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hilar mossy cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524833/ablation-of-aberrant-neurogenesis-fails-to-attenuate-cognitive-deficit-of-chronically-epileptic-mice
#1
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Cheng-Jun Li, Jie-Hua Xu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Pilocarpine-induced acute seizures strongly induce aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, characterized by increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fibre sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs), which may disturb hippocampal neuronal circuits and thus contribute to cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and animal models. Previous studies via ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures produced inconsistent results regarding the development of long-term cognitive impairment...
May 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222692/advances-in-understanding-hilar-mossy-cells-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#2
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman
Hilar mossy cells (MCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG) distinguish the DG from other hippocampal subfields (CA1-3) because there are two glutamatergic cell types in the DG rather than one. Thus, in the DG, the main cell types include glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and MCs, whereas in CA1-3, the only glutamatergic cell type is the pyramidal cell. In contrast to GCs, MCs are different in morphology, intrinsic electrophysiological properties, afferent input and axonal projections, so their function is likely to be very different from GCs...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214210/excitatory-synaptic-input-to-hilar-mossy-cells-under-basal-and-hyperexcitable-conditions
#3
Tristan P Hedrick, William P Nobis, Kendall M Foote, Toshiyuki Ishii, Dane M Chetkovich, Geoffrey T Swanson
Hilar mossy cells (HMCs) in the hippocampus receive glutamatergic input from dentate granule cells (DGCs) via mossy fibers (MFs) and back-projections from CA3 pyramidal neuron collateral axons. Many fundamental features of these excitatory synapses have not been characterized in detail despite their potential relevance to hippocampal cognitive processing and epilepsy-induced adaptations in circuit excitability. In this study, we compared pre- and postsynaptic parameters between MF and CA3 inputs to HMCs in young and adult mice of either sex and determined the relative contributions of the respective excitatory inputs during in vitro and in vivo models of hippocampal hyperexcitability...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056362/critical-appraisal-of-pathology-transmission-in-the-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibril-model-of-lewy-body-disorders
#4
Negin Nouraei, Daniel M Mason, Kristin M Miner, Michael A Carcella, Tarun N Bhatia, Benjamin K Dumm, Dishaben Soni, David A Johnson, Kelvin C Luk, Rehana K Leak
Lewy body disorders are characterized by the emergence of α-synucleinopathy in many parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including in the telencephalon. Dense α-synuclein+ pathology appears in regio inferior of the hippocampus in both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may disturb cognitive function. The preformed α-synuclein fibril model of Parkinson's disease is growing in use, given its potential for seeding the self-propagating spread of α-synucleinopathy throughout the mammalian brain...
January 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936596/age-related-behavioral-morphological-and-physiological-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-zitter-rats
#5
Ayuka Ehara, Masao Maekawa, Yuuichi Hori, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shiuchi Ueda
Convulsive seizure is known to be associated with hippocampal abnormalities, such as hilar cell degeneration, abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus (DG) and abnormal expression of immediate early genes. However, whether these morphological changes are a cause or consequence of convulsive seizures has remained contentious. Zitter (zi/zi) rats carry a mutation of the attractin gene and display spongiform degeneration of the brain. Spontaneous convulsive seizures in zi/zi rats over 8 months (M) old were demonstrated using 24-h video monitoring...
September 21, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865114/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-leads-to-enhanced-serine-9-phosphorylation-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-gsk-3%C3%AE-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-of-adult-mouse
#6
Lee Anna Cunningham, Jessie Newville, Lu Li, Phillip Tapia, Andrea M Allan, C Fernando Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to evaluate the expression and serine 9 phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) within the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in a preclinical mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. GSK-3β is a multifunctional kinase that modulates many hippocampal processes affected by gestational alcohol, including synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis. GSK-3β is a constitutively active kinase that is negatively regulated by phosphorylation at the serine 9 residue...
