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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294555/promise-and-peril-in-nanomedicine-the-challenges-and-needs-for-integrated-systems-biology-approaches-to-define-health-risk
#1
REVIEW
Sabina Halappanavar, Ulla Vogel, Hakan Wallin, Carole L Yauk
In the 1966s visionary film 'Fantastic Voyage' a submarine crew was shrunk to 100 nm in size and injected into the body of an injured scientist to repair his damaged brain. The movie (written by Harry Kleiner; directed by Richard Fleischer; novel by Isaac Asimov) drew attention to the potential power of engineered nanoscale structures and devices to construct, monitor, control, treat, and repair individual cells. Even more interesting was the fact that the film elegantly noted that the structure had to be miniaturized to a size that is not detected by the body's immune surveillance system, and highlighted the many physiological barriers that are encountered on the submarine's long journey to the target...
March 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266086/how-much-impact-do-gains-in-height-have-on-shoulder-breadths-within-taiwanese-families
#2
Bruce Floyd
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates allometric changes in shoulder breadths relative to changes in stature arising from rapidly changing developmental circumstances within 107 Taiwanese families. It speaks to broader issues related to the extent of phenotypic plasticity of body breadths humans are capable of in response to reductions in developmental stressors. METHODS: An examination of relationships between shoulder breadth and height within individuals in each generation was followed by evaluation of patterns of difference between same-sex parent-offspring pairs in height and shoulder breadth...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252403/the-subspace-voyager-exploring-high-dimensional-data-along-a-continuum-of-salient-3d-subspace
#3
Bing Wang, Klaus Mueller
Analyzing high-dimensional data and finding hidden patterns is a difficult problem and has attracted numerous research efforts. Automated methods can be useful to some extent but bringing the data analyst into the loop via interactive visual tools can help the discovery process tremendously. An inherent problem in this effort is that humans lack the mental capacity to truly understand spaces exceeding three spatial dimensions. To keep within this limitation, we describe a framework that decomposes a high-dimensional data space into a continuum of generalized 3D subspaces...
February 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241745/drug-voyager-a-computational-platform-for-exploring-unintended-drug-action
#4
Min Oh, Jaegyoon Ahn, Taekeon Lee, Giup Jang, Chihyun Park, Youngmi Yoon
BACKGROUND: The dominant paradigm in understanding drug action focuses on the intended therapeutic effects and frequent adverse reactions. However, this approach may limit opportunities to grasp unintended drug actions, which can open up channels to repurpose existing drugs and identify rare adverse drug reactions. Advances in systems biology can be exploited to comprehensively understand pharmacodynamic actions, although proper frameworks to represent drug actions are still lacking. RESULTS: We suggest a novel platform to construct a drug-specific pathway in which a molecular-level mechanism of action is formulated based on pharmacologic, pharmacogenomic, transcriptomic, and phenotypic data related to drug response ( http://databio...
February 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135901/voyage-of-theranostic-liposomes-for-imaging-and-therapy
#5
Mitkare Sachin, Dolare Sachin, Sakarkar Dinesh
Drug delivery is a critical issue in any disease treatment. Now-a-days much more effort is being focused on integrating imaging agent and therapeutic drugs in a single formulation to achieve a simultaneous disease diagnosis and targeted drug delivery. This new terminology 'nanotheranostics' have been used to describe these nanoparticle formulations. In past few years, number of nanocarriers (liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers, micelles, antibodies etc.) has been studied for targeted delivery of chemical or biological molecules...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135081/bacterial-diversity-in-ships-ballast-water-ballast-water-exchange-and-implications-for-ship-mediated-dispersal-of-microorganisms
#6
Despoina S Lymperopoulou, Fred C Dobbs
Using next-generation DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we analyzed the composition and diversity of bacterial assemblages in ballast water from tanks of 17 commercial ships arriving to Hampton Roads, Virginia (USA) following voyages in the North Atlantic Ocean. Amplicon sequencing analysis showed the heterogeneous assemblages were (1) dominated by Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and unclassified Bacteria; (2) temporally distinct (June vs August/September); and (3) highly fidelitous among replicate samples...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096413/modeling-the-role-of-voyaging-in-the-coastal-spread-of-the-early-neolithic-in-the-west-mediterranean
#7
Neus Isern, João Zilhão, Joaquim Fort, Albert J Ammerman
