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hilar mossy cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561187/residual-neurogenesis-in-chronically-epileptic-hippocampus-of-mice
#1
Jian-Xin Liu, Ming Hu, Kun Zhu, Xin-Lin Chen, Jian-Shui Zhang, Bo Yuan, Yong Liu
Abnormal hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures has been well addressed. However, whether newly generated cells continued to be disturbed even they were born in the chronic stage after pilocarpine-induce status epilepticus has remained elusive. Labeling dividing progenitors and their progeny with retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein or proliferation marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine at 3 months post pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice, a spot of newly born neurons exhibiting hilar ectopic location (4...
August 18, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068005/oxytocin-depolarizes-fast-spiking-hilar-interneurons-and-induces-gaba-release-onto-mossy-cells-of-the-rat-dentate-gyrus
#2
Scott W Harden, Charles J Frazier
Delivery of exogenous oxytocin (OXT) to central oxytocin receptors (OXT-Rs) is currently being investigated as a potential treatment for conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, social anxiety, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite significant research implicating central OXT signaling in modulation of mood, affect, social behavior, and stress response, relatively little is known about the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying these complex actions, particularly in brain regions which express the OXT-R but lie outside of the hypothalamus (where OXT-synthesizing neurons reside)...
September 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034735/ameliorative-effects-of-antioxidants-on-the-hippocampal-accumulation-of-pathologic-tau-in-a-rat-model-of-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Xiaoping Du, Matthew B West, Weihua Cheng, Donald L Ewert, Wei Li, Debra Saunders, Rheal A Towner, Robert A Floyd, Richard D Kopke
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to early onset dementia and other related neurodegenerative diseases. We previously demonstrated that damage to the central auditory pathway resulting from blast-induced TBI (bTBI) could be significantly attenuated by a combinatorial antioxidant treatment regimen. In the current study, we examined the localization patterns of normal Tau and the potential blast-induced accumulation of neurotoxic variants of this microtubule-associated protein that are believed to potentiate the neurodegenerative effects associated with synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampus following three successive blast overpressure exposures in nontransgenic rats...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644085/axonal-plasticity-of-age-defined-dentate-granule-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
A L Althaus, H Zhang, J M Parent
Dentate granule cell (DGC) mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is thought to underlie the creation of aberrant circuitry which promotes the generation or spread of spontaneous seizure activity. Understanding the extent to which populations of DGCs participate in this circuitry could help determine how it develops and potentially identify therapeutic targets for regulating aberrant network activity. In this study, we investigated how DGC birthdate influences participation in MFS and other aspects of axonal plasticity using the rat pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of mTLE...
February 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25721691/a-computational-study-on-how-theta-modulated-inhibition-can-account-for-the-long-temporal-windows-in-the-entorhinal-hippocampal-loop
#5
Vassilis Cutsuridis, Panayiota Poirazi
A recent experimental study (Mizuseki, Sirota, Pastalkova, & Buzsaki, 2009) has shown that the temporal delays between population activities in successive entorhinal and hippocampal anatomical stages are longer (about 70-80ms) than expected from axon conduction velocities and passive synaptic integration of feed-forward excitatory inputs. We investigate via computer simulations the mechanisms that give rise to such long temporal delays in the hippocampus structures. A model of the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and CA1 microcircuits is presented that uses biophysical representations of the major cell types including granule cells, CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) and six types of interneurons: basket cells (BCs), axo-axonic cells (AACs), bistratified cells (BSCs), oriens lacunosum-moleculare cells (OLMs), mossy cells (MCs) and hilar perforant path associated cells (HC)...
April 2015: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25619597/impaired-autophagy-in-hilar-mossy-cells-of-the-dentate-gyrus-and-its-implication-in-schizophrenia
#6
Yefeng Yuan, Hao Wang, Zongbo Wei, Wei Li
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex disease that has been regarded as a neurodevelopmental, synaptic or epigenetic disorder. Here we provide evidence that neurodegeneration is implicated in SCZ. The DTNBP1 (dystrobrevin-binding protein 1) gene encodes dysbindin-1 and is a leading susceptibility gene of SCZ. We previously reported that the dysbindin-1C isoform regulates the survival of the hilar glutamatergic mossy cells in the dentate gyrus, which controls the adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of hilar mossy cell loss in the dysbindin-1-deficient sandy (sdy) mice (a mouse model of SCZ) is unknown...
January 20, 2015: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25545461/drd2-cre-ribotag-mouse-line-unravels-the-possible-diversity-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-expressing-cells-of-the-dorsal-mouse-hippocampus
#7
Emma Puighermanal, Anne Biever, Julie Espallergues, Giuseppe Gangarossa, Dimitri De Bundel, Emmanuel Valjent
Increasing evidences suggest that dopamine facilitates the encoding of novel memories by the hippocampus. However, the role of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in such regulations remains elusive due to the lack of the precise identification of hippocampal D2R-expressing cells. To address this issue, mice expressing the ribosomal protein Rpl22 tagged with the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope were crossed with Drd2-Cre mice allowing the selective expression of HA in D2R-containing cells (Drd2-Cre:RiboTag mice). This new transgenic model revealed a more widespread pattern of D2R-expressing cells identified by HA immunoreactivity than the one initially reported in Drd2-EGFP mice, in which the hilar mossy cells were the main neuronal population detectable...
