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Microbiome radiation

VijayKumar Patra, Scott N Byrne, Peter Wolf
Human skin apart from functioning as a physical barricade to stop the entry of pathogens, also hosts innumerable commensal organisms. The skin cells and the immune system constantly interact with microbes, to maintain cutaneous homeostasis, despite the challenges offered by various environmental factors. A major environmental factor affecting the skin is ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) from sunlight. UV-R is well known to modulate the immune system, which can be both beneficial and deleterious. By targeting the cells and molecules within skin, UV-R can trigger the production and release of antimicrobial peptides, affect the innate immune system and ultimately suppress the adaptive cellular immune response...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maryam Goudarzi, Tytus D Mak, Jonathan P Jacobs, Bo-Hyun Moon, Steven J Strawn, Jonathan Braun, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace, Heng-Hong Li
Medical responders to radiological and nuclear disasters currently lack sufficient high-throughput and minimally invasive biodosimetry tools to assess exposure and injury in the affected populations. For this reason, we have focused on developing robust radiation exposure biomarkers in easily accessible biofluids such as urine, serum and feces. While we have previously reported on urine and serum biomarkers, here we assessed perturbations in the fecal metabolome resulting from exposure to external X radiation in vivo...
September 2016: Radiation Research
Rebecca M Rentea, Vy Lam, Ben Biesterveld, Katherine M Fredrich, Jennifer Callison, Brian L Fish, John E Baker, Richard Komorowski, David M Gourlay, Mary F Otterson
BACKGROUND: Exogenous replacement of depleted enterocyte intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) decreases intestinal injury in models of colitis. We determined whether radiation-induced intestinal injury could be mitigated by oral IAP supplementation and the impact on tissue-nonspecific AP. METHODS: WAG/RjjCmcr rats (n = 5 per group) received lower hemibody irradiation (13 Gy) followed by daily gavage with phosphate-buffered saline or IAP (40 U/kg/d) for 4 days...
October 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Julian Hill, Chris McSweeney, André-Denis G Wright, Greg Bishop-Hurley, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
Radiative forcing of methane (CH4) is significantly higher than carbon dioxide (CO2) and its enteric production by ruminant livestock is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emissions. CH4 is also an important marker of farming productivity, because it is associated with the conversion of feed to product in livestock. Consequently, measurement of enteric CH4 is emerging as an important research topic. In this review, we briefly describe the conversion of carbohydrate to CH4 by the bacterial community within gut, and highlight some of the key host-microbiome interactions...
January 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
Mateusz Marynowski, Aleksandra Likońska, Hubert Zatorski, Jakub Fichna
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS...
October 28, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Aleksandra Checinska, Alexander J Probst, Parag Vaishampayan, James R White, Deepika Kumar, Victor G Stepanov, George E Fox, Henrik R Nilsson, Duane L Pierson, Jay Perry, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
BACKGROUND: The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique built environment due to the effects of microgravity, space radiation, elevated carbon dioxide levels, and especially continuous human habitation. Understanding the composition of the ISS microbial community will facilitate further development of safety and maintenance practices. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the viable microbiome of the ISS-built environment. A second objective was to determine if the built environments of Earth-based cleanrooms associated with space exploration are an appropriate model of the ISS environment...
2015: Microbiome
Junru Wang, Lijian Shao, Howard P Hendrickson, Liya Liu, Jianhui Chang, Yi Luo, John Seng, Mylene Pouliot, Simon Authier, Daohong Zhou, William Allaben, Martin Hauer-Jensen
The non-human primate has been a useful model for studies of human acute radiation syndrome (ARS). However, to date structural changes in various parts of the intestine after total body irradiation (TBI) have not been systematically studied in this model. Here we report on our current study of TBI-induced intestinal structural injury in the non-human primate after doses typically associated with hematopoietic ARS. Twenty-four non-human primates were divided into three groups: sham-irradiated control group; and total body cobalt-60 (60Co) 6...
