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Hyperandrogenism in female adolescents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522931/salivary-cortisol-and-cortisone-responses-to-short-term-psychological-stress-challenge-in-late-adolescent-and-young-women-with-different-hyperandrogenic-states
#1
Marco Mezzullo, Flaminia Fanelli, Guido Di Dalmazi, Alessia Fazzini, Daniela Ibarra-Gasparini, Marianna Mastroroberto, Jenny Guidi, Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate, Renato Pasquali, Uberto Pagotto, Alessandra Gambineri
Hyperandrogenic disorders have been associated with psychological distress, reduced quality of life, anxiety and depression. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a pivotal role in the adaptive response to stressor events. Salivary cortisol (SalF) and cortisone (SalE) testing have been proven to be useful in the evaluation of HPA-axis activity. This study investigated whether SalF and SalE responses to two putative stressor levels differed between the hyperandrogenic states in late adolescent and young women, thus measuring the HPA-axis adaptive response to acute stress events...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465004/insulin-resistance-in-an-animal-model-of-polycystic-ovary-disease-is-aggravated-by-vitamin-d-deficiency-vascular-consequences
#2
Leila Hadjadj, Szabolcs Várbíró, Eszter Mária Horváth, Anna Monori-Kiss, Éva Pál, Gellért Balázs Karvaly, Andrea Heinzlmann, Attila Magyar, István Szabó, Réka Eszter Sziva, Zoltán Benyó, Mariann Buday, György László Nádasy
Hyperandrogenic state in females is accompanied with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and vascular pathologies. A total of 67%-85% of hyperandrogenic women suffer also from vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to check a potential interplay between hyperandrogenism and vitamin D deficiency in producing insulin resistance and effects on coronary resistance arteries. Adolescent female rats were divided into four groups, 11-12 animals in each. Transdermal testosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals were kept either on vitamin D-deficient or on vitamin D-supplemented diet for 8 weeks...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462707/the-diagnostic-value-of-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-early-post-menarche-adolescent-girls-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#3
Pınar Kocaay, Zeynep Siklar, Sema Buyukfirat, Merih Berberoglu
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation, which affects 5%-10% of reproductive-age women. Diagnosis of adult patients with PCOS is made easily with clinical and laboratory methods and the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level are accepted as a good indicator. However, there is still no complete consensus on the diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study, December 2013 to November 2014...
August 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368340/serum-irisin-concentrations-in-lean-adolescents-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Flora Bacopoulou, Nikos Athanasopoulos, Vasiliki Efthymiou, Aimilia Mantzou, Leon Aravantinos, Spiros Vlahopoulos, Efthymios Deligeoroglou
OBJECTIVE: To explore differences in irisin concentrations between lean adolescents with PCOS and age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls and examine the associations of irisin with core features of the syndrome. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: Lean females with PCOS, aged 13-21 years. MEASUREMENTS: Physical, hormonal and sonographic assessment. Irisin concentrations were measured with ELISA. RESULTS: Participants included in total 39 sedentary females (mean ± SD; age 17...
January 25, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196492/high-fat-diet-exposure-from-pre-pubertal-age-induces-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-in-rats
#5
Roshni Patel, Gaurang Shah
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, polycystic ovaries and metabolic syndrome. Many researchers reported that PCOS often starts with menarche in adolescents. Presently available animal model focuses on ovarian but not metabolic features of PCOS. Therefore, we hypothesized that high-fat diet feeding to pre-pubertal female rats results in both reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. Pre-pubertal female rats were divided into two groups: group I received normal pellet diet and group II received high-fat diet (HFD)...
February 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049986/new-diagnostic-criteria-of-polycystic-ovarian-morphology-for-adolescents-impact-on-prevalence-and-hormonal-profile
#6
Paulina M Merino, Claudio Villarroel, Cristián Jesam, Patricia López, Ethel Codner
BACKGROUND: The ultrasonographic criteria used to identify polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) during adolescence have changed over time. Recently, a Worldwide Pediatric Consensus (PedC) defined PCOM using stricter criteria than the previous recommendations of the Rotterdam Consensus (RC) and Androgen Excess-Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Society (AES/PCOS) criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PCOM in healthy adolescents according to the 3 reported diagnostic criteria and compare the hormonal profile in females with and without PCOM based on the PedC criteria...
