, Yusuf Sağıroglu, İlknur Keskin
Fertilization problems are the major problems that may be faced in 30-55% of the patients during an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle. A successful oocyte activation depends on factors related to both sperm and oocyte, and one of the important factors that mediates the process is Ca2+ concentration within the oocyte. Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) is a method used for fertilization problems that commonly involve the usage of Ca2+ ionophores and is usually used in problems such as total fertilization failure (TFF) and globozoospermia...
April 5, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Victor A Becerra-Rivera, Ed Bergström, Jane Thomas-Oates, Michael F Dunn
Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous polycations derived from basic l-amino acids whose physiological roles are still being defined. Their biosynthesis and functions in nitrogen-fixing rhizobia such as Sinorhizobium meliloti have not been extensively investigated. Thin layer chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses showed that S. meliloti Rm8530 produces the PAs, putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and homospermidine (HSpd), in their free forms and norspermidine (NSpd) in a form bound to macromolecules. The S...
April 2018: Microbiology
T Lee, A Thalamuthu, J D Henry, J N Trollor, D Ames, M J Wright, P S Sachdev
We used a sub-sample from the Older Australian Twins Study to estimate the heritability of performance on three tests of language ability: Boston Naming Test (BNT), Letter/Phonemic Fluency (FAS) and Category/Semantic Fluency (CFT) Tests. After adjusting for age, sex, education, mood, and global cognition (GC), heritability estimates obtained for the three tests were 0.35, 0.59, and 0.20, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that the genetic correlation were high for BNT and CFT (0.61), but low for BNT and FAS (0...
April 4, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Joseph D Lamplot, Kevin A Schafer, Matthew J Matava
Background: Symptomatic articular cartilage lesions of the knee are common and are being treated surgically with increasing frequency. While many studies have reported outcomes following a variety of cartilage restoration procedures, few have investigated outcomes of revision surgery after a failed attempt at cartilage repair or reconstruction. Purpose: To investigate outcomes of revision cartilage restoration procedures for symptomatic articular cartilage lesions of the knee following a previously failed cartilage reconstructive procedure...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
I-Lynn Lee, Brydie Purbrick, Federica Barzi, Alex Brown, Christine Connors, Cherie Whitbread, Elizabeth Moore, Marie Kirkwood, Alison Simmonds, Paula van Dokkum, Elizabeth Death, Stacey Svenson, Sian Graham, Vanya Hampton, Joanna Kelaart, Danielle Longmore, Angela Titmuss, Jacqueline Boyle, Julie Brimblecombe, Richard Saffery, Anita D'Aprano, Michael R Skilton, Leigh C Ward, Sumaria Corpus, Shridhar Chitturi, Sujatha Thomas, Sandra Eades, Chrissie Inglis, Karen Dempsey, Michelle Dowden, Michael Lynch, Jeremy Oats, Harold D McIntyre, Paul Zimmet, Kerin O'Dea, Jonathan E Shaw, Louise J Maple-Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Connor P Oates, Manjula Ananthram, Stephen S Gottlieb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews treatment options for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with heart failure. We sought to identify therapies for SDB with the best evidence for long-term use in patients with heart failure and to minimize uncertainties in clinical practice by examining frequently discussed questions: what is the role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with heart failure? Is adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) safe in patients with heart failure? To what extent is SDB a modifiable risk factor? RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent evidence has demonstrated that the development of SDB in patients with heart failure is a poor prognostic indicator and a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality...
April 3, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
Suping Wang, Haohao Wang, Biao Ren, Xiaodong Li, Lin Wang, Han Zhou, Michael D Weir, Xuedong Zhou, Radi M Masri, Thomas W Oates, Lei Cheng, Hockin H K Xu
Only two reports exist on drug-resistance of quaternary ammonium monomers against oral bacteria; both studies tested planktonic bacteria for 10 passages, and neither study tested biofilms or resins. The objectives of this study were to investigate the drug-resistance of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii against dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), and to evaluate biofilms on resins with repeated exposures for 20 passages for the first time. DMAHDM, dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and chlorhexidine (CHX) were tested with planktonic bacteria...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chunli Mao, Yanqiao Zhu, Hang Cheng, Huifang Yan, Liyuan Zhao, Jia Tang, Xiqing Ma, Peisheng Mao
Mitochondria are the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells and play a central role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycles; however, ROS production and regulation for seed germination, seedling growth, as well as mitochondrial responses to abiotic stress, are not clear. This study was conducted to obtain basic information on seed germination, embryo mitochondrial antioxidant responses, and protein profile changes in artificial aging in oat seeds ( Avena sativa L...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Brittanie LaBelle, Alexandra M Franklyn, Vicky Pkh Nguyen, Kathleen E Anderson, Joseph K Eibl, David C Marsh
Rural patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) face a variety of barriers when accessing opioid agonist therapy (OAT) and psychiatric services, due to the limited supply of physicians and the vast geographic area. The telemedicine allows for contact between patients and their physician-regardless of physical distance. Objective . We characterize the usage of telemedicine to deliver psychiatric services to patients with OUD in Ontario, as well as traits of treatment-seeking patients with opioid dependence and concurrent psychiatric disorders...
2018: International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications
Silvia Martini, Angela Rizzello, Ilaria Corsini, Benedetta Romanin, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Sara Grandi, Rosalba Bergamaschi
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble micronutrient involved in the regulation of several physiologic functions, such as visual acuity, epithelial tissue integrity, immune response, and gene expression, thus playing a crucial role in childhood growth and development. Although vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in resource-limited settings is still an actual issue and represents the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, its occurrence in high-income countries is rare, although possibly underdiagnosed because of its nonspecific early manifestations...
April 2018: Pediatrics
Friedrich-Anton Weiser, Michael Fangl, Wilhelm Mosgoeller
OBJECTIVE: Papaya and oats are natural food and used in traditional medicine in many parts of the world. Papaya has a high content of enzymes supporting digestive function. Oats are a source of minerals, beta-glucan fibres, immunmodulatory and antiinflammatory probiotic substances. Caricol®-Gastro combines both constituents, it was designed as vegan organic preparation for intestinal inflammatory diseases. We performed a randomized, double blind placebo controlled clinical trial to investigate the potential of Caricol®-Gastro as add on therapy in patients with diagnosed chronic gastritis...
March 1, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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