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Behjat Javadi
Cancer is the second leading cause of death with profound socio-economic consequences worldwide. Growing evidence suggests the crucial role of diet on cancer prevention and treatment. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) there is a major focus on contribution of special diet and foods to cancer management. In the present article, the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of several food items including plants and animal products recommended by TPM as anticancer agents are discussed. Strong evidence supports the anticancer effects of beetroot (Beta vulgris) and its major compound betanin, cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde, barley (H...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Hiroyuki Hattori, Kosei Yamauchi, Siaw Onwona-Agyeman, Thoru Mitsunaga
BACKGROUND: Grains of Paradise (GP) is the seed of Aframomum melegueta, which is widely distributed throughout West Africa and has been used as a spice and a folk remedy for a long time. The anti-obesity effect by GP intake was demonstrated in our previous report. In this present study, we tried to isolate some compounds in GP and clarify the anti-obesity mechanism. RESULTS: Ten vanilloid compounds were determined. Among ten vanilloids, 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-octen-5-one were determined as novel compounds and 6-gingerol, 6-paradol, and 6-shogaol were identified as the major constituents in GP extract...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Sushovan Paladhi, In-Soo Hwang, Eun Jeong Yoo, Do Hyun Ryu, Choong Eui Song
A practical and highly enantioselective nonenzymatic kinetic resolution of racemic β-hydroxy carbonyl (aldol) compounds through enantioselective dehydration process was developed using a cation-binding Song's oligoethylene glycol (oligoEG) catalyst with potassium fluoride (KF) as base. A wide range of racemic aldols was resolved with extremely high selectivity factors ( s = up to 2393) under mild reaction conditions. This protocol is easily scalable. It provides an alternative approach for the syntheses of diverse biologically and pharmaceutically relevant chiral aldols in enantiomerically pure form...
March 14, 2018: Organic Letters
Xiao Li, Jingting Guo, Ning Liang, Xinwei Jiang, Yuan Song, Shiyi Ou, Yunfeng Hu, Rui Jiao, Weibin Bai
Gingerols, the pungent ingredients in ginger, are reported to possess a cholesterol-lowering activity. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study was to investigate how 6-gingerol (6-GN), the most abundant gingerol in fresh ginger, regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism. HepG2 cells were incubated with various concentrations of 6-GN ranging from 50 to 200 μM for 24 h. Results showed that both cellular total cholesterol and free cholesterol decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, 6-GN ranging from 100 to 200 μM increased the LDLR protein and uptake of fluorescent-labeled LDL...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Eun Byeol Lee, Jun Hyeong Kim, Chang Wan An, Yeong Jee Kim, Yun Jeong Noh, Su Jin Kim, Ju-Eun Kim, Abinash Chandra Shrestha, Ha-Neul Ham, Jae-Yoon Leem, Hyung-Kwon Jo, Dae-Sung Kim, Kwang Hyun Moon, Jeong Ho Lee, Kyung Ok Jeong, Dae Keun Kim
In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions...
March 14, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Youjun Luo, Xue Chen, Lumeng Luo, Qi Zhang, Caixia Gao, Xibing Zhuang, Sujuan Yuan, Tiankui Qiao
Ionizing radiation (IR) is the main modality for locoregional control of unresectable gastric cancer (GC). [6]-Gingerol is an active major phenolic compound isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), and it has been demonstrated to possess antitumor activity in previous studies. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the potential activity of [6]-gingerol as a radiosensitizer and to further explore the underlying mechanism. A CCK-8 assay revealed that [6]-gingerol inhibited the cell viability of HGC-27 cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0...
March 5, 2018: Oncology Reports
Na Liang, Yaxin Sang, Weihua Liu, Wenlong Yu, Xianghong Wang
Gingerol was the main functional substance of Zingiberaceous plant which has been known as traditional medicine for thousands of years. The purpose of this experiment was to explore anti-inflammatory effects of gingerol and study the possible mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW246.7 cells. The cells were treated with 10 μg/mL LPS and 300, 200, 100, and 50 μg/mL gingerol for 24 h. The cytotoxicity of gingerol was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zoliumbromide (MTT) method...
