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Blake Eric Christianson, Supriya Gupta, Shikhar G Vyas, Helena Spartz, Jayanth H Keshavamurthy
A 43-year-old female with a medical history of renal stones, hypertension, diabetes mellitus Type 2, and depression presented to her urologist with bilateral flank pain. She complained of worsening exertional dyspnea over the last several months with recent weight gain. She also endorsed night sweats and intermittent, scant hemoptysis over the past year. She denied fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, hematuria, or excessive joint or muscle pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis demonstrated bilateral nonobstructing renal stones and a 1...
May 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Kayla D Brown, Cristan Farmer, G Mark Freeman, Ellen J Spartz, Bahare Farhadian, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer Frankovich
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) is characterized by the sudden onset of severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or eating restriction along with at least two coinciding neuropsychiatric symptoms. When associated with group A Streptococcus, the syndrome is labeled Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). An abnormal immune response to infection and subsequent neuroinflammation is postulated to play an etiologic role...
September 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Ellen J Spartz, G Mark Freeman, Kayla Brown, Bahare Farhadian, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer Frankovich
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory interventions can modulate neuropsychiatric symptoms. Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) is characterized by an abrupt and dramatic onset of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and/or severely restrictive food intake and at least two coinciding, equally debilitating neuropsychiatric symptoms. When associated with group A Streptococcus, the syndrome is labeled Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS)...
September 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Gurudutt Pendyala, Shinnyi Chou, Yoosun Jung, Pierluca Coiro, Elizabeth Spartz, Ragunathan Padmashri, Ming Li, Anna Dunaevsky
Emerging epidemiology studies indicate that maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from inflammatory stimuli such as viral or bacterial infections during pregnancy serves as a risk factor for multiple neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Although alterations in the cortex and hippocampus of MIA offspring have been described, less evidence exists on the impact on the cerebellum. Here, we report altered expression of cytokines and chemokines in the cerebellum of MIA offspring, including increase in the neuroinflammatory cytokine TNFα and its receptor TNFR1...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Angela K Spartz, Vai S Lor, Hong Ren, Neil E Olszewski, Nathan D Miller, Guosheng Wu, Edgar P Spalding, William M Gray
The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA or auxin) mediates the elongation growth of shoot tissues by promoting cell expansion. According to the acid growth theory proposed in the 1970s, auxin activates plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases (PM H(+)-ATPases) to facilitate cell expansion by both loosening the cell wall through acidification and promoting solute uptake. Mechanistically, however, this process is poorly understood. Recent findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have demonstrated that auxin-induced SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) genes promote elongation growth and play a key role in PM H(+)-ATPase activation by inhibiting PP2C...
February 2017: Plant Physiology
Christer B Aakeröy, Christine L Spartz, Sean Dembowski, Savannah Dwyre, John Desper
As halogen bonds gain prevalence in supramolecular synthesis and materials chemistry, it has become necessary to examine more closely how such interactions compete with or complement hydrogen bonds whenever both are present within the same system. As hydrogen and halogen bonds have several fundamental features in common, it is often difficult to predict which will be the primary interaction in a supramolecular system, especially as they have comparable strength and geometric requirements. To address this challenge, a series of molecules containing both hydrogen- and halogen-bond donors were co-crystallized with various monotopic, ditopic symmetric and ditopic asymmetric acceptor molecules...
September 1, 2015: IUCrJ
Pierluca Coiro, Ragunathan Padmashri, Anand Suresh, Elizabeth Spartz, Gurudutt Pendyala, Shinnyi Chou, Yoosun Jung, Brittney Meays, Shreya Roy, Nagsen Gautam, Yazen Alnouti, Ming Li, Anna Dunaevsky
Both genetic and environmental factors are thought to contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders with maternal immune activation (MIA) being a risk factor for both autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Although MIA mouse offspring exhibit behavioral impairments, the synaptic alterations in vivo that mediate these behaviors are not known. Here we employed in vivo multiphoton imaging to determine that in the cortex of young MIA offspring there is a reduction in number and turnover rates of dendritic spines, sites of majority of excitatory synaptic inputs...
November 2015: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Margaret M P Pearce, Ellen J Spartz, Weizhe Hong, Liqun Luo, Ron R Kopito
The brain has a limited capacity to self-protect against protein aggregate-associated pathology, and mounting evidence supports a role for phagocytic glia in this process. We have established a Drosophila model to investigate the role of phagocytic glia in clearance of neuronal mutant huntingtin (Htt) aggregates associated with Huntington disease. We find that glia regulate steady-state numbers of Htt aggregates expressed in neurons through a clearance mechanism that requires the glial scavenger receptor Draper and downstream phagocytic engulfment machinery...
April 13, 2015: Nature Communications
Christer B Aakeröy, Christine L Spartz
Supramolecular synthesis is typically limited to one-pot reactions because of the reversibility of non-covalent bonds, and to overcome this restriction we need to be able to rank the relative structural importance of such interactions and build synthetic methods to utilize synthons which can operate side-by-side without interference. Halogen bonds have characteristics (strength and directionality) which potentially make them prime candidates as critical components of effective, transferable, and versatile supramolecular synthetic strategies...
2015: Topics in Current Chemistry
Angela K Spartz, Hong Ren, Mee Yeon Park, Kristin N Grandt, Sang Ho Lee, Angus S Murphy, Michael R Sussman, Paul J Overvoorde, William M Gray
The plant hormone auxin promotes cell expansion. Forty years ago, the acid growth theory was proposed, whereby auxin promotes proton efflux to acidify the apoplast and facilitate the uptake of solutes and water to drive plant cell expansion. However, the underlying molecular and genetic bases of this process remain unclear. We have previously shown that the SAUR19-24 subfamily of auxin-induced SMALL AUXIN UP-RNA (SAUR) genes promotes cell expansion. Here, we demonstrate that SAUR proteins provide a mechanistic link between auxin and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases (PM H(+)-ATPases) in Arabidopsis thaliana...
