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Rose L Andrew, Deane Smith, Jamieson C Gorrell, Jasmine K Janes
The origins of feral cats in Australia may be understood with the help of molecular studies, but it is important that hypotheses be tested with appropriate sampling and methodology. We point out several shortcomings in the analysis by Koch et al. (BMC Evol Biol 15:262, 2015; A voyage to Terra Australis: human-mediated dispersal of cats. Dryad Digital Repository, 2015), present a reanalysis of part of the study and discuss the challenges of elucidating the early history of feral cats.
December 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Mª Del Carmen Romero Paredes, Luis Reinoso Barbero, Mª Fernanda González Gomez, Ana Capapé Aguilar, Fernando Bandrés Moya
OBJECTIVE: Working at sea makes it difficult to receive proper medical attention. Moreover, the prognosis of an acute cardiovascular event often depends on the measures taken in the first few hours after the onset of symptoms, but are often delayed in seamen. Thus, it is very important to detect cardiovascular risk factors in these workers as early as possible. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among sailors. METHODS: Data were on a sample of 334 individuals in the Madrid Maritime Health Service in 2011...
October 2016: Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales
Jamie R Wood, Michael J B Herrera, R Paul Scofield, Janet M Wilmshurst
Human settlers transported chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 1000 and 1300; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception. Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed. Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Xiuhui Tian, Yingjiang Xu, Xianghong Gong, Dianfeng Han, Zhongquan Wang, Quanli Zhou, Chunxiao Sun, Chuanbo Ren, Jinglin Xue, Chuanhai Xia
A verified method for measuring Semicarbazide (SEM) in seawater, sediments, and shellfish was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 30 stations were radially distributed in Jincheng and Sishili Bays in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, and 1025 monitoring data were collected in 41 voyages, 615 seawater samples, 320 sediment samples and 90 shellfish samples. The concentration ranged from 0.011μg/L to 0.093μg/L and 0 to 0.75μg/kg in seawater and shellfish respectively, but SEM in sediment was all below the limit of detection...
November 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Rony Huys
The type material of four monotypic genera, Leaniricola, Oestrella, Praxillinicola and Trophoniphila (Copepoda, Cyclopoida), described by M'Intosh (1885) from deep water polychaete hosts collected during the H.M.S. Challenger expedition, is re-examined. Leaniricola rotundata M'Intosh (1885) is removed from its floating status as species inquirenda in the Nereicolidae and fixed as the type of a new family, Leaniricolidae fam. nov., based on the presence of an oral cone and massive, three-dimensionally expanded, mandibular gnathobases which are used to anchor the parasite in the parapodial integument of its host...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
Keith J Geraghty
Science is not always plain sailing and sometimes the voyage is across an angry sea. A recent clinical trial of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (the PACE trial) has whipped up a storm of controversy. Patients claim the lead authors overstated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy by lowering the thresholds they used to determine improvement. In this extraordinary case, patients discovered that the treatments tested had much lower efficacy after an information tribunal ordered the release of data from the PACE trial to a patient who had requested access using a freedom of information request...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Álvaro Montenegro, Richard T Callaghan, Scott M Fitzpatrick
The prehistoric colonization of islands in Remote Oceania that began ∼3400 B.P. represents what was arguably the most expansive and ambitious maritime dispersal of humans across any of the world's seas or oceans. Though archaeological evidence has provided a relatively clear picture of when many of the major island groups were colonized, there is still considerable debate as to where these settlers originated from and their strategies/trajectories used to reach habitable land that other datasets (genetic, linguistic) are also still trying to resolve...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hasan Ali, Sandeep Kumar Singh
This review projects the prospects and issues faced by solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in current scenarios, specially related to its clinical implementation and effectiveness. We re-examine the basic concept of biobehavior and movement of SLNs as a nanomedicine carrier. The extensive survey of the uptake and absorption mechanism from different routes, distribution pattern, targeting efficiency, effect of surface functionalization on biodistribution, elimination pathways and toxic effects have been documented...
October 2016: Therapeutic Delivery
Derek J Hausenloy, Jose A Barrabes, Hans Erik Bøtker, Sean M Davidson, Fabio Di Lisa, James Downey, Thomas Engstrom, Péter Ferdinandy, Hector A Carbrera-Fuentes, Gerd Heusch, Borja Ibanez, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, Javier Inserte, Robert Jennings, Neena Kalia, Rajesh Kharbanda, Sandrine Lecour, Michael Marber, Tetsuji Miura, Michel Ovize, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon, Hans Michael Piper, Karin Przyklenk, Michael Rahbek Schmidt, Andrew Redington, Marisol Ruiz-Meana, Gemma Vilahur, Jakob Vinten-Johansen, Derek M Yellon, David Garcia-Dorado
To commemorate the auspicious occasion of the 30th anniversary of IPC, leading pioneers in the field of cardioprotection gathered in Barcelona in May 2016 to review and discuss the history of IPC, its evolution to IPost and RIC, myocardial reperfusion injury as a therapeutic target, and future targets and strategies for cardioprotection. This article provides an overview of the major topics discussed at this special meeting and underscores the huge importance and impact, the discovery of IPC has made in the field of cardiovascular research...
