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cadaver dissection

Sonia Gayoso, Pedro Perez-Borreda, Antonio Gutierrez, Juan A García-Porrero, Enrique Marco de Lucas, Juan Martino
BACKGROUND: The ventral part of the precentral gyrus is considered one of the most eloquent areas. However, little is known about the white matter organization underlying this functional hub. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the subcortical anatomy underlying the ventral part of the precentral gyrus, ie, the ventral precentral fiber intersection area (VPFIA). METHODS: Eight human hemispheres from cadavers were dissected, and 8 healthy hemispheres were studied with diffusion tensor imaging tractography...
November 10, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Stefan J Janik, István Paraszti, Lena Hirtler, Rudolf Seemann, Hannes Traxler, Wolfgang Weninger, Boban M Erovic
OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate flap size and flap design of skin islands in myocutaneous serratus anterior free flaps (SAFFs) in fresh cadavers and to further investigate whether myocutaneous SAFFs are suitable flaps for pharyngeal reconstruction after laryngopharyngectomy. METHODS: Dissection and injection of methylene blue was performed in 20 hemithoraces of 13 fresh cadavers to evaluate flap size and location of skin islands. Based on these preclinical data, we performed pharyngeal reconstruction with myocutaneous SAFF in 5 patients after laryngopharyngectomy...
November 9, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Hyung-Jin Lee, You-Jin Choi, Kang-Woo Lee, Hee-Jin Kim
This study aimed to clarify intersection patterns and points among the superficial temporal artery (STA), superficial temporal vein (STV), and auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) based on surface anatomical landmarks to provide useful anatomical information for surgical decompression treatments of migraine headaches in Asians. Thirty-eight hemifaces were dissected. The positional patterns among the ATN, STA, and STV were divided into three morphological types. In type I, the ATN ran toward the temporal region and superficially intersected the STA and STV (n = 32, 84...
November 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joe Iwanaga, Seif Eid, Emily Simonds, Maia Schumacher, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: The piriformis muscle is clinically implicated in pain disorders, posterior approaches for total hip arthroplasty, and iatrogenic injury to the muscle and the surrounding nerves. The piriformis muscle has been said to receive innervation from L5 to S3 ventral rami with most sources using S1 and S2 ventral rami as the most common innervation this muscle. However, descriptions of the nerve in the literature are vague. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the anatomy of the nerve supply to the piriformis muscle...
November 8, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Guillermo Maza, Ali M Moustafa Omar, Somasundram Subramaniam, Bradley A Otto, Daniel M Prevedello, Ricardo L Carrau
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the potential of a minimally invasive transoral-transpalatal approach (MITA) to the retrocarotid petrous apex, as an adjunct to endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs). STUDY DESIGN: Cadaver study. METHODS: Five cadaveric specimens were dissected raising an inverted U-shaped palatal mucoperiosteal flap, and drilling a rectangular palatotomy (between the greater palatine foramens, and just anterior to the palatine aponeurosis)...
November 8, 2018: Laryngoscope
Ryan K Orosco, Asit Arora, Jean Pierre Jeanon, F Christopher Holsinger
Following the inception of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in 2005, the field of robotic head and neck surgery has undergone refinement and innovation. Optimizing patient outcome, preserving function, and limiting morbidity are the key drivers. The next leap forward is another generation of flexible robotic surgical systems. Several such systems are under clinical and preclinical evaluation. A new single-port (Sp) robotic surgical architecture is now available integrating three fully articulating instruments and a flexible three-dimensional high-definition camera delivered through a 25-mm cannula...
November 7, 2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
İlker Selçuk, İlkan Tatar, Emre Huri
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the role of cadaveric hands-on training model on surgical skills and confidence level of surgeons during transobturator tape (TOT) surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pre-test and post-test evaluation to measure the skills during the practice of the steps of TOT operation was performed to a total of 15 postgraduate urologists and gynecologists during the urogynecologic cadaveric dissection course. The course was shaped with regard to theoretical lessons, full pelvic cadaveric dissection and TOT surgery on cadavers...