March 5, 2018: Inflammation
Reham S Ibrahim, Hoda Fathy
Tracking the impact of commonly applied post-harvesting and industrial processing practices on the compositional integrity of ginger rhizome was implemented in this work. Untargeted metabolite profiling was performed using digitally-enhanced HPTLC method where the chromatographic fingerprints were extracted using ImageJ software then analysed with multivariate Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. A targeted approach was applied using a new, validated, simple and fast HPTLC image analysis method for simultaneous quantification of the officially recognized markers 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol in conjunction with chemometric Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Su-Chen Ho, Yi-Huang Chang
Endogenous noninfectious substances that mediate the nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion causes inappropriate sterile inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, dietary phytochemicals exhibiting capacities to suppress canonical NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion can be a reliable supplement to prevent such diseases...
February 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Poovvathingal Haris, Varughese Mary, Chellappanpillai Sudarsanakumar
6-Gingerol [5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) decan-3-one], the bio-active ingredient of the popular Indian spice ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), is well-known for its pharmacological and physiological actions. The potent antioxidant, antiemetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, analgesic, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and cancer prevention activities of 6-Gingerol has been investigated and explored. 6-Gingerol is a good candidate for the treatment of various cancers including prostrate, pancreatic, breast, skin, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal cancer...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Shengli Gao, Hideo Satsu, Toshiaki Makino
Bofutsushosan (BTS; fang feng tong sheng san in Chinese) is a formula in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and Chinese medicine comprising eighteen crude drugs, and is used to treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fructose is contained in refreshing beverages as high-fructose corn syrup, and is associated with obesity. Fructose is absorbed via glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5) in the intestine. Therefore, the inhibition of GLUT5 is considered to be a target of obesity drugs. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of BTS extract and its constituents on fructose uptake using Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells, i...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Xingran Kou, Xiaoqi Wang, Ruya Ji, Lang Liu, Yening Qiao, Zaixiang Lou, Chaoyang Ma, Shiming Li, Hongxin Wang, Chi-Tang Ho
As one of the main bioactive compounds of dried ginger, 6-shogaol has been widely used to alleviate many ailments. It is also a major pungent flavor component, and its precursor prior to dehydration is 6-gingerol, which is reported to be responsible for the pungent flavor and biological activity of fresh ginger. Structurally, gingerols including 6-gingerol have a β-hydroxyl ketone moiety and is liable to dehydrate to generate an α,β-unsaturated ketone under heat and/or acidic conditions. The conjugation of the α,β-unsaturated ketone skeleton in the chemical structure of 6-shogaol explicates its higher potency and efficacy than 6-gingerol in terms of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiemetic and other bioactivities...
February 8, 2018: Food & Function
Tae Hwan Kim, Soyoung Shin, Sun Dong Yoo, Beom Soo Shin
Pungent spice constituents such as piperine, capsaicin and [6]-gingerol consumed via daily diet or traditional Chinese medicine, have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities. These dietary phytochemicals have also been reported to inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and act as an alternative to synthetic P-gp modulators. However, the in vivo effects on P-gp inhibition are currently unknown. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that phytochemical P-gp inhibitors, i.e., piperine, capsaicin and [6]-gingerol, modulate the in vivo tissue distribution of doxorubicin, a representative P-gp substrate...
February 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiaojian Yin, Shi-Lei Wang, Raphael N Alolga, Enos Mais, Ping Li, Pingfang Yang, Setsuko Komatsu, Lian-Wen Qi
Ginger is a popular spice used in food and beverages. In this study, we sought to characterize and differentiate ginger samples of Ghana and China origin using label-free proteomic and untargeted metabolomic analyses. As result, a total of 180 proteins significantly changed between the ginger samples from both studied countries. Among them, 17 proteins were specifically identified in the Chinese ginger, while 23 proteins were only identified in the Ghanaian ginger. Function and bioinformatics analyses indicated that changes in carbon metabolism, secondary metabolites biosyntheses, citrate acid cycle, and amino acids biosyntheses-related pathways contributed to the differences...
