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cadaver dissection

Oscar J Manrique, Kian Adabi, Andres A Maldonado, Tony C Huang, Jorys Martinez-Jorge, Pierre Brassard, Ricardo Galan, Pedro Ciudad, Mohamed Diya Sabbagh
PURPOSE: The lack of erogenous sensitivity in the neovagina is one of the major shortcomings for patients undergoing male-to-female genital confirmation surgery. Remnant fibers of the dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) after clitroplasty can potentially be used for a second neurovascular pedicle flap for intravaginal erogenous sensation. METHODS: An anatomic dissection of the DNP was performed in 10 male frozen pelvises to identify major trunks and their branches. Lateral branches of DNP were preserved for a sensate "O" pedicle flap for the vagina...
July 10, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Hun-Mu Yang, Sang Jun Park, Kyung Bong Yoon, Kyoungun Park, Shin Hyung Kim
Background: A quadratus lumborum (QL) block is an abdominal truncal block technique that primarily provides analgesia and anaesthesia to the abdominal wall. This cadaveric study was undertaken to compare the dye spread between different needle approaches for ultrasound-guided QL blocks in soft-embalmed cadavers. Methods: After randomization, an experienced anesthesiologist performed two lateral, three posterior, and five alternative QL blocks on the left or right sides of five cadavers...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Antonio Carlos Abramo
BACKGROUND: In this series of patients the cutaneous insertion and strength of voluntary contraction of the muscles in the upper third of the face were used as guidelines for botulinum toxin application named "BTA Codes." METHOD: Anatomical dissection of fresh cadavers identified the shape and cutaneous insertions of the muscles in the upper third of the face. Patient voluntary contraction of the muscles in the upper third of the face created different patterns of skin lines classified by the 4-grade Facial Wrinkle Scale...
July 9, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Michał Tomasz Podgórski, Łukasz Olewnik, Piotr Grzelak, Michał Polguj, Mirosław Topol
The rotator cable is a semicircular thickening of the glenohumeral joint capsule. It travels between tubercles of the humerus and interweaves with the supra- and infraspinatus muscle tendons. The rotator cable anchors these tendons to the tubercles, playing the role of a suspension bridge. However, little is known about the modifications of this cable that result from pathologies to the rotator cuff tendons. Thus, we aim to compare the morphology of the normal rotator cable with cables in specimens with rotator cuff injuries...
July 10, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Rosagemma Ciliberti, Matteo Gulino, Valentina Gazzaniga, Fabio Gallo, Valerio Gaetano Vellone, Francesco De Stefano, Pierluigi Santi, Ilaria Baldelli
Post mortem body donation (PMBD) for medical training and research plays a key role in medical-surgical education. The aim of this study is to evaluate Italian medical students’ awareness and attitudes regarding this practice. A questionnaire was sent to 1781 Italian medical students (MS). A total of 472 MS responded: 406 (92.91%) had a strongly positive attitude to PMBD, while 31 (7.09%) were not in favor. The majority of subjects were Catholic (56.36%), while 185 and 21 subjects, said that they did not hold any religious beliefs, or were of other religions, respectively...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Laura Grigoriță, Monica Adriana Vaida, Adelina Jianu
OBJECTIVE: An aberrant subclavius posticus muscle was found during routine dissection of the left infraclavicular fossa of a 60-year-old male cadaver. PRESENTATION: This aberrant muscle arises antero-medially, from the costoclavicular ligament, runs postero-laterally, over the trunks of the brachial plexus, and postero-lateral has a common insertion with the omohyoid muscle. CONCLUSION: The presence of such an aberrant muscle may cause a dynamic compression of the subclavian artery and brachial plexus...