November 2015: Radiation Research
Jeremy Dupaul-Chicoine, Azadeh Arabzadeh, Maryse Dagenais, Todd Douglas, Claudia Champagne, Alexandre Morizot, Ian Gaël Rodrigue-Gervais, Valérie Breton, Sara L Colpitts, Nicole Beauchemin, Maya Saleh
The crosstalk between inflammation and tumorigenesis is now clearly established. However, how inflammation is elicited in the metastatic environment and the corresponding contribution of innate immunity pathways in suppressing tumor growth at secondary sites are poorly understood. Here, we show that mice deficient in Nlrp3 inflammasome components had exacerbated liver colorectal cancer metastatic growth, which was mediated by impaired interleukin-18 (IL-18) signaling. Control of tumor growth was independent of differential cancer cell colonization or proliferation, intestinal microbiota effects, or tumoricidal activity by the adaptive immune system...
October 20, 2015: Immunity
Andres Gomez, Jessica M Rothman, Klara Petrzelkova, Carl J Yeoman, Klara Vlckova, Juan D Umaña, Monica Carr, David Modry, Angelique Todd, Manolito Torralba, Karen E Nelson, Rebecca M Stumpf, Brenda A Wilson, Ran Blekhman, Bryan A White, Steven R Leigh
Although the critical role that our gastrointestinal microbes play in host physiology is now well established, we know little about the factors that influenced the evolution of primate gut microbiomes. To further understand current gut microbiome configurations and diet-microbe co-metabolic fingerprints in primates, from an evolutionary perspective, we characterized fecal bacterial communities and metabolomic profiles in 228 fecal samples of lowland and mountain gorillas (G. g. gorilla and G. b. beringei, respectively), our closest evolutionary relatives after chimpanzees...
February 2016: ISME Journal
Ryan Clanton, David Saucier, John Ford, Gamal Akabani
Utilization of environmental stimuli for growth is the main factor contributing to the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, independently and mutualistically. Epigenetics describes an organism's ability to vary expression of certain genes based on their environmental stimuli. The diverse degree of dose-dependent responses based on their variances in expressed genetic profiles makes it difficult to ascertain whether hormesis or oncogenesis has or is occurring. In the medical field this is shown where survival curves used in determining radiotherapeutic doses have substantial uncertainties, some as large as 50% (Barendsen, 1990)...
October 2015: Environmental Research
Lauren E Ritchie, Stella S Taddeo, Brad R Weeks, Florence Lima, Susan A Bloomfield, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Sara R Zwart, Scott M Smith, Nancy D Turner
Astronaut intestinal health may be impacted by microgravity, radiation, and diet. The aim of this study was to characterize how high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, microgravity, and elevated dietary iron affect colon microbiota (determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing) and colon function. Three independent experiments were conducted to achieve these goals: 1) fractionated low LET γ radiation (137Cs, 3 Gy, RAD), high Fe diet (IRON) (650 mg/kg diet), and a combination of low LET γ radiation and high Fe diet (IRON+RAD) in male Sprague-Dawley rats; 2) high LET 38Si particle exposure (0...
2015: PloS One
Irwin Jack Kurland, Pilib Ó Broin, Aaron Golden, Gang Su, Fan Meng, Laibin Liu, Robert Mohney, Shilpa Kulkarni, Chandan Guha
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) is a dose-limiting factor in curative radiation therapy (RT) for liver cancers, making early detection of radiation-associated liver injury absolutely essential for medical intervention. A metabolomic approach was used to determine metabolic signatures that could serve as biomarkers for early detection of RILD in mice. METHODS: Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice received 0, 10 or 50 Gy Whole Liver Irradiation (WLI) and were contrasted to mice, which received 10 Gy whole body irradiation (WBI)...