2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531286/is-foetal-hyperexposure-to-androgens-a-cause-of-pcos
#7
REVIEW
Panagiota Filippou, Roy Homburg
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence...
July 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487735/variations-in-the-3-utr-of-the-cyp21a2-gene-in-heterozygous-females-with-hyperandrogenaemia
#8
Vassos Neocleous, Pavlos Fanis, Meropi Toumba, Alexia A P Phedonos, Michalis Picolos, Elena Andreou, Tassos C Kyriakides, George A Tanteles, Christos Shammas, Leonidas A Phylactou, Nicos Skordis
Heterozygosity for CYP21A2 mutations in females is possibly related to increased risk of developing clinical hyperandrogenism. The present study was designed to seek evidence on the phenotype-genotype correlation in female children, adolescents, and women with CYP21A2 mutations and variants in the 3'UTR region of the gene. Sixty-six patients out of the 169 were identified as carriers of CYP21A2 mutations. Higher values of stimulated 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) levels were found in the carriers of the p...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456695/paratubal-cyst-size-correlates-with-obesity-and-dysregulation-of-the-wnt-signaling-pathway
#9
Jennifer E Dietrich, Oluyemisi Adeyemi, Julie Hakim, Xiomara Santos, Jennifer L Bercaw-Pratt, Juan C Bournat, Ching H Chen, Carolina J Jorgez
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Paratubal cysts (PTCs) occur in 7%-10% of women, regardless of age. Although common, PTCs often are found incidentally because of the potential for these cysts to be asymptomatic. The specific aims of the study were to determine if PTC number and size correlated with signs of hyperandrogenism and obesity, as well as to investigate the molecular profiles of these PTCs in samples derived from female adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A prospective cohort study was performed in a single children's hospital...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333238/clustering-of-pcos-like-traits-in-naturally-hyperandrogenic-female-rhesus-monkeys
#10
D H Abbott, B H Rayome, D A Dumesic, K C Lewis, A K Edwards, K Wallen, M E Wilson, S E Appt, J E Levine
Study question: Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Summary answer: Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS...
April 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906711/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-adolescent-girls
#11
REVIEW
Natalie Hecht Baldauff, Selma Feldman Witchel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous disorder that appears to have its origins during the peripubertal years. The diagnostic conundrum is that the typical clinical features, irregular menses and acne, occur during normal female puberty. Understanding the physiologic origins and molecular basis of the dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in PCOS is fundamental to interrupting the distinctive vicious cycle of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862157/gonadal-tumour-risk-in-292-phenotypic-female-patients-with-disorders-of-sex-development-containing-y-chromosome-or-y-derived-sequence
#12
He Huang, Chunqing Wang, Qinjie Tian
OBJECTIVE: Phenotypic female disorders of sex development (DSD) patients with Y chromosome or Y-derived sequence have an increased risk of gonadal germ cell tumours (GCTs). The objective of the study was to evaluate tumour risk of DSD, summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with GCTs and propose management suggestions. METHODS: Medical records of 292 patients diagnosed DSD and undergoing bilateral gonadectomy at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1996 to March 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
April 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510491/metabolic-features-across-the-female-life-span-in-women-with-pcos
#13
REVIEW
Teresa Sir-Petermann, Bárbara Echiburú, Nicolás Crisosto, Manuel Maliqueo, Francisco Pérez Bravo
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine metabolic disorder and is presently considered a family pathology. It is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Racial, ethnic and environmental factors may be important in determining the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome is an exclusion diagnosis and, therefore, should be distinguished from the physiological changes typical for the age and from other hyperandrogenic disorders. Early diagnosis is important since this syndrome is associated with reproductive, oncologic and metabolic risks...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505086/a-novel-insulin-receptor-mutation-in-an-adolescent-with-acanthosis-nigricans-and-hyperandrogenism
#14
Mansa Krishnamurthy, Mia M Pingul
Insulin receptor mutations cause extreme insulin resistance resulting in acanthosis nigricans and hyperandrogenism. We report a pre-menarchal adolescent female with normal weight, with severe acanthosis nigricans, acne, and hirsutism. Initial investigation revealed elevated fasting and post-prandial insulin and high testosterone and androstenedione levels. Her father had frequent complaints of hypoglycemia. Coding sequence and splice junction analysis of the INSR gene, in our patient and her father, revealed a heterozygous missense mutation in the β subunit of the insulin receptor (Arg1131Trp), resulting in receptor loss of function...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419327/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
Tracy Williams, Rami Mortada, Samuel Porter
Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients. Although the pathophysiology of the syndrome is complex and there is no single defect from which it is known to result, it is hypothesized that insulin resistance is a key factor. Metabolic syndrome is twice as common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with the general population, and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome are four times more likely than the general population to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus...
