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cadaver dissection

Dinesh V Kumar, Ramakrisnan Rajprasath, Prasad G Bhavani
Variations in the branching pattern of axillary artery are observed by many anatomists all over the world. A unique bilateral variation in the axillary artery was observed during the routine dissection of the upper limbs on an approximately 65 year old male cadaver. An abnormal communicative channel was observed between lateral thoracic artery and anterior circumflex humeral artery. It passed between the two roots of median nerve. Arterial anomalies in the upper limb are due to defective remodelling of vascular plexus of the upper limb bud during embryogenesis...
2018: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
Gmaan Alzhrani, Yair M Gozal, Ilyas Eli, Walavan Sivakumar, Amol Raheja, Douglas L Brockmeyer, William T Couldwell
OBJECTIVE Surgical treatment of pathological processes involving the ventral craniocervical junction (CCJ) traditionally involves anterior and posterolateral skull base approaches. In cases of bilateral extension, when lesions extend beyond the midline to the contralateral side, a unilateral corridor may result in suboptimal resection. In these cases, the lateral extent of the tumor will prevent extirpation of the lesion via anterior surgical approaches. The authors describe a unilateral operative corridor developed along an extreme lateral trajectory to the anterior aspect of the clival and upper cervical dura, allowing exposure and resection of tumor on the contralateral side...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Edie Benedito Caetano, Luiz Angelo Vieira, Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi, Luca Martinez Correio, Kelson Koiti Ogata, Eduardo Baldy de Sousa Boni
Objective: The objective of this paper was to study the anatomical variations of the flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR) and determine in cadaver limbs whether the FCR nervous branch can be connected to the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) without tension and how close to the target muscles the transfer can be performed. Method: Thirty cadaveric upper limbs were dissected. Results: The FCR received exclusive innervation of the median nerve, distally to the intercondylar line of the humerus...
2018: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
Ali-Farid Safi, Sema Safi, Marco Timmer, Roland Goldbrunner, Martin Kauke
The authors present a novel biological nonliving epineurial nerve coaptation training model, which allows cost-efficient practicing on organic mammal nerves and offers an objective performance control on the basis of successful suturing and respecting the 3R model.Anatomic dissection of 40 rat cadavers was performed. Four residents without prior microneurosurgical experience were included. Each trainee performed 20 epineurial nerve coaptations. The number of successful sutures served as qualitative variable and operation time as a quantitative variable for efficiency control...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Sebastian Ruetten, Patrick Hahn, Semih Oezdemir, Xenophon Baraliakos, Harry Merk, Georgios Godolias, Martin Komp
OBJECTIVE Acute or progressive myelopathy may necessitate direct anterior decompression of the craniocervical junction and odontoidectomy. Different techniques with individual advantages and disadvantages can be used. In addition to the gold standard-the transoral approach-there is also increasing experience with the endoscopic transnasal technique. Other alternative methods are also being developed to reduce technical and perioperative problems. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the feasibility of the full-endoscopic uniportal technique with a retropharyngeal approach for decompression of the craniocervical junction, taking into consideration the specific advantages and disadvantages compared with conventional methods and the currently available data in the literature...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Huy Q Truong, Stefan Lieber, Edinson Najera, Joao T Alves-Belo, Paul A Gardner, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
OBJECTIVE The medial wall of the cavernous sinus (CS) is often invaded by pituitary adenomas. Surgical mobilization and/or removal of the medial wall remains a challenge. METHODS Endoscopic endonasal dissection was performed in 20 human cadaver heads. The configuration of the medial wall, its relationship to the internal carotid artery (ICA), and the ligamentous connections in between them were investigated in 40 CSs. RESULTS The medial wall of the CS was confirmed to be an intact single layer of dura that is distinct from the capsule of the pituitary gland and the periosteal layer that forms the anterior wall of the CS...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Mitsuhiro Asakuma, Koji Komeda, Masashi Yamamoto, Tetsunosuke Shimizu, Ryo Iida, Kohei Taniguchi, Yoshihiro Inoue, Fumitoshi Hirokawa, Michihiro Hayashi, Junji Okuda, Yoichi Kondo, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
INTRODUCTION: A recent development in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is single-port surgery, where a single large multiport trocar is placed in the umbilicus. All medical schools require that students complete an anatomy course as part of the medical curriculum. However, there is limited instruction regarding the detailed parts of the "umbilicus." In several famous anatomy atlases, the umbilicus is not dissected at all and is merely represented as a button. Until now, the true nature of the umbilicus has not been anatomically demonstrated...
