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fast ripple

Robert G Averkin, Viktor Szemenyei, Sándor Bordé, Gábor Tamás
Ultra-high-frequency network events in the hippocampus are instrumental in a dialogue with the neocortex during memory formation, but the existence of transient ∼200 Hz network events in the neocortex is not clear. Our recordings from neocortical layer II/III of freely behaving rats revealed field potential events at ripple and high-gamma frequencies repeatedly occurring at troughs of spindle oscillations during sleep. Juxtacellular recordings identified subpopulations of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-containing basket cells with epochs of firing at ripple (∼200 Hz) and high-gamma (∼120 Hz) frequencies detected during spindles and centered with millisecond precision at the trough of spindle waves in phase with field potential events but phase shifted relative to pyramidal cell firing...
October 12, 2016: Neuron
Shaun A Hussain, Gary W Mathern, Raman Sankar, Joyce Y Wu
OBJECTIVE: Fast ripples (FR, 250-500Hz) are proposed biomarkers of the epileptogenic zone on the basis of several retrospective reports linking postoperative seizure freedom to their complete resection. There are no clinical trials or prospective reports validating the use of FR as characterized by electrocorticography (ECoG), to guide the scope of epilepsy surgery, and to inform prognosis thereafter. We set out to prospectively evaluate the utility of FR resection to predict postoperative epilepsy outcomes, and examine the feasibility of "live" intraoperative FR ascertainment...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Hirohide Takahashi, Atsushi Miyagi, Lorena Redondo-Morata, Simon Scheuring
With nanometer lateral and Angstrom vertical resolution, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has contributed unique data improving the understanding of lipid bilayers. Lipid bilayers are found in several different temperature-dependent states, termed phases; the main phases are solid and fluid phases. The transition temperature between solid and fluid phases is lipid composition specific. Under certain conditions some lipid bilayers adopt a so-called ripple phase, a structure where solid and fluid phase domains alternate with constant periodicity...
September 20, 2016: Small
Mohamed Bougrine, Mohammed Benmiloud, Atallah Benalia, Emmanuel Delaleau, Mohamed Benbouzid
This paper is devoted to the development of a hybrid controller for a two-interleaved boost converter dedicated to renewable energy and automotive applications. The control requirements, resumed in fast transient and low input current ripple, are formulated as a problem of fast stabilization of a predefined optimal limit cycle, and solved using hybrid automaton formalism. In addition, a real time estimation of the load is developed using an algebraic approach for online adjustment of the hybrid controller. Mathematical proofs are provided with simulations to illustrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed controller despite different disturbances...
September 16, 2016: ISA Transactions
Taissa Ferrari-Marinho, Piero Perucca, Francois Dubeau, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: High-frequency oscillations (80-500Hz; HFOs) have been shown to be a specific biomarker of the seizure-onset zone. The relationship of HFOs with seizures having different intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) morphological onsets, however, has shown significant relationships in experimental animals but has not been studied in humans. We investigated how interictal and ictal HFOs relate to different seizure-onset morphological patterns. METHODS: We analyzed the most representative seizure type of 37 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who underwent iEEG for diagnostic evaluation...
September 6, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Fabian C Roth, Katinka M Beyer, Martin Both, Andreas Draguhn, Alexei V Egorov
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a critical component of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system. Local networks within the MTL express a variety of state-dependent network oscillations that are believed to organize neuronal activity during memory formation. The peculiar pattern of sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) entrains neurons by a very fast oscillation at ∼200 Hz in the hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 and then propagates through the "output loop" into the EC. The precise mechanisms of SPW-R propagation and the resulting cellular input patterns in the mEC are, however, largely unknown...
August 1, 2016: Hippocampus
Tommaso Fedele, Maryse van 't Klooster, Sergey Burnos, Willemiek Zweiphenning, Nicole van Klink, Frans Leijten, Maeike Zijlmans, Johannes Sarnthein
OBJECTIVE: High frequency oscillations (HFOs) and in particular fast ripples (FRs) in the post-resection electrocorticogram (ECoG) have recently been shown to be highly specific predictors of outcome of epilepsy surgery. FR visual marking is time consuming and prone to observer bias. We validate here a fully automatic HFO detector against seizure outcome. METHODS: Pre-resection ECoG dataset (N=14 patients) with visually marked HFOs were used to optimize the detector's parameters in the time-frequency domain...