July 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212956/positive-fertility-outcomes-in-a-female-with-classic-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-following-bilateral-adrenalectomy
#16
Urania Dagalakis, Ashwini Mallappa, Meredith Elman, Martha Quezado, Deborah P Merke
BACKGROUND: Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) requires lifetime steroid replacement and supraphysiologic glucocorticoid dose is often required for adequate adrenal androgen suppression. Patients often suffer from long-term co-morbidities and female infertility is common. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the use of laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy as a treatment for a 21 year old female with classic simple virilizing CAH and infertility. She presented as an adolescent with increasing weight gain, amenorrhea and elevated adrenal androgens despite the use of dexamethasone (250 mcg given twice daily), and fludrocortisone (150 mcg daily)...
2016: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26681172/novel-insights-into-46-xy-disorders-of-sex-development-due-to-nr5a1-gene-mutation
#17
Ralf Werner, Isabel Mönig, Julia August, Clemens Freiberg, Ralf Lünstedt, Benedikt Reiz, Lutz Wünsch, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Alexandra Kulle, Ulla Döhnert, Stefan A Wudy, Annette Richter-Unruh, Christoph Thorns, Olaf Hiort
The differential diagnosis of 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) is based on the distinction between forms of gonadal dysgenesis and disorders of androgen biosynthesis and action. However, clinical and endocrine evaluations are often not conclusive. Here, we describe an adolescent female with hirsutism and hyperandrogenization at puberty. Her karyotype was 46,XY, and clinical investigation demonstrated clitoromegaly, but no uterine remnants were detected. Histology of the gonads revealed a testicular structure with a Sertoli-cell-only pattern...
2015: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26652764/weight-gain-and-dyslipidemia-in-early-adulthood-associate-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Meri-Maija E Ollila, Terhi Piltonen, Katri Puukka, Aimo Ruokonen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Juha S Tapanainen, Stephen Franks, Laure Morin-Papunen
CONTEXT: Obesity affects the majority of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but previous studies are inconsistent about the prevalence of obesity and the importance of weight gain in the development of the syndrome. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the association between weight, weight gain, hyperandrogenism, and PCOS from adolescence to late adulthood. DESIGN: The study includes a prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study including 5889 females born in 1966 and followed at the ages of 14, 31, and 46 years...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26598450/the-diagnosis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-adolescents
#19
REVIEW
Robert L Rosenfield
Consensus has recently been reached by international pediatric subspecialty societies that otherwise unexplained persistent hyperandrogenic anovulation using age- and stage-appropriate standards are appropriate diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents. The purpose of this review is to summarize these recommendations and discuss their basis and implications. Anovulation is indicated by abnormal uterine bleeding, which exists when menstrual cycle length is outside the normal range or bleeding is excessive: cycles outside 19 to 90 days are always abnormal, and most are 21 to 45 days even during the first postmenarcheal year...
December 2015: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26579638/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-and-insulin-like-3-levels-in-healthy-normal-weight-ovulatory-and-anovulatory-eumenorrheic-late-adolescent-females-potential-early-biomarkers-of-ovarian-dysfunction
#20
Carla Pelusi, Marianna Stancampiano, Flaminia Fanelli, Milena Pariali, Alessandra Gambineri, Renato Pasquali
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and insulin-like 3 (INSL3) levels and their association with gonadotropin and ovarian steroid hormones, as expression of ovarian function, between healthy normal-weight ovulatory and anovulatory eumenorrheic late adolescent females. STUDY DESIGN: This study analyzed AMH and INSL3 levels in forty healthy eumenorrheic late adolescent females (aged 16-19 ys), selected from a cross-sectional epidemiological study performed on the prevalence of hyperandrogenic states...
December 2015: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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