September 7, 2018: Surgical Innovation
M Blasi, J De la Fuente, A Pérez-Bellmunt, O Zabalza, S Martínez, O Casasayas, M Miguel-Pérez
OBJECTIVE: To establish a high-resolution US technique that enables a systematic morphometric examination of the three components that form the distal biceps brachii tendinous complex; the internal bicipital aponeurosis, the distal biceps brachii tendon and the external bicipital aponeurosis (also known as lacertus fibrosus). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty cryopreserved cadaver body donor elbows were dissected to obtain morphometric reference values and to establish reliable landmarks for the US examination...
September 5, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Beverley Kramer, Erin F Hutchinson, Desiré M Brits, Brendon K Billings
While dissection remains the method of choice for teaching human anatomy, ethical requirements for obtaining cadavers has made the process of acquiring human bodies more strenuous for institutions. In Africa and at the School of Anatomical Sciences in South Africa, dependence on unclaimed bodies has been prevalent. The aim of the present study was to determine whether more rigorous application of ethical consent has altered the provenance of the cadavers in the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand...
September 4, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Fernando A M Herbella, Laercio G Lourenço, Andre L Bonini, Francisco Schlottmann, Marco G Patti
Lymphadenectomy is a crucial part of the surgical therapy for gastric cancer. The number of normal lymph nodes could indicate the number of nodes that need to be retrieved during the procedure. The aim of this study is to analyze the number of lymph nodes in cadavers without gastric cancer according to the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association guidelines. Twenty fresh adult cadavers (14 males, mean age 55, range 24-93 years) were used. Abdominal lymph nodes were dissected and classified according to the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association...
September 3, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Seema Döring, Steven Provyn, Stefaan Marcelis, Maryam Shahabpour, Cedric Boulet, Johan de Mey, Aron De Smet, Michel De Maeseneer
We present a detailed overview of anatomical and US features of ankle and midfoot ligaments based on our own dissections and cadaver studies as well as US imaging in cadavers and volunteers. The ligament anatomy about the ankle and midfoot is complex. Most ligaments are superficial and hence very well accessible for US. US technique to obtain optimal visualization however is difficult and requires a learning curve. We discuss US technique in detail for each individual ligament. We divided the ligaments in different groups: tibiofibular ligaments, Bassett's ligament, lateral collateral ligament complex (anterior talofibular ligament, calcaneofibular ligament, lateral talocalcaneal ligament, posterior talofibular ligament), medial collateral ligament complex, spring ligament, Chopart joint ligaments (bifurcate ligament, dorsal talonavicular ligament, lateral calcaneocuboid ligament, long and short plantar ligaments), Lisfranc ligaments, sinus tarsi ligaments...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Martin Jose Pastrana, Ezequiel Ernesto Zaidenberg, Dante Palumbo, Fernando Juarez Cesca, Carlos Rodolfo Zaidenberg
PURPOSE: To describe the innervation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the fingers as well as the anatomical relations of the articular branches. METHODS: In this anatomical study, 52 fresh-frozen index, long, ring, and little fingers of 6 male and 4 female cadavers were dissected after injection of a colored latex composite. The anatomical dissections were performed under ×3.5 and ×6.0 magnifications. The numbers of articular nerve branches that penetrated the PIP joint on both sides of the fingers were quantified and patterns of innervation were established...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Juan Garisto, Riccardo Bertolo, Jihad Kaouk
OBJECTIVES: To describe the step-by-step technique for single-port trans-perineal intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion using a purpose-built robotic platform. METHODS: In one male cadaver the da Vinci SP1098 Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) was used to perform intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion by trans-perineal approach after radical cysto-prostatectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. The surgery was completed through a 2...