2015: PloS One
Laura Baldo, Joan Lluís Riera, Ave Tooming-Klunderud, M Mar Albà, Walter Salzburger
The gut microbiota structure reflects both a host phylogenetic history and a signature of adaptation to the host ecological, mainly trophic niches. African cichlid fishes, with their array of closely related species that underwent a rapid dietary niche radiation, offer a particularly interesting system to explore the relative contribution of these two factors in nature. Here we surveyed the host intra- and interspecific natural variation of the gut microbiota of five cichlid species from the monophyletic tribe Perissodini of lake Tanganyika, whose members transitioned from being zooplanktivorous to feeding primarily on fish scales...
2015: PloS One
Jorge L Cervantes, Bo-Young Hong
In space, the lifestyle, relative sterility of spaceship and extreme environmental stresses, such as microgravity and cosmic radiation, can compromise the balance between human body and human microbiome. An astronaut's body during spaceflight encounters increased risk for microbial infections and conditions because of immune dysregulation and altered microbiome, i.e. dysbiosis. This risk is further heightened by increase in virulence of pathogens in microgravity. Health status of astronauts might potentially benefit from maintaining a healthy microbiome by specifically managing their diet on space in addition to probiotic therapies...
2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Shelley Gorman, Lucinda J Black, Martin Feelisch, Prue H Hart, Richard Weller
Liver inflammation contributes towards the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we discuss how skin exposure to sunlight may suppress liver inflammation and the severity of NAFLD. Following exposure to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation (UVR), the skin releases anti-inflammatory mediators such as vitamin D and nitric oxide. Animal modeling studies suggest that exposure to UVR can prevent the development of NAFLD. Association studies also support a negative link between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and NAFLD incidence or severity...
May 2015: Nutrients
G E Seidel
All life forms are under constant assault, resulting in an accumulation of damage within each individual, in both somatic and germline cells. The obvious causes are: (1) mutations from radiation, chemical reactions like peroxidation and errors in replicating genetic material; (2) injury due to environmental insults, such as chemical alteration of proteins by reactive oxygen species; (3) epigenetic errors, such as failure of appropriate maintenance methylation of cytosines of DNA; and (4) numerous other problems, including retroviral invasions, inflammation and unhealthy microbiomes...
July 2015: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Alessandro Villa, Stephen T Sonis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oral mucositis remains a frequent debilitating toxicity associated with drug and radiation regimens used to treat cancer. This review highlights the recent understanding of the biological basis, risk factors for, and management for oral mucositis. RECENT FINDINGS: Prevalence and incidence data for mucositis are inconsistent and often underreported. The pathogenesis of mucositis encompasses a sequence of biological events possibly influenced by the oral microbiome and environment...
May 2015: Current Opinion in Oncology
Pilib Ó Broin, Bhavapriya Vaitheesvaran, Subhrajit Saha, Kirsten Hartil, Emily I Chen, Devorah Goldman, William Harv Fleming, Irwin J Kurland, Chandan Guha, Aaron Golden
PURPOSE: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation...
February 1, 2015: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Robyn M Lucas, Shelley Gorman, Sian Geldenhuys, Prue H Hart
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The active form of vitamin D has an important role in calcium metabolism and in bone mineralisation, but the evidence for other health outcomes is mixed, with the strongest effects seen in the weakest epidemiological study designs. There are plausible pathways whereby vitamin D deficiency can impair immune function, resulting in both overactivity and increased risk of autoimmune disease, as well as immune suppression with poorer resistance to infection...
2014: F1000Prime Reports
Erin D Scully, Scott M Geib, John E Carlson, Ming Tien, Duane McKenna, Kelli Hoover
BACKGROUND: Wood-feeding beetles harbor an ecologically rich and taxonomically diverse assemblage of gut microbes that appear to promote survival in woody tissue, which is devoid of nitrogen and essential nutrients. Nevertheless, the contributions of these apparent symbionts to digestive physiology and nutritional ecology remain uncharacterized in most beetle lineages. RESULTS: Through parallel transcriptome profiling of beetle- and microbial- derived mRNAs, we demonstrate that the midgut microbiome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a member of the beetle family Cerambycidae, is enriched in biosynthetic pathways for the synthesis of essential amino acids, vitamins, and sterols...
2014: BMC Genomics
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