May 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Zezhi Li, Yanzhi Wang, MeiLing Gao, Wanhua Cui, Mengnan Zeng, Yongxian Cheng, Juan Li
Nine new gingerols, including three 6-oxo-shogaol derivatives [(Z)-6-oxo-[6]-shogaol (1), (Z)-6-oxo-[8]-shogaol (2), (Z)-6-oxo-[10]-shogaol (3)], one 6-oxoparadol derivative [6-oxo-[6]-paradol (4)], one isoshogaol derivative [(E)-[4]-isoshogaol (5)], and four paradoldiene derivatives [(4E,6Z)-[4]-paradoldiene (8), (4E,6E)-[6]-paradoldiene (9), (4E,6E)-[8]-paradoldiene (10), (4E,6Z)-[8]-paradoldiene (11)], together with eight known analogues, were isolated from the rhizoma of Zingiber officinale. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data...
February 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nicole C Smith, Sherri L Christian, Richard G Taylor, Javier Santander, Matthew L Rise
The innate immune system provides the first barrier to infection and disease through various processes including activation of inflammation. Inflammation is a biological process whereby immune cells, including macrophages, respond to, and work together to eliminate, damage from injury and disease. Chronic or sustained inflammation, however, can be detrimental to the health and growth of animals, including fish. Immune modulating functional plant compounds, supplemented as feed additives, may be safe and natural approaches to controlling inflammation and disease...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Masatoshi Ohnishi, Tomoka Urasaki, Kyohei Egusa, Chihiro Kunobu, Tomoki Harada, Reika Shinkado, Hitomi Nishi, Shoji Maehara, Chinami Kitamura, Toshiyuki Hata, Kazuyoshi Ohashi, Hirotaka Shibuya, Atsuko Inoue
To elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Curcuma sp., we investigated whether dehydrocurdione, a sesquiterpene contained in Curcuma sp., induces heme oxygenase (HO)-1, an antioxidative enzyme, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Dehydrocurdione was extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma sp., and its purity was verified by high performance liquid chromatography. Treatment with 10-100 μM dehydrocurdione transiently and concentration-dependently increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. Docking simulation suggested the presence of the Michael reaction between dehydrocurdione and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap)1 keeping nuclear factor-erythroid2-related-factor (Nrf)2, a transcription factor, in the cytoplasm...
January 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
B O Ajayi, I A Adedara, E O Farombi
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting inflammatory disease of the colon, with an increasing incidence worldwide. 6-Gingerol (6G) is a bioactive constituent of Zingiber officinale, which has been reported to possess various biological activities. This study was designed to evaluate the role of 6G in chronic UC. Chronic UC was induced in mice by three cycles of 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. Each cycle consisted of 7 days of 2.5% DSS followed by 14 days of normal drinking water...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Manoj Kushwaha, Shreyans K Jain, Nisha Sharma, Vidushi Abrol, Sundeep Jaglan, Ram A Vishwakarma
Targeting the main three networking systems viz. Las, RhI and PQS via natural quenchers is a new ray of hope for combating the persistent behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the bacterial chemical vocabulary pyocyanin, N-AHLs and rhamnolipids are the main keywords, which are responsible for the social and nomadic behavior of P. aeruginosa. In the present work LCMS-based real-time qualitative and quantitative analysis of pyocyanin, green phenazine, N-AHLs, and rhamnolipids were performed. The quantitative analysis indicates that the production of pyocyanin and NHSLs increases with time while the production of rhamnolipids discontinued after 16 Hrs...
January 5, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Elena Maria Varoni, Bahare Salehi, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Karl R Matthews, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Farzad Kobarfard, Salam A Ibrahim, Dima Mnayer, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Majid Sharifi-Rad, Zubaida Yousaf, Marcello Iriti, Adriana Basile, Daniela Rigano
Plants of the genus Zingiber (Family Zingiberaceae) are widely used throughout the world as food and medicinal plants. They represent very popular herbal remedies in various traditional healing systems; in particular, rhizome of Zingiber spp. plants has a long history of ethnobotanical uses because of a plethora of curative properties. Antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oil has been extensively confirmed in vitro and attributed to its chemical components, mainly consisting of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene and β-sesquiphellandrene...
December 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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