November 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842412/imaging-voltage-in-genetically-defined-neuronal-subpopulations-with-a-cre-recombinase-targeted-hybrid-voltage-sensor
#7
Peter O Bayguinov, Yihe Ma, Yu Gao, Xinyu Zhao, Meyer B Jackson
Genetically encoded voltage indicators create an opportunity to monitor electrical activity in defined sets of neurons as they participate in the complex patterns of coordinated electrical activity that underlie nervous system function. Taking full advantage of genetically encoded voltage indicators requires a generalized strategy for targeting the probe to genetically defined populations of cells. To this end, we have generated a mouse line with an optimized hybrid voltage sensor (hVOS) probe within a locus designed for efficient Cre recombinase-dependent expression...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817805/ltp-at-hilar-mossy-cell-dentate-granule-cell-synapses-modulates-dentate-gyrus-output-by-increasing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#8
Yuki Hashimotodani, Kaoutsar Nasrallah, Kyle R Jensen, Andrés E Chávez, Daniel Carrera, Pablo E Castillo
Excitatory hilar mossy cells (MCs) in the dentate gyrus receive inputs from dentate granule cells (GCs) and project back to GCs locally, contralaterally, and along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, thereby establishing an associative positive-feedback loop and connecting functionally diverse hippocampal areas. MCs also synapse with GABAergic interneurons that mediate feed-forward inhibition onto GCs. Surprisingly, although these circuits have been implicated in both memory formation (e.g., pattern separation) and temporal lobe epilepsy, little is known about activity-dependent plasticity of their synaptic connections...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451637/local-and-long-range-circuit-connections-to-hilar-mossy-cells-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#9
Yanjun Sun, Steven F Grieco, Todd C Holmes, Xiangmin Xu
Hilar mossy cells are the prominent glutamatergic cell type in the dentate hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG); they have been proposed to have critical roles in the DG network. To better understand how mossy cells contribute to DG function, we have applied new viral genetic and functional circuit mapping approaches to quantitatively map and compare local and long-range circuit connections of mossy cells and dentate granule cells in the mouse. The great majority of inputs to mossy cells consist of two parallel inputs from within the DG: an excitatory input pathway from dentate granule cells and an inhibitory input pathway from local DG inhibitory neurons...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431266/reduced-abnormal-integration-of-adult-generated-granule-cells-does-not-attenuate-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-mice
#10
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Epileptic seizures lead to aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, including increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fiber sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs). Previous results from ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures have been controversial with regards to the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). While ablation of hippocampal newborn cells was effective, a sufficient decrease of subsequent abnormal integrations in chronically epileptic hippocampus was not well-established in these studies...
July 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425097/seizure-frequency-correlates-with-loss-of-dentate-gyrus-gabaergic-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Paul S Buckmaster, Emily Abrams, Xiling Wen
Epilepsy occurs in one of 26 people. Temporal lobe epilepsy is common and can be difficult to treat effectively. It can develop after brain injuries that damage the hippocampus. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms involving the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been proposed. This study evaluated a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy to test which pathological changes in the dentate gyrus correlate with seizure frequency and help prioritize potential mechanisms for further study. FVB mice (n = 127) that had experienced status epilepticus after systemic treatment with pilocarpine 31-61 days earlier were video-monitored for spontaneous, convulsive seizures 9 hr/day every day for 24-36 days...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981195/sex-differences-in-subcellular-distribution-of-delta-opioid-receptors-in-the-rat-hippocampus-in-response-to-acute-and-chronic-stress
#12
Sanoara Mazid, Baila S Hall, Shannon C Odell, Khalifa Stafford, Andreina D Dyer, Tracey A Van Kempen, Jane Selegean, Bruce S McEwen, Elizabeth M Waters, Teresa A Milner
Drug addiction requires associative learning processes that critically involve hippocampal circuits, including the opioid system. We recently found that acute and chronic stress, important regulators of addictive processes, affect hippocampal opioid levels and mu opioid receptor trafficking in a sexually dimorphic manner. Here, we examined whether acute and chronic stress similarly alters the levels and trafficking of hippocampal delta opioid receptors (DORs). Immediately after acute immobilization stress (AIS) or one-day after chronic immobilization stress (CIS), the brains of adult female and male rats were perfusion-fixed with aldehydes...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965624/ru486-mitigates-hippocampal-pathology-following-status-epilepticus
#13
Aynara C Wulsin, James P Herman, Steve C Danzer
Status epilepticus (SE) induces rapid hyper-activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. HPA axis hyperactivity results in excess exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which are associated with neurotoxicity and depression-like behavior. These observations have led to the hypothesis that HPA axis dysfunction may exacerbate SE-induced brain injury. To test this hypothesis, we used the mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy to determine whether use of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 can attenuate hippocampal pathology following SE...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561187/residual-neurogenesis-in-chronically-epileptic-hippocampus-of-mice
#14
Jian-Xin Liu, Ming Hu, Kun Zhu, Xin-Lin Chen, Jian-Shui Zhang, Bo Yuan, Yong Liu
Abnormal hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures has been well addressed. However, whether newly generated cells continued to be disturbed even they were born in the chronic stage after pilocarpine-induce status epilepticus has remained elusive. Labeling dividing progenitors and their progeny with retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein or proliferation marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine at 3 months post pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice, a spot of newly born neurons exhibiting hilar ectopic location (4...