November 5, 2018: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Fernando Silva Ribeiro, Maria Alexandre Bettencourt Pires, Edivaldo Xavier Silva Junior, Diogo Casal, Daniel Casanova-Martinez, Diogo Pais, João Erse Goyri-O'Neill
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study is to report an original, unusual, case of bilateral anatomical variation of the sciatic nerve, with low origin and high division. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anatomical dissection was performed on a 66 year-old female cadaver. The corpse was embalmed and conserved through our original embalming techniques. RESULTS: The particular anatomical variation was first detected during routine dissection classes for undergraduate students...
October 31, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Zora Haviarova, Viktor Matejcik, Roman Kuruc, Ján Líška, Juraj Steno
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS:  A great number of unsuccessful intervertebral herniated disk surgeries in the lumbosacral region have highlighted the importance of a comprehensive knowledge of the different types of nerve root anomalies. That knowledge gained by anatomical studies (and intraoperative findings) might contribute to better results. In our study we focused on intraspinal extradural lumbosacral nerve root anomalies and their possible role in radiculopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS:  The study was performed on 43 cadavers within 24 hours after death (32 men and 11 women)...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Ana Sofia Da Silva, Victoria Asfour, Giuseppe Alessandro Digesu, Rufus Cartwright, Ruwan Fernando, Vik Khullar
INTRODUCTION: The sonographic appearance of a levator muscle "avulsion" representing the literal detachment of the pubovisceral muscle (PVM) enthesis has been contested. The nature of the levator ani "avulsion" is still not fully understood. It is known, that the tensile strength of a tendon is dependent on collagen with increased synthesis of collagen occurring in tissue with increased mechanical load levels. This study aims to perform a quantitative histological evaluation of the PVM enthesis with or without the imaging finding of levator ani "avulsion" to determine if there is a difference in the proportion of muscle and collagen...
October 30, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Aristidis Kostorrizos, Athanasios Koukakis, Alexandros Samolis, Vasilios Protogerou, Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos, Maria Piagkou, Konstantinos Natsis, George P Skandalakis, Theodore Troupis
Cadaver's dissection has a fundamental role in teaching and understanding the anatomy. Postmortem body donation (PMBD) is an important source of cadavers and provides an opportunity to carry out research or educational activities in medicine and surgery. The objective of the current study is to determine the perspectives and attitudes toward PMBD among blood donors (BLD) and elderly people. These data are fundamental to highlight the PMBD extent and individual factors that might influence PMBD. Concerning the perception of body donation (BD) among BLD and elderly, the most common reason for BD was the contribution in research, in both study groups, while the commonest reason for hesitating BD was the lack of information following by personal reasons, concerning BLD and the elderly...
October 29, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Adam G Drury, Eric Monnet, Rebecca A Packer, Angela J Marolf
OBJECTIVE: To define boundaries of minimally invasive integrated endoscopic hemilaminectomy at 4 sites in the canine thoracolumbar spine. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental, randomized cadaveric study. ANIMALS: Six cadaver dogs that had been humanely euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. METHODS: Hemilaminectomy was performed with an integrated endoscopic system at T11-12, T12-13, L1-2, and L2-3, 1 at each site, on the left or right side of each dog...
October 28, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
X Shang, L Zhu, J H Lang, C Ma, N L Wang, X D Li
Objective: To measure in vivo biomechanical properties of pelvic support structures associated with uterosacral ligament suspension (ULS) . Methods: Ten Chinese female cadavers (death within 48 hours) without embalming were carefully dissected to expose the ligament. After dissection, ligaments were sewn according to standard ULS surgical technique. They were stretched at a steady rate to breakage during constant electronic registration of load and displacement. In vivo biomechanical properties were evaluated by a load-displacement curve...