The earliest dates for the West Mediterranean Neolithic indicate that it expanded across 2,500 km in about 300 y. Such a fast spread is held to be mainly due to a demic process driven by dispersal along coastal routes. Here, we model the Neolithic spread in the region by focusing on the role of voyaging to understand better the core elements that produced the observed pattern of dates. We also explore the effect of cultural interaction with Mesolithic populations living along the coast. The simulation study shows that (i) sea travel is required to obtain reasonable predictions, with a minimum sea-travel range of 300 km per generation; (ii) leapfrog coastal dispersals yield the best results (quantitatively and qualitatively); and (iii) interaction with Mesolithic people can assist the spread, but long-range voyaging is still needed to explain the archaeological pattern...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057361/efficacy-and-safety-of-guselkumab-an-anti-interleukin-23-monoclonal-antibody-compared-with-adalimumab-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-with-randomized-withdrawal-and-retreatment-results-from-the-phase-iii-double-blind-placebo
#8
Kristian Reich, April W Armstrong, Peter Foley, Michael Song, Yasmine Wasfi, Bruce Randazzo, Shu Li, Y-K Shen, Kenneth B Gordon
BACKGROUND: Phase II data suggested that guselkumab, an anti-interleukin-23 monoclonal antibody, was efficacious in psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess efficacy and safety of guselkumab in moderate to severe psoriasis versus placebo and adalimumab, including interrupted treatment and switching adalimumab nonresponders to guselkumab. METHODS: Patients were randomized to guselkumab 100 mg (weeks 0 and 4, then every 8 weeks; n = 496); placebo→guselkumab (weeks 0, 4, and 12 then guselkumab at weeks 16 and 20; n = 248); or adalimumab (80 mg week 0, then 40 mg week 1, and every 2 weeks through week 23; n = 248)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057360/efficacy-and-safety-of-guselkumab-an-anti-interleukin-23-monoclonal-antibody-compared-with-adalimumab-for-the-continuous-treatment-of-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-results-from-the-phase-iii-double-blinded-placebo-and-active-comparator-controlled
#9
Andrew Blauvelt, Kim A Papp, Christopher E M Griffiths, Bruce Randazzo, Yasmine Wasfi, Yaung-Kaung Shen, Shu Li, Alexa B Kimball
BACKGROUND: Guselkumab, an interleukin-23 blocker, was superior to adalimumab in treating moderate to severe psoriasis in a phase II trial. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare efficacy and safety of guselkumab with adalimumab and placebo in patients with psoriasis treated for 1 year. METHODS: Patients were randomized to guselkumab 100 mg (weeks 0 and 4, then every 8 weeks; n = 329); placebo→guselkumab (weeks 0, 4, and 12 then guselkumab at weeks 16 and 20, then every 8 weeks; n = 174); or adalimumab (80 mg week 0, 40 mg week 1, then 40 mg every 2 weeks through week 47; n = 334)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986366/end-tidal-co2-relates-to-seasickness-susceptibility-a-study-in-antarctic-voyages
#10
Tatsuhisa Hasegawa, Hirofumi Oe, Masakatsu Taki, Hirofumi Sakaguchi, Shigeru Hirano, Yoshiro Wada
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) and seasickness (motion sickness at sea) during an Antarctic voyage. METHODS: In this study, we measured EtCO2 and severity of seasickness using the subjective symptoms of motion sickness (SSMS). We sampled EtCO2 and SSMS every 3-4h for 3 days from the date of sail in 16 healthy subjects. This experiment was performed on an icebreaker (standard displacement: 12,650t). RESULTS: Since 2 subjects dropped out because of severe motion sickness, available data were collected from 14 subjects...
December 13, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959631/the-microscope-as-a-tool-for-disease-discovery-a-personal-voyage
#11
Elaine S Jaffe
This review reflects the trajectory of my career in hematopathology, and my personal reflections on scientific advances in the field. During the course of more than 40 years, the approach to classification of hematological malignancies has evolved from descriptive approaches, based on either cytological or clinical features, to a modern approach, which incorporates cutting-edge technologies. My philosophy has focused on defining individual diseases, an approach that can best lead to an understanding of molecular pathogenesis...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938714/the-welfare-risks-and-impacts-of-heat-stress-on-sheep-shipped-from-australia-to-the-middle-east
#12
REVIEW
Clive Phillips
This review considers the welfare issues confronting sheep due to heat stress on board ships undertaking long distance voyages. Sheep engage in behavioural and physiologic mechanisms to attempt to mitigate heat stress, but the evidence from Australian shipments from 2005 to 2014 is that mortality approximately doubles when sheep are transported from Australia in winter to the Middle East in summer. Much of this increase has been attributed to salmonellosis and inanition, but this may have been mistaken for, or exacerbated by, heat stress...