May 2014: Plant Cell
Ragunathan Padmashri, Benjamin C Reiner, Anand Suresh, Elizabeth Spartz, Anna Dunaevsky
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited intellectual disability. FXS results from a mutation that causes silencing of the FMR1 gene, which encodes the fragile X mental retardation protein. Patients with FXS exhibit a range of neurological deficits, including motor skill deficits. Here, we have investigated motor skill learning and its synaptic correlates in the fmr1 knock-out (KO) mouse. We find that fmr1 KO mice have impaired motor skill learning of a forelimb-reaching task, compared with their wild-type (WT) littermate controls...
December 11, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Christer B Aakeröy, Abhijeet S Sinha, Kanishka N Epa, Christine L Spartz, John Desper
A robust, facile and solvent-free mechanochemical path for aldehyde-oxime transformations using hydroxylamine and NaOH is explored; the method is suitable for aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes decorated with a range of substituents.
November 28, 2012: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Angela K Spartz, Sang H Lee, Jonathan P Wenger, Nathalie Gonzalez, Hironori Itoh, Dirk Inzé, Wendy A Peer, Angus S Murphy, Paul J Overvoorde, William M Gray
The plant hormone auxin controls numerous aspects of plant growth and development by regulating the expression of hundreds of genes. SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) genes comprise the largest family of auxin-responsive genes, but their function is unknown. Although prior studies have correlated the expression of some SAUR genes with auxin-mediated cell expansion, genetic evidence implicating SAURs in cell expansion has not been reported. The Arabidopsis SAUR19, SAUR20, SAUR21, SAUR22, SAUR23, and SAUR24 (SAUR19-24) genes encode a subgroup of closely related SAUR proteins...
June 2012: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Keara A Franklin, Sang Ho Lee, Dhaval Patel, S Vinod Kumar, Angela K Spartz, Chen Gu, Songqing Ye, Peng Yu, Gordon Breen, Jerry D Cohen, Philip A Wigge, William M Gray
At high ambient temperature, plants display dramatic stem elongation in an adaptive response to heat. This response is mediated by elevated levels of the phytohormone auxin and requires auxin biosynthesis, signaling, and transport pathways. The mechanisms by which higher temperature results in greater auxin accumulation are unknown, however. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4), is also required for hypocotyl elongation in response to high temperature. PIF4 also acts redundantly with its homolog, PIF5, to regulate diurnal growth rhythms and elongation responses to the threat of vegetative shade...
December 13, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrew B Armstrong, Mingsheng Wang, John N Eble, Gregory T MacLennan, Rodolfo Montironi, Puay-Hoon Tan, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Shaobo Zhang, Lee Ann Baldridge, Helena Spartz, Liang Cheng
Sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an uncommon neoplasm with biphasic morphology exhibiting both epithelial and sarcomatoid components. Whether this tumor arises from a single cancer stem cell with subsequent differentiation or represents collision of the progeny of two separate cancer stem cells is a matter of controversy. To clarify its clonal origin, we analyzed the TP53 mutation status of a series of 17 sarcomatoid urothelial carcinomas using single-strand conformation polymorphism, DNA sequencing and p53 immunohistochemistry...
January 2009: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Angela K Spartz, William M Gray
Plant growth and development require the integration of a variety of environmental and endogenous signals that, together with the intrinsic genetic program, determine plant form. Central to this process are several growth regulators known as plant hormones or phytohormones. Despite decades of study, only recently have receptors for several of these hormones been identified, revealing novel mechanisms for perceiving chemical signals and providing plant biologists with a much clearer picture of hormonal control of growth and development...
August 15, 2008: Genes & Development
Helena Spartz, Elizabeth Lehr, Benyue Zhang, Ann Roman, Darron R Brown
Studies of changes in the virus and host cell upon progression from human papillomavirus (HPV) episomal infection to integration are critical to understanding HPV-related malignant transformation. However, there exist only a few in vitro models of both productive HPV infection and neoplastic progression on the same host background. We recently described a unique foreskin keratinocyte cell line (ERIN 59) that contains HPV 59 (a close relative of HPV 18). Early passages of ERIN 59 cells (passages 9-13) contained approximately 50 copies of episomes/cell, were feeder cell-dependent, and could be induced to differentiate and produce infectious virus in a simple culture system...
May 25, 2005: Virology
Angela K Spartz, Robert K Herman, Jocelyn E Shaw
Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans gene smu-2 suppress mec-8 and unc-52 mutations. It has been proposed that MEC-8 regulates the alternative splicing of unc-52 transcripts, which encode the core protein of perlecan, a basement membrane proteoglycan. We show that mutation in smu-2 leads to enhanced accumulation of transcripts that skip exon 17, but not exon 18, of unc-52, which explains our finding that smu-2 mutations suppress the uncoordination conferred by nonsense mutations in exon 17, but not in exon 18, of unc-52...
August 2004: Molecular and Cellular Biology
A A Larson, K J Kovács, A K Spartz
Vesicular Zn2+, released in the brain and from small dorsal root ganglion neurons, interacts with opioid as well as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. We investigated the effect of Zn2+ on morphine antinociception in mice (tail flick assay), as well as acute tolerance and dependence, phenomena associated with NMDA activity. Administered intrathecally (i.t.), Zn2+ inhibited morphine antinociception in a dose-related fashion. Zn2+ also inhibited acute tolerance to morphine antinociception (5 h after 100 mg/kg of morphine)...
November 3, 2000: European Journal of Pharmacology
J R Galloway, R L Leppard, M E Spartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1978: Hospital Pharmacy
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