November 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068005/oxytocin-depolarizes-fast-spiking-hilar-interneurons-and-induces-gaba-release-onto-mossy-cells-of-the-rat-dentate-gyrus
#15
Scott W Harden, Charles J Frazier
Delivery of exogenous oxytocin (OXT) to central oxytocin receptors (OXT-Rs) is currently being investigated as a potential treatment for conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, social anxiety, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite significant research implicating central OXT signaling in modulation of mood, affect, social behavior, and stress response, relatively little is known about the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying these complex actions, particularly in brain regions which express the OXT-R but lie outside of the hypothalamus (where OXT-synthesizing neurons reside)...
September 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034735/ameliorative-effects-of-antioxidants-on-the-hippocampal-accumulation-of-pathologic-tau-in-a-rat-model-of-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Xiaoping Du, Matthew B West, Weihua Cheng, Donald L Ewert, Wei Li, Debra Saunders, Rheal A Towner, Robert A Floyd, Richard D Kopke
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to early onset dementia and other related neurodegenerative diseases. We previously demonstrated that damage to the central auditory pathway resulting from blast-induced TBI (bTBI) could be significantly attenuated by a combinatorial antioxidant treatment regimen. In the current study, we examined the localization patterns of normal Tau and the potential blast-induced accumulation of neurotoxic variants of this microtubule-associated protein that are believed to potentiate the neurodegenerative effects associated with synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampus following three successive blast overpressure exposures in nontransgenic rats...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644085/axonal-plasticity-of-age-defined-dentate-granule-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
A L Althaus, H Zhang, J M Parent
Dentate granule cell (DGC) mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is thought to underlie the creation of aberrant circuitry which promotes the generation or spread of spontaneous seizure activity. Understanding the extent to which populations of DGCs participate in this circuitry could help determine how it develops and potentially identify therapeutic targets for regulating aberrant network activity. In this study, we investigated how DGC birthdate influences participation in MFS and other aspects of axonal plasticity using the rat pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of mTLE...
February 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25721691/a-computational-study-on-how-theta-modulated-inhibition-can-account-for-the-long-temporal-windows-in-the-entorhinal-hippocampal-loop
#18
Vassilis Cutsuridis, Panayiota Poirazi
A recent experimental study (Mizuseki, Sirota, Pastalkova, & Buzsaki, 2009) has shown that the temporal delays between population activities in successive entorhinal and hippocampal anatomical stages are longer (about 70-80ms) than expected from axon conduction velocities and passive synaptic integration of feed-forward excitatory inputs. We investigate via computer simulations the mechanisms that give rise to such long temporal delays in the hippocampus structures. A model of the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and CA1 microcircuits is presented that uses biophysical representations of the major cell types including granule cells, CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) and six types of interneurons: basket cells (BCs), axo-axonic cells (AACs), bistratified cells (BSCs), oriens lacunosum-moleculare cells (OLMs), mossy cells (MCs) and hilar perforant path associated cells (HC)...
April 2015: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25619597/impaired-autophagy-in-hilar-mossy-cells-of-the-dentate-gyrus-and-its-implication-in-schizophrenia
#19
Yefeng Yuan, Hao Wang, Zongbo Wei, Wei Li
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex disease that has been regarded as a neurodevelopmental, synaptic or epigenetic disorder. Here we provide evidence that neurodegeneration is implicated in SCZ. The DTNBP1 (dystrobrevin-binding protein 1) gene encodes dysbindin-1 and is a leading susceptibility gene of SCZ. We previously reported that the dysbindin-1C isoform regulates the survival of the hilar glutamatergic mossy cells in the dentate gyrus, which controls the adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of hilar mossy cell loss in the dysbindin-1-deficient sandy (sdy) mice (a mouse model of SCZ) is unknown...
January 20, 2015: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25545461/drd2-cre-ribotag-mouse-line-unravels-the-possible-diversity-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-expressing-cells-of-the-dorsal-mouse-hippocampus
#20
Emma Puighermanal, Anne Biever, Julie Espallergues, Giuseppe Gangarossa, Dimitri De Bundel, Emmanuel Valjent
Increasing evidences suggest that dopamine facilitates the encoding of novel memories by the hippocampus. However, the role of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in such regulations remains elusive due to the lack of the precise identification of hippocampal D2R-expressing cells. To address this issue, mice expressing the ribosomal protein Rpl22 tagged with the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope were crossed with Drd2-Cre mice allowing the selective expression of HA in D2R-containing cells (Drd2-Cre:RiboTag mice). This new transgenic model revealed a more widespread pattern of D2R-expressing cells identified by HA immunoreactivity than the one initially reported in Drd2-EGFP mice, in which the hilar mossy cells were the main neuronal population detectable...
July 2015: Hippocampus
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