September 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Stephen V Gliske, Zachary T Irwin, Cynthia Chestek, William C Stacey
OBJECTIVE: High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs) are being studied as a biomarker of epilepsy, yet it is unknown how various acquisition parameters at different centers affect detection and analysis of HFOs. This paper specifically quantifies effects of sampling rate (FS) and anti-aliasing filter (AAF) positions on automated HFO detection. METHODS: HFOs were detected on intracranial EEG recordings (17 patients) with 5kHz FS. HFO detection was repeated on downsampled and/or filtered copies of the EEG data, mimicking sampling rates and low-pass filter settings of various acquisition equipment...
September 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Cenglin Xu, Shuang Wang, Yi Wang, Kang Lin, Gang Pan, Zhenghao Xu, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Feng Gao, Xiaohua Wu, Shihong Zhang, Juan C Bulacio, Imad M Najm, Jianhong Luo, Weiwei Hu, Zhaohui Wu, Norman K So, Zhong Chen
High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are promising biomarkers for epileptic foci; however, their characteristic changes during the preictal period remain unclear. Here, the preictal HFOs were recorded and detected by an automated HFOs detection method in the mouse pilocarpine model as well as in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and neocortical epilepsy. A total of sixteen low-voltage fast (LVF) and fifty-three hypersynchronous-onset (HYP) seizures were recorded in ten mice. The rate of ripples (80-250Hz) decreased during 1min before the onset of LVF and HYP seizures, which was primarily due to the reduction of type II (independent of epileptiform discharges) rather than type I ripples (superimposed on epileptiform activities)...
July 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Hisako Fujiwara, James L Leach, Hansel M Greiner, Katherine D Holland-Bouley, Douglas F Rose, Todd Arthur, Francesco T Mangano
Resective epilepsy surgery can improve seizures when the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is limited to a well-defined region. High frequency oscillations (HFO) have been recognized as having a high association with the seizure onset zone. Therefore, we retrospectively identified ictal HFOs and determined their relationship to specific intracranial features of cortical tubers in children with TSC who underwent resective surgery. We identified 14 patients with drug resistant epilepsy secondary to TSC who underwent subdural grid and strip implantation for presurgical evaluation and subsequent resection with adequate post-surgical follow-up...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
Chengcheng Huang, John Rinzel
Pitch is a perceptual correlate of periodicity. Sounds with distinct spectra can elicit the same pitch. Despite the importance of pitch perception, understanding the cellular mechanism of pitch perception is still a major challenge and a mechanistic model of pitch is lacking. A multi-stage neuronal network model is developed for pitch frequency estimation using biophysically-based, high-resolution coincidence detector neurons. The neuronal units respond only to highly coincident input among convergent auditory nerve fibers across frequency channels...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Makio Oka, Fumika Endoh, Harumi Yoshinaga
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the generative mechanisms of epileptic spasms (ESs) in West syndrome, we investigated the temporal relationship between scalp fast (40-150Hz) oscillations (FOs) and slow waves in the ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) of ESs. METHODS: In 11 infants with WS, ictal FOs were detected in a bipolar montage based on spectral and waveform criteria. Their temporal distribution was analyzed in terms of the positive peaks (trough point, TT) of identical EEG data in a referential montage...
May 31, 2016: Brain & Development
Laura A Atherton, Luke Y Prince, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova
The Pinsky-Rinzel model is a non-smooth 2-compartmental CA3 pyramidal cell model that has been used widely within the field of neuroscience. Here we propose a modified (smooth) system that captures the qualitative behaviour of the original model, while allowing the use of available, numerical continuation methods to perform full-system bifurcation and fast-slow analysis. We study the bifurcation structure of the full system as a function of the applied current and the maximal calcium conductance. We identify the bifurcations that shape the transitions between resting, bursting and spiking behaviours, and which lead to the disappearance of bursting when the calcium conductance is reduced...