July 2015: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25488607/surviving-mossy-cells-enlarge-and-receive-more-excitatory-synaptic-input-in-a-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Wei Zhang, Ajoy K Thamattoor, Christopher LeRoy, Paul S Buckmaster
Numerous hypotheses of temporal lobe epileptogenesis have been proposed, and several involve hippocampal mossy cells. Building on previous hypotheses we sought to test the possibility that after epileptogenic injuries surviving mossy cells develop into super-connected seizure-generating hub cells. If so, they might require more cellular machinery and consequently have larger somata, elongate their dendrites to receive more synaptic input, and display higher frequencies of miniature excitatory synaptic currents (mEPSCs)...
May 2015: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25157109/dysbindin-1c-is-required-for-the-survival-of-hilar-mossy-cells-and-the-maturation-of-adult-newborn-neurons-in-dentate-gyrus
#9
Hao Wang, Yefeng Yuan, Zhao Zhang, Hui Yan, Yaqin Feng, Wei Li
DTNBP1 (dystrobrevin-binding protein 1), which encodes dysbindin-1, is one of the leading susceptibility genes for schizophrenia. Both dysbindin-1B and -1C isoforms are decreased, but the dysbindin-1A isoform is unchanged in schizophrenic hippocampal formation, suggesting dysbindin-1 isoforms may have distinct roles in schizophrenia. We found that mouse dysbindin-1C, but not dysbindin-1A, is localized in the hilar glutamatergic mossy cells of the dentate gyrus. The maturation rate of newborn neurons in sandy (sdy) mice, in which both dysbindin-1A and -1C are deleted, is significantly delayed when compared with that in wild-type mice or with that in muted (mu) mice in which dysbindin-1A is destabilized but dysbindin-1C is unaltered...
October 17, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25031412/long-term-potentiation-in-hilar-circuitry-modulates-gating-by-the-dentate-gyrus
#10
Brandon J Wright, Meyer B Jackson
The dentate gyrus serves as a gateway to the hippocampus, filtering and processing sensory inputs as an animal explores its environment. The hilus occupies a strategic position within the dentate gyrus from which it can play a pivotal role in these functions. Inputs from dentate granule cells converge on the hilus, and excitatory hilar mossy cells redistribute these signals back to granule cells to transform a pattern of cortical input into a new pattern of output to the hippocampal CA3 region. Using voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices, we explored how long-term potentiation (LTP) of different excitatory synapses modifies the flow of information...
July 16, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24862204/antiepileptic-activity-of-preferential-inhibitors-of-persistent-sodium-current
#11
Lyndsey L Anderson, Christopher H Thompson, Nicole A Hawkins, Ravi D Nath, Adam A Petersohn, Sridharan Rajamani, William S Bush, Wayne N Frankel, Carlos G Vanoye, Jennifer A Kearney, Alfred L George
OBJECTIVE: Evidence from basic neurophysiology and molecular genetics has implicated persistent sodium current conducted by voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channels as a contributor to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Many antiepileptic drugs target NaV channels and modulate neuronal excitability, mainly by a use-dependent block of transient sodium current, although suppression of persistent current may also contribute to the efficacy of these drugs. We hypothesized that a drug or compound capable of preferential inhibition of persistent sodium current would have antiepileptic activity...
August 2014: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24853943/cornichon2-dictates-the-time-course-of-excitatory-transmission-at-individual-hippocampal-synapses
#12
Sami Boudkkazi, Aline Brechet, Jochen Schwenk, Bernd Fakler
Cornichon2 (CNIH2), an integral component of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) complexes in the mammalian brain, slows deactivation and desensitization of heterologously reconstituted receptor channels. Its significance in neuronal signal transduction, however, has remained elusive. Here we show by paired recordings that CNIH2-containing AMPARs dictate the slow decay of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) elicited in hilar mossy cells of the hippocampus by single action potentials in mossy fiber boutons (MFB). Selective knockdown of CNIH2 markedly accelerated EPSCs in individual MFB-mossy cell synapses without altering the EPSC amplitude...
May 21, 2014: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24769103/dynorphin-up-regulation-in-the-dentate-granule-cell-mossy-fiber-pathway-following-chronic-inhibition-of-glun2b-containing-nmdar-is-associated-with-increased-creb-ser-133-phosphorylation-but-is-independent-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-pathways
#13
W Bradley Rittase, Yu Dong, DaRel Barksdale, Zygmunt Galdzicki, Suzanne B Bausch
Emerging evidence suggests that neuronal responses to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDAR) activation/inactivation are influenced by subunit composition. For example, activation of synaptic NMDAR (comprised of GluN2A>GluN2B) phosphorylates cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) at Ser 133, induces BDNF expression and promotes neuronal survival. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDAR (comprised of GluN2B>GluN2) dephosphorylates CREB (Ser 133), reduces BDNF expression and triggers neuronal death. These results led us to hypothesize that chronic inhibition of GluN2B-containing NMDAR would increase CREB (Ser 133) phosphorylation, increase BDNF levels and subsequently alter downstream dynorphin (DYN) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression...