July 9, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Satheesha B Nayak
The objective of this case report is to alert the cardiologists and radiologists about the possibility of an extremely rare trifurcation of the right coronary artery. During dissection classes, an early trifurcation of the right coronary artery (RCA) was observed in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 65 years. The RCA had a normal origin from the anterior aortic sinus. After a course of just 2 mm, it trifurcated into a conus artery, a huge right ventricular branch and then a main continuation of the RCA...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Apurba Patra, Manjit Singh, Harsimarjit Kaur, Rajan Kumar Singla, Vishal Malhotra
Several authors have made efforts to define the position of the axillary nerve within deltoid muscle and to calculate the so called safe area for this nerve but it still remains a matter of debate. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the acromio-axillary (AA) distance and its correlation with upper arm length. The secondary aim was to re-define the safe area for axillary nerve within deltoid muscle. Sixty shoulders of thirty adult human cadavers were dissected using standard methods. The distance from the anterior and posterior edge of acromion to the upper border of the course of the axillary nerve was measured and recorded as anterior and posterior AA distance respectively...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Sudikshya Kc, Pragya Shrestha, Aashish Kumar Shah, Arvind Kumar Jha
The fissures of lungs are embryologically separating the bronchopulmonary segments, which later on persist in interlobar planes of fully developed lung. Fifty lungs (23 right side and 27 left side), obtained during routine dissection and preserved in formalin constituted the material for present study. In them, variations in fissures and lobes of lung were observed and compared with the previous studies. Seven right sided and 14 left sided lungs showed incomplete oblique fissure. Incomplete horizontal fissure of right lung was observed in eight lungs while it was completely missing in three specimens...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Dhivyalakshmi Gnanasekaran, Raveendranath Veeramani, Aravindhan Karuppusamy
Pulleys are thickened regions in flexor tendons sheaths of the digits. They are essential and act as fulcrum for the flexion and extension of the digits. The arrangement and number of pulley system differs greatly between the thumb and other digits. There is paucity of literature regarding the pulley system of thumb. We aimed to study the morphometry of the pulley system of the thumb in Indian cadavers. Dissection was carried out in 55 adult human cadaveric thumbs. The most common morphologic pattern of pulley observed in the thumb is type III (30 thumbs)...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Dimonge Joseph Anthony, Basnayaka Mudiyanselage Oshan Deshanjana Basnayake, Nambunanayakkara Mahapalliyaguruge Gagana Ganga, Yasith Mathangasinghe, Ajith Peiris Malalasekera
Background: Accurate anatomical landmarks to locate the thoracodorsal nerve are important in axillary clearance surgery. Methods: Twenty axillary dissections were carried out on ten preserved Sri Lankan cadavers. Cadavers were positioned dorsal decubitus with upper limbs abducted to 900 . An incision was made in the upper part of the anterior axillary line. The lateral thoracic vein was identified and traced bi-directionally. The anatomical location of the thoracodorsal nerve was studied in relation to the lateral border of pectoralis minor and from a point along the lateral thoracic vein, 2 cm inferior to its confluence with the axillary vein...
2018: Patient Safety in Surgery
Andreas Kurrek, Angelo Troedhan, Marko Konschake
PURPOSE: An ongoing clinical trial regarding intra- and post-surgical morbidity in maxillary apicoectomies showed significant higher morbidity for upper canines and palatal roots of upper 1st premolars. Analysis of available presurgical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-scans revealed the existence of an unknown bone-canal branching off from the bone-canal or groove of the anterior superior alveolar artery (asaa). Aim of the study was the determination of the contents of this newly found bone canal in human cadaver heads, its prevalence as possible standard anatomical structure and its automatized detection with a contemporary high-resolution TRIUM-CBCT-device in vivo...
July 6, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Mark J Lambrechts, Nicholas W Wiegers, Felipe Ituarte, Francis H Shen, Ali Nourbakhsh
PURPOSE: This cadaver study was initiated to identify safe zones for psoas abscess debridement using a dorsal spinal approach. METHODS: Twenty total specimens were dissected and lumbar transverse process (TP) and psoas muscles were identified. The distance from the lateral psoas muscle to the transverse process tip was measured. The lumbar plexus was dissected from the psoas and the distance from the TP to the lateral border of the lumbar plexus was measured. The area between the lateral edge of the psoas and lumbar plexus at each lumbar level was considered a safe zone of approach for entry into the psoas muscle for abscess debridement...