August 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Nicolás von Ellenrieder, Birgit Frauscher, François Dubeau, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the interaction between physiologic and pathologic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) and slow waves during sleep, and to evaluate the practical significance of these interactions by automatically classifying channels as recording from normal or epileptic brain regions. METHODS: We automatically detected HFOs in intracerebral electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of 45 patients. We characterized the interaction between the HFOs and the amplitude and phase of automatically detected slow waves during sleep...
June 2016: Epilepsia
Birgit Frauscher, Nicolás von Ellenrieder, François Dubeau, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has a suppressing effect on epileptic activity. This effect might be directly related to neuronal desynchronization mediated by cholinergic neurotransmission. We investigated whether interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and high frequency oscillations-a biomarker of the epileptogenic zone-are evenly distributed across phasic and tonic REM sleep. We hypothesized that IEDs are more suppressed during phasic REM sleep because of additional cholinergic drive...
June 2016: Epilepsia
Massimo Avoli, Marco de Curtis, Vadym Gnatkovsky, Jean Gotman, Rüdiger Köhling, Maxime Lévesque, Frédéric Manseau, Zahra Shiri, Sylvain Williams
Low-voltage fast (LVF) and hypersynchronous (HYP) patterns are the seizure-onset patterns most frequently observed in intracranial EEG recordings from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients. Both patterns also occur in models of MTLE in vivo and in vitro, and these studies have highlighted the predominant involvement of distinct neuronal network/neurotransmitter receptor signaling in each of them. First, LVF-onset seizures in epileptic rodents can originate from several limbic structures, frequently spread, and are associated with high-frequency oscillations in the ripple band (80-200 Hz), whereas HYP onset seizures initiate in the hippocampus and tend to remain focal with predominant fast ripples (250-500 Hz)...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Petr Klimes, Juliano J Duque, Ben Brinkmann, Jamie Van Gompel, Matt Stead, Erik K St Louis, Josef Halamek, Pavel Jurak, Gregory Worrell
The function and connectivity of human brain is disrupted in epilepsy. We previously reported that the region of epileptic brain generating focal seizures, i.e., the seizure onset zone (SOZ), is functionally isolated from surrounding brain regions in focal neocortical epilepsy. The modulatory effect of behavioral state on the spatial and spectral scales over which the reduced functional connectivity occurs, however, is unclear. Here we use simultaneous sleep staging from scalp EEG with intracranial EEG recordings from medial temporal lobe to investigate how behavioral state modulates the spatial and spectral scales of local field potential synchrony in focal epileptic hippocampus...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Pariya Salami, Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli
Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a seizure lasting more than 5min or a period of recurrent seizures without recovery between them. SE is a serious emergency condition that requires immediate intervention; therefore, identifying SE electrophysiological markers may translate in prompt care to stop it. Here, we analyzed the EEG signals recorded from the CA3 region of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex in rats that responded to systemic administration of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) by generating either isolated seizures or seizures progressing to SE...
June 2016: Experimental Neurology
Andres D Grosmark, György Buzsáki
Cell assembly sequences during learning are "replayed" during hippocampal ripples and contribute to the consolidation of episodic memories. However, neuronal sequences may also reflect preexisting dynamics. We report that sequences of place-cell firing in a novel environment are formed from a combination of the contributions of a rigid, predominantly fast-firing subset of pyramidal neurons with low spatial specificity and limited change across sleep-experience-sleep and a slow-firing plastic subset. Slow-firing cells, rather than fast-firing cells, gained high place specificity during exploration, elevated their association with ripples, and showed increased bursting and temporal coactivation during postexperience sleep...
March 25, 2016: Science
Matthew P Walker, Edwin M Robertson
Recent work has shown that, during sleep, a functional circuit is created amidst a general breakdown in connectivity following fast-frequency bursts of brain activity. The findings question the unconscious nature of deep sleep, and provide an explanation for its contribution to memory processing.
March 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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