May 2014: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24753432/dopamine-d2-receptor-controls-hilar-mossy-cells-excitability
#14
Guillaume Etter, Wojciech Krezel
Hippocampal control of memory formation is regulated by dopaminergic signaling. Whereas the role of dopamine D1 receptors is well documented in such regulations, functions of dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2) are not fully understood. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization we demonstrate that Drd2 expression in the hippocampus of wild-type mice is limited to glutamatergic hilar mossy cells. Using whole cell electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slice preparations, we provide evidence that unlike in basal ganglia, activation of DRD2 by the selective agonist, quinpirole, induces a long-lasting increase in excitability of hilar mossy cells, which can be blocked by the DRD2 antagonist raclopride...
July 2014: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24737918/regulation-of-persistent-activity-in-hippocampal-mossy-cells-by-inhibitory-synaptic-potentials
#15
Ross W Anderson, Ben W Strowbridge
The hippocampal formation receives strong cholinergic input from the septal/diagonal band complex. Although the functional effects of cholinergic activation have been extensively studied in pyramidal neurons within the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, less is known about the role of cholinergic receptors on dentate gyrus neurons. Using intracellular recordings from rat dentate hilar neurons, we find that activation of m1-type muscarinic receptors selectively increases the excitability of glutamatergic mossy cells but not of hilar interneurons...
April 15, 2014: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24638960/hippocampal-neuropathology-of-domoic-acid-induced-epilepsy-in-california-sea-lions-zalophus-californianus
#16
Paul S Buckmaster, Xiling Wen, Izumi Toyoda, Frances M D Gulland, William Van Bonn
California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are abundant human-sized carnivores with large gyrencephalic brains. They develop epilepsy after experiencing status epilepticus when naturally exposed to domoic acid. We tested whether sea lions previously exposed to DA (chronic DA sea lions) display hippocampal neuropathology similar to that of human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampi were obtained from control and chronic DA sea lions. Stereology was used to estimate numbers of Nissl-stained neurons per hippocampus in the granule cell layer, hilus, and pyramidal cell layer of CA3, CA2, and CA1 subfields...
May 1, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24501373/hilar-mossy-cells-provide-the-first-glutamatergic-synapses-to-adult-born-dentate-granule-cells
#17
Jessica H Chancey, David J Poulsen, Jacques I Wadiche, Linda Overstreet-Wadiche
Adult-generated granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus must establish synapses with preexisting neurons to participate in network activity. To determine the source of early glutamatergic synapses on newborn GCs in adult mice, we examined synaptic currents at the developmental stage when NMDA receptor-mediated silent synapses are first established. We show that hilar mossy cells provide initial glutamatergic synapses as well as disynaptic GABAergic input to adult-generated dentate GCs.
February 5, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24487914/the-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-is-localized-at-excitatory-synapses-in-the-mouse-dentate-gyrus
#18
Nagore Puente, Leire Reguero, Izaskun Elezgarai, Miren-Josune Canduela, Juan Mendizabal-Zubiaga, Almudena Ramos-Uriarte, Emilio Fernández-Espejo, Pedro Grandes
The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that plays an important role in pain perception and modulates neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity in the brain. TRPV1 function must lay on its anatomical distribution in the peripheral and central nervous system regions involved in the physiological roles of the channel. However, the anatomical localization of TRPV1 is well established in the periphery, but in the brain it is a matter of debate. While some studies support the presence of TRPV1 in several brain regions, recent evidences suggest a restricted distribution of the channel in the central nervous system...
March 2015: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24390958/overexpression-of-map-2-via-formation-of-microtubules-plays-an-important-role-in-the-sprouting-of-mossy-fibers-in-epileptic-rats
#19
Li Tang, Yang Lu, Weiping Zheng, Yu Li
This study aims to investigate the changes of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) in epileptic dentate gyrus and significance in epilepsy. Alterations in MAP-2 immunoreactivity (MAP2-IR) in kindling model of epilepsy were investigated in rats with survival times ranging from 3 to 30 days. Nissl staining and electron microscopic studies were used to explore more deeply. Electron microscopic was employed to detect tubulin formation and assembly. Immunohistochemical assay was used to examine co-localization of tubulin and MMP-2...
May 2014: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24194702/the-hippocampus-of-the-eastern-rock-sengi-cytoarchitecture-markers-of-neuronal-function-principal-cell-numbers-and-adult-neurogenesis
#20
Lutz Slomianka, Tanja Drenth, Nicole Cavegn, Dominik Menges, Stanley E Lazic, Mashudu Phalanndwa, Christian T Chimimba, Irmgard Amrein
The brains of sengis (elephant shrews, order Macroscelidae) have long been known to contain a hippocampus that in terms of allometric progression indices is larger than that of most primates and equal in size to that of humans. In this report, we provide descriptions of hippocampal cytoarchitecture in the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus), of the distributions of hippocampal calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin, and somatostatin, of principal neuron numbers, and of cell numbers related to proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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