August 29, 2018: Urology
Maud Creze, Marc Soubeyrand, Krystel Nyangoh Timoh, Olivier Gagey
PURPOSE: The thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) and the erector spinae aponeurosis (ESA) play significant roles in the biomechanics of the spine and could be a source of low back pain. Attachment, collagen fiber direction, size and biomechanical properties of the TLF have been well documented. However, questions remain about the attachment of the TLF and ESA in relation to adjoining tissues in the lumbosacral region. Moreover, quantitative data in relation to the ESA have rarely been examined...
August 31, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Anna Jeon, Chang Min Seo, Je-Hun Lee, Seung-Ho Han
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the location and distribution pattern of neurovascular structures superior and inferior to the clavicle by detailed dissection. METHODS: Fifteen adult non-embalmed cadavers with a mean age of 71.5 years were studied. For measurements, the most prominent point of the sternal end of the clavicle (SEC) on anterior view and the most prominent point of the acromial end of the clavicle (AEC) were identified and divided five equal sections before dissection...
August 27, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Juan Altafulla, Mayank Patel, Zachary Litvack, Joe Iwanaga, R Shane Tubbs
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgeons who operate in and around the pathway of the ocular nerves should have good knowledge of not only their normal anatomy but also their variations. CASE DESCRIPTION: During routine dissection of the orbits in an adult cadaver, an aberrant branch of the right trochlear nerve continued on to innervate the orbicularis oculi muscle. In this case, the trochlear nerve also provided a branch to the supratrochlear nerve. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons who operate along the pathway of the trochlear nerve such as the cavernous sinus should be aware of such an anatomic variant in order to avoid unwanted complications such as weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle...
September 2018: World Neurosurgery
Michel De Maeseneer, Nicolas Moyson, Leon Lenchik, Erik Cattrysse, Aldo Scafoglieri, Ruben Roose, Maryam Shahabpour
OBJECTIVE: To perform an MR imaging-anatomical correlation to elucidate the anatomy of muscles, tendons, and ligaments about the hallux as seen on MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four fresh and 4 embalmed cadaver specimens were used for this study. The embalmed specimens and one fresh specimen were dissected by three investigators. The fresh specimens were preserved deep frozen. They were thawed and imaged with a 3 T MR system. Proton density weighted images were obtained...
September 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Fabrizio Dal Moro
The most recent revolution in our understanding and knowledge of the human body is the introduction of new technologies allowing direct magnified vision of internal organs, as in laparoscopy and robotics. The possibility of viewing an anatomical detail, until now not directly visible during open surgical operations and only partially during dissections of cadavers, has created a 'new surgical anatomy'. Consequent refinements of operative techniques, combined with better views of the surgical field, have given rise to continual and significant decreases in complication rates and improved functional and oncological outcomes...
September 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Sung Ro Lee, Davis Stibolt, Harshadkumar Patel, Eldar Abyar, Andrew Moon, Sameer Naranje, Ashish Shah
BACKGROUND: Talonavicular (TN) fusion using screws dorsomedially and dorsolaterally can cause neurovascular injury. The purpose of our cadaveric study was to evaluate the safety of percutaneous screw insertion in relation to dorsal neurovascular structures. METHODS: Ten fresh-frozen cadaver legs were used for this study. Percutaneous cannulated screws were inserted to perform isolated TN arthrodesis. The screws were inserted at 3 consistent sites: a "medial screw" at the dorsomedial navicular where it intersected at the medial plane of the first cuneiform, a "central screw" at the edge of the dorsal navicular between the medial and intermediate cuneiforms, and a "lateral screw" at the edge of the dorsal navicular between the intermediate and lateral cuneiforms...
August 22, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Paul J Choi, Chidinma Nwaogbe, Joe Iwanaga, Georgi P Georgiev, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Introduction A reoperation for a cubital tunnel syndrome is not uncommon. Patients often complain of sensorimotor symptoms in the ulnar nerve distribution after their primary surgery. The documented etiologies for such a phenomenon include a "new" kinking of the distal ulnar nerve and a "new" compression of the ulnar nerve by the fascial septum in between or tendinous bands over the muscles of the forearm. The deep fascial plane along which the ulnar nerve travels in the forearm has had scant attention...
June 19, 2018: Curēus
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