October 25, 2018: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Neeru Goyal, Anjali Jain
PURPOSE: Variations of the phrenic nerve gain importance in the context of subclavian vein cannulation, implanted venous access portals and supraclavicular nerve block for regional anaesthesia. Some of the variations of phrenic nerve are very common and may have implications even while performing very simple and routine procedures. METHODS: During routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy, an anatomical variation was observed in the course of the phrenic nerve in an adult male cadaver...
October 25, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Cristina R Prall, Lyna Azzouz, Christopher Connolly, Marc Gutierrez, Natalie Moreno, Oluyemi Olumolade, B Kathleen Alsup, Glenn M Fox
PURPOSE: With emphasis on the clinical setting, knowledge of anatomical variation decreases misdiagnoses and surgical complications. We report a previously undocumented variant of sternalis muscle and recommend an augmented classification scheme. METHODS: Dissection of the anterior thoracic wall on an 83-year-old female cadaver revealed bilateral sternalis muscles. The Snosek et al. classification system was referenced to describe the variant types. RESULTS: The right sternalis muscle has a single belly and can be classified using the Snosek et al...
October 23, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Matt Daggett, Clark Stephenson, John Dobson, Amy Whitaker, Andrea Redler, Edoardo Monaco, Barth Wright, Adnan Saithna, Bertrand Sonnery-Cottet
Background: The structure and function of the anterolateral aspect of the knee have been significantly debated, with renewed interest in this topic since the description of the anterolateral ligament (ALL). Purpose: To define and describe the distinct structures of the lateral knee and to correlate the macroscopic and histologic anatomic features. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Twelve fresh-frozen human cadavers were used for anatomic analysis...
October 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Nikolai Klebanov, David H Wei, Brendan J Harrison, Hervey L Kimball
Introduction Damage to the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) is a known complication when using a cortical button during distal biceps tendon repair. Prior studies show that the trajectory of the drill through the biceps tuberosity can affect the distance from the PIN. We develop a mathematical model to predict the location of the tuberosity based on a palpable bony landmark and patient demographic factors. Methods The medical charts and elbow radiographs of (n = 82) adult patients were retrospectively reviewed...
August 14, 2018: Curēus
M Le Hanneur, A Cambon-Binder, Z Belkheyar
Our aims were to study the anatomical feasibility of triceps brachii long head (TBLH) transfer to the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendons through a medial route, and to report on its first clinical application. Dissections were conducted on 10 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens. Using a posteromedial approach, the TBLH was separated from the remaining triceps and extended distally with a fascia lata strip. This strip was then tunneled through a medial route and secured distally to the EDC and EPL tendons...
October 18, 2018: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Joe Iwanaga, Paul J Choi, Marc Vetter, Mayank Patel, Shogo Kikuta, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) procedure delivers anesthetics to the pterygomandibular space through which the lingual nerve (LN) and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) travel. Injury to the LN has been reported more often than injury to the IAN. However, the number of anatomical studies of LN injury is limited. We aimed to establish evidence by investigating LN and IAN anatomy at the level of the mandibular foramen (MF). Forty-four sides from 22 Caucasian cadaveric heads (16 fresh-frozen and six formalin-fixed cadavers) were used in this study...
August 6, 2018: Curēus
Joe Iwanaga, Emily Simonds, Marc Vetter, Mayank Patel, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The inferior gluteal nerve has been traditionally described as a solely motor branch innervating the gluteus maximus. However, during routine dissection of the gluteal region, a cutaneous branch of the inferior gluteal nerve was identified. As the gluteal region is vulnerable to the development of pressure ulcers and iatrogenic injury with for example, surgical approaches and injection therapies, a comprehensive understanding of its cutaneous innervation is important. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the anatomy of this cutaneous branch of the inferior gluteal nerve in a series of cadavers...
September 2018: Clinical Anatomy
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