July 5, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Philippe Manyacka Ma Nyemb, Christian Fontaine, Véronique Martinot-Duquennoy, Xavier Demondion, Jean-Marc Ndoye
INTRODUCTION: The trapezius muscle is a good option for soft tissue defects in the cervical and thoracic regions. However, pedicled flaps raised from perforators in the trapezius are rare. Through a series of cadaver dissections, the authors aim to map the perforating arteries in the trapezius muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dissection of 58 anatomical regions in 32 cadavers was carried out. The perforating arteries of the trapezius were inventoried based on their location, dimensions and frequency using the scapular spine and spinous process line as landmarks...
July 5, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Edie Benedito Caetano, João José Sabongi, Luiz Angelo Vieira, Maurício Ferreira Caetano, José Eduardo DE Bona, Thais Mayor Simonatto
Objective: The arcade of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (FDS) is an anatomical structure which has not yet been widely studied and is a site of nerve compression. The aim of this study was to analyze the arcade of the FDS muscle and its relations with the median and anterior interosseous nerves through anatomic dissections. Method: Fifty arms from 25 adult cadavers (21 males and 4 females) were dissected; 18 were previously preserved in formalin and glycerin and 7 fresh specimens were dissected in the Laboratory of Anatomy...
January 2018: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
Evgeniy Nikolaevich Goncharov, Oleg Aleksandrovich Koval, Eduard Nikolaevich Bezuglov, Nikolay Gavriilovich Goncharov
BACKGROUND: The anterolateral ligament (ALL) was discovered in 1879. For over 130 years, this anatomical structure did not enjoy much attention, but the situation started to change when a number of researchers described its contribution to the rotational stability of the knee joint. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To estimate the occurrence of the ALL and describe the aspects of its anatomy that should be factored into the outcome of stabilizing surgeries of the knee joint...
July 3, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Ehtaih Sham, Jaumie Ayala Masia, Thyagraj Jayaram Reddy
Background: Radial forearm free flap with all its present day modifications is the workhorse of soft tissue reconstruction in head & neck. Although there are several advantages, it requires the sacrifice of a major artery of forearm. There are several modifications of harvesting a forearm flap based on perforator principles. A clear understanding of vascular anatomy of individual perforators relative to its vascular territory & flow characteristics is essential for both flap harvest & design...
January 2018: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
Jin Young Im, Hong Bum Park, Seok Jun Lee, Seong Gyu Lim, Ki Hoon Kim, Dasom Kim, Im Joo Rhyu, Byung Kyu Park, Dong Hwee Kim
OBJECTIVE: To identify the center of extensor indicis (EI) muscle through cadaver dissection and compare the accuracy of different techniques for needle electromyography (EMG) electrode insertion. METHODS: Eighteen upper limbs of 10 adult cadavers were dissected. The center of trigonal EI muscle was defined as the point where the three medians of the triangle intersect. Three different needle electrode insertion techniques were introduced: M1, 2.5 cm above the lower border of ulnar styloid process (USP), lateral aspect of the ulna; M2, 2 finger breadths (FB) proximal to USP, lateral aspect of the ulna; and M3, distal fourth of the forearm, lateral aspect of the ulna...
June 27, 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Konstantinos N Koutsouflianiotis, George Paraskevas, Maria Piagkou, George Noussios, Konstantinos Natsis
OBJECTIVE: The study adds valuable information regarding lymphovenous communications between the thoracic duct and the azygos vein, which are very rarely discovered during anatomical dissections and very few cases have been mentioned worldwide. A detailed description of our findings and a brief review of the relevant literature are also provided. CASE REPORST: In the current study, two sizeable obliquely directed lymphovenous anastomoses between the thoracic duct and the azygos vein at the midportion of the mediastinum are described in the same cadaver...
May 2018: Acta Medica Academica
Philippa A Rust, Larissa M Manojlovich, Robert Wallace
Dart thrower's motion is the functional coupled movement of the wrist from radial extension to ulnar flexion. The aim of this study was to evaluate dart thrower's motion following three surgeries: radioscapholunate fusion, four-corner fusion and proximal row carpectomy. Six fresh-frozen cadaver forearms were dissected. Sequential loading of tendons resulted in radial extension and ulnar flexion allowing dart thrower's motion measurements at end range before and then again after each surgery. After radioscapholunate fusion, 74% of both radial extension and ulnar flexion were maintained...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
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