December 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927179/voyage-of-discovery-a-comment-on-koch-et-al-a-voyage-to-terra-australis-human-mediated-dispersal-of-cats
#13
Rose L Andrew, Deane Smith, Jamieson C Gorrell, Jasmine K Janes
The origins of feral cats in Australia may be understood with the help of molecular studies, but it is important that hypotheses be tested with appropriate sampling and methodology. We point out several shortcomings in the analysis by Koch et al. (BMC Evol Biol 15:262, 2015; A voyage to Terra Australis: human-mediated dispersal of cats. Dryad Digital Repository, 2015), present a reanalysis of part of the study and discuss the challenges of elucidating the early history of feral cats.
December 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855252/-cardiovascular-risk-among-spanish-seafarers
#14
Mª Del Carmen Romero Paredes, Luis Reinoso Barbero, Mª Fernanda González Gomez, Ana Capapé Aguilar, Fernando Bandrés Moya
OBJECTIVE: Working at sea makes it difficult to receive proper medical attention. Moreover, the prognosis of an acute cardiovascular event often depends on the measures taken in the first few hours after the onset of symptoms, but are often delayed in seamen. Thus, it is very important to detect cardiovascular risk factors in these workers as early as possible. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among sailors. METHODS: Data were on a sample of 334 individuals in the Madrid Maritime Health Service in 2011...
October 2016: Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853601/origin-and-timing-of-new-zealand-s-earliest-domestic-chickens-polynesian-commensals-or-european-introductions
#15
Jamie R Wood, Michael J B Herrera, R Paul Scofield, Janet M Wilmshurst
Human settlers transported chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 1000 and 1300; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception. Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed. Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835854/environmental-status-and-early-warning-value-of-the-pollutant-semicarbazide-in-jincheng-and-sishili-bays-shandong-peninsula-china
#16
Xiuhui Tian, Yingjiang Xu, Xianghong Gong, Dianfeng Han, Zhongquan Wang, Quanli Zhou, Chunxiao Sun, Chuanbo Ren, Jinglin Xue, Chuanhai Xia
A verified method for measuring Semicarbazide (SEM) in seawater, sediments, and shellfish was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 30 stations were radially distributed in Jincheng and Sishili Bays in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, and 1025 monitoring data were collected in 41 voyages, 615 seawater samples, 320 sediment samples and 90 shellfish samples. The concentration ranged from 0.011μg/L to 0.093μg/L and 0 to 0.75μg/kg in seawater and shellfish respectively, but SEM in sediment was all below the limit of detection...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811805/enigmas-from-the-past-m-intosh-s-1885-annelidicolous-copepods%C3%A2-from-the-voyage-of-h-m-s-challenger
#17
Rony Huys
The type material of four monotypic genera, Leaniricola, Oestrella, Praxillinicola and Trophoniphila (Copepoda, Cyclopoida), described by M'Intosh (1885) from deep water polychaete hosts collected during the H.M.S. Challenger expedition, is re-examined. Leaniricola rotundata M'Intosh (1885) is removed from its floating status as species inquirenda in the Nereicolidae and fixed as the type of a new family, Leaniricolidae fam. nov., based on the presence of an oral cone and massive, three-dimensionally expanded, mandibular gnathobases which are used to anchor the parasite in the parapodial integument of its host...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807258/-pace-gate-when-clinical-trial-evidence-meets-open-data-access
#18
EDITORIAL
Keith J Geraghty
Science is not always plain sailing and sometimes the voyage is across an angry sea. A recent clinical trial of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (the PACE trial) has whipped up a storm of controversy. Patients claim the lead authors overstated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy by lowering the thresholds they used to determine improvement. In this extraordinary case, patients discovered that the treatments tested had much lower efficacy after an information tribunal ordered the release of data from the PACE trial to a patient who had requested access using a freedom of information request...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791145/using-seafaring-simulations-and-shortest-hop-trajectories-to-model-the-prehistoric-colonization-of-remote-oceania
#19
Álvaro Montenegro, Richard T Callaghan, Scott M Fitzpatrick
The prehistoric colonization of islands in Remote Oceania that began ∼3400 B.P. represents what was arguably the most expansive and ambitious maritime dispersal of humans across any of the world's seas or oceans. Though archaeological evidence has provided a relatively clear picture of when many of the major island groups were colonized, there is still considerable debate as to where these settlers originated from and their strategies/trajectories used to reach habitable land that other datasets (genetic, linguistic) are also still trying to resolve...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790956/biological-voyage-of-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-a-proficient-carrier-in-nanomedicine
#20
Hasan Ali, Sandeep Kumar Singh
This review projects the prospects and issues faced by solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in current scenarios, specially related to its clinical implementation and effectiveness. We re-examine the basic concept of biobehavior and movement of SLNs as a nanomedicine carrier. The extensive survey of the uptake and absorption mechanism from different routes, distribution pattern, targeting efficiency, effect of surface functionalization on biodistribution, elimination pathways and toxic effects have been documented...
October 2016: Therapeutic Delivery
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