November 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Eilif Dahl
A 66-year-old overweight insulin-dependent male passenger with diabetes and severe arthritis was on a 4-week circle-Pacific cruise. He fell ashore and hit his head. The ship was about to leave on a non-stop voyage - without any evacuation possibilities for the next 8 days. He was examined and had X-rays taken at the local hospital, but as his head injury was considered mild, he returned to the ship "for 48 hours of observation for signs of intracranial bleeding" - against the ship's doctor's advice. Delayed suspicion of a non-displaced cervical fracture caused extra work and worries and could have, but did not complicate matters...
2016: International Maritime Health
Eilif Dahl
A previously healthy 65-year-old female passenger presented on the 3rd day of her voyage with a small facial laceration after she fell and hit her forehead, following sudden blurred vision and dizziness. When the ship's doctor noticed that one pupil was much bigger than the other, he feared intracranial bleeding and considered helicopter evacuation. Her symptoms had started shortly after she had removed a transdermal scopolamine patch from behind her ear. Getting scopolamine from her hands in direct contact with the eye surface caused mydriasis...
2016: International Maritime Health
Damian Scarf, Jillian G Hayhurst, Benjamin C Riordan, Mike Boyes, Ted Ruffman, John A Hunter
OBJECTIVE: Mental health problems are a leading cause of health-related disability during adolescence. The objectives of the current study were to investigate whether participating in an adventure education programme (AEP) increased adolescents' resilience and elucidate how social connectedness contributes to any increase. METHOD: Adolescents who participated in the AEP had their resilience measured on the first (Time 1) and last day (Time 2) of a 10-day voyage...
September 27, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Chad G Ball, Sean C Grondin, Elijah Dixon, Keith D Lillemoe, Mohit Bhandari, Neil Parry
You graduate from medical school with dreams of beginning your residency, during which you will study and train within the specialty you love more than any other. While you may be book-smart at this point in your career, medical school does not teach you everything you need to know. During residency you will learn the didactic and technical requirements for your future staff job, but medical school won't explicitly address many of the crucial "dos and don'ts" of a successful 2- to 5-year postgraduate training voyage...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Joel I Cohen
INTRODUCTION: In 1836, Charles Darwin returned to England with finches classified and seemingly showing little resemblance. However, subsequent examination by John Gould revealed 13 closely related species endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Despite initial confusion, and Darwin's overlooking to label these birds by island, some 100 years later they had become evolution's icon. The same could be said of Darwin's education and scientific pursuits, beginning in a rough, trial and error manner, lacking direction, but eventually benefitting from an unexpected opportunity that would lead to his theory of natural selection...
2016: SpringerPlus
Sara Ghabooli, Aibin Zhan, Esteban Paolucci, Marco R Hernandez, Elizabeta Briski, Melania E Cristescu, Hugh J MacIsaac
Successful biological invasion requires introduction of a viable population of a nonindigenous species (NIS). Rarely have ecologists assessed changes in populations while entrained in invasion pathways. Here, we investigate how zooplankton communities resident in ballast water change during transoceanic voyages. We used next-generation sequencing technology to sequence a nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA fragment of zooplankton from ballast water during initial, middle, and final segments as a vessel transited between Canada and Brazil...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
T C Hain, M Cherchi
Mal de débarquement syndrome (MdDS) is typified by a prolonged rocking sensation - for a month or longer - that begins immediately following a lengthy exposure to motion. The provoking motion is usually a sea voyage. About 80% of MdDS sufferers are women, and most of them are middle-aged. MdDS patients are troubled by more migraine headaches than controls. Unlike dizziness caused by vestibular disorders or motion sickness, the symptoms of MdDS usually improve with re-exposure to motion. The long duration of symptoms - a month or more - distinguishes MdDS from land-sickness...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Emanuele Berti, Alberto Sesana, Enrico Barausse, Vitor Cardoso, Krzysztof Belczynski
We estimate the potential of present and future interferometric gravitational-wave detectors to test the Kerr nature of black holes through "gravitational spectroscopy," i.e., the measurement of multiple quasinormal mode frequencies from the remnant of a black hole merger. Using population synthesis models of the formation and evolution of stellar-mass black hole binaries, we find that Voyager-class interferometers will be necessary to perform these tests. Gravitational spectroscopy in the local Universe may become routine with the Einstein Telescope, but a 40-km facility like Cosmic Explorer is necessary to go beyond z∼3...
September 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Anna Gimmler, Ralf Korn, Colomban de Vargas, Stéphane Audic, Thorsten Stoeck
Illumina reads of the SSU-rDNA-V9 region obtained from the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition allow the investigation of protistan plankton diversity patterns on a global scale. We analyzed 6,137,350 V9-amplicons from ocean surface waters and the deep chlorophyll maximum, which were taxonomically assigned to the phylum Ciliophora. For open ocean samples global planktonic ciliate diversity is relatively low (ca. 1,300 observed and predicted ciliate OTUs). We found that 17% of all detected ciliate OTUs occurred in all oceanic regions under study...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gary H Heinz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xiuhui Tian, Yingjiang Xu, Xiukai Song, Xianghong Gong, Yihao Liu, Quanli Zhou, Zhongquan Wang, Chuanhai Xia
Semicarbazide (SEM), an industrial raw material and the marker residue of nitrofurazone as a veterinary drug, has become a new type of marine pollutant. A standard method (ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, UPLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze SEM in seawater, sediment, and shellfish. A series of sections and stations were set up in radical distribution in western Laizhou Bay, with six voyages and 150 monitoring samples. The concentrations of SEM in seawater and shellfish were 10(-11) and 10(-10)kg/L, respectively, and no SEM was detected in the sediment...
November 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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