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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221830/from-individual-to-group-territoriality-competitive-environments-promote-the-evolution-of-sociality
#1
Markus Port, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
In many animal species individuals compete for the sole possession of a breeding territory, whereas in other species communal territories are shared among same-sex conspecifics. Under what conditions does natural selection favor the evolution of individual territoriality, and under what conditions does it favor the evolution of sociality? We develop a self-consistent game-theoretic model that allows for feedbacks between evolutionary and population dynamics. In this model, nonresident floaters can chose between three strategies: they can wait for a territory vacancy to arise, they can try to forcefully take over an already-occupied territory, or they can share a territory with an established resident...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221801/balancing-segregation-and-complexation-in-amphiphilic-copolymers-by-architecture-and-confinement
#2
Pascal Hebbeker, Alexander A Steinschulte, Stefanie Schneider, Felix A Plamper
Segregation is a well-known principle for micellization, as solvophobic components try to minimize interactions with other entities (such as solvent) by self-assembly. An opposite principle is based on complexation (or coacervation), leading to the coassembly/association of different components. Most cases in the literature rely on only one of these modes, though the classical micellization scheme (such as spherical micelles, wormlike micelles, and vesicles) can be enriched by a subtle balance of segregation and complexation...
February 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221156/-microperc-fashion-or-reality
#3
Marcos Cepeda, José H Amón
Miniaturization in percutaneous surgery has seen its zenith in microperc. Technological advances have enabled us to treat renal lithiasis through a 4.8 Ch. caliper percutaneous access. According to published literature, the technique is reproducible and when applied to small and medium size renal lithiasis has a high success rate keepin a low complication rate. Its main advantage is the absence of tract dilatation, diminishing the bleeding risk inherent to percutaneous access, postoperative pain and hospital stay...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221151/-techniques-for-percutaneous-access-during-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy
#4
Daniel Pérez-Fentes
The creation of the access is one of the main steps in percutaneous nephrolithotomy, the most complicated for many urologists and the one that limited most the universalization of the technique. From a purely technical point of view, it includes puncture of the excretory tract and dilatation of the percutaneous tract to end with the introduction of an Amplatz type working sheath. The objective of the puncture is to try to access the excretory system through the renal papilla, minimizing the risk of bleeding...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221149/technique-minimal-requirements-and-fragmentation-strategies-in-rirs
#5
Juan Ramón Cansino Alcaide, Alejandra Portilla Eastmond
Flexible ureteroscopy is a highly resolving surgery which is able to solve most renal lithiasis of any Urology Department, with very low economic impact. It is a technique that has helped to continue treatment when SWL couldn't, and also has reduced the number of percutaneous renal surgeries that we currently perform. In this paper, we try review three important features of the operation: Technique, minimal requirements that we need to perform this surgery in a Urology Department, and the different possibilities to treat the lithiasis with holmium laser...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219748/improved-antitumor-activity-and-reduced-toxicity-of-doxorubicin-encapsulated-in-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-nanoparticles-in-lung-and-breast-cancer-treatment-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#6
Laura Cabeza, Raul Ortiz, Jose Prados, Ángel V Delgado, Maria J Martín-Villena, Beatriz Clares, Gloria Perazzoli, Jose M Entrena, Consolación Melguizo, Jose L Arias
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) offer many possibilities for drug transport because of their good physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. Doxorubicin-loaded PCL NPs have been synthesized to try to reduce the toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) for healthy tissues and enhance its antitumor effect in two tumor models, breast and lung cancer, which have a high incidence in the global population. PCL NPs were synthesized using a modified nanoprecipitation solvent evaporation method. The in vitro toxicity of PCL NPs was evaluated in breast and lung cancer cell lines from both humans and mice, as was the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell uptake of DOX-loaded PCL NPs compared to free DOX...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219723/the-protective-effects-of-resveratrol-h2s-and-thermotherapy-on-the-cell-apoptosis-induced-by-cdte-quantum-dots
#7
Tianshu Wu, Qingling Zhan, Ting Zhang, Shengjun Ang, Jiali Ying, Keyu He, Shihan Zhang, Yuying Xue, Meng Tang
Quantum dots (QDs) could be used in the field of biology and medicine as excellent nano-scale fluorescent probes due to their unique optical properties, but the adverse effects of QDs are always the obstruction for its usage in living organisms. In this study, we observed that CdTe QDs exposure decreased the cell viability while increased the apoptosis rates in the L929 cells. Apart from QD-induced oxidative stress indicated by excessive ROS generation, three signal transductions, including Akt, p38 and JNK, played important roles on the regulation of cell apoptosis by CdTe QDs exposure as well...
February 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218963/women-s-willingness-and-ability-to-feel-the-strings-of-their-intrauterine-device
#8
Juliana Melo, Mary Tschann, Reni Soon, Melissa Kuwahara, Bliss Kaneshiro
OBJECTIVE: To determine how many intrauterine device (IUD) users are willing and able to palpate their IUD strings. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among IUD users presenting for their 6-week follow-up visit after insertion at the University of Hawaii, USA, between January 2011 and January 2012. Participants were asked whether they had previously felt the strings and whether they were willing to do so during the visit. Bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression were performed...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217396/predictive-model-of-length-of-stay-and-discharge-destination-in-neuroscience-admissions
#9
M M Stecker, M Stecker, J Falotico
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to try and determine the best predictors of hospital length of stay and discharge destination in patients admitted to a neuroscience service. METHODS: Valid data was collected for 170 patients. Variables included age, gender, location prior to admission, principle diagnosis, various physiological measurements upon admission, comorbidity, independence in various activities of daily living prior to admission, length of stay, and disposition upon discharge...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216264/potential-functional-and-pathological-side-effects-related-to-off-target-pharmacological-activity
#10
James J Lynch, Terry R Van Vleet, Scott W Mittelstadt, Eric A G Blomme
Most pharmaceutical companies test their discovery-stage proprietary molecules in a battery of in vitro pharmacology assays to try to determine off-target interactions.During all phases of drug discovery and development, various questions arise regarding potential side effects associated with such off-target pharmacological activity.Here we present a scientific literature curation effort undertaken to determine and summarize the most likely functional and pathological outcomes associated with interactions at 70 receptors, enzymes, ion channels and transporters with established links to adverse effects...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215912/questionnaire-based-analysis-of-infection-prevention-and-control-in-healthcare-facilities-in-saudi-arabia-in-regards-to-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#11
Ali A Rabaan, Hatem M Alhani, Ali M Bazzi, Shamsah H Al-Ahmed
Effective implementation of infection prevention and control in healthcare facilities depends on training, awareness and compliance of healthcare workers. In Saudi Arabia recent significant hospital outbreaks, including Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have resulted from lack of, or breakdown in, infection prevention and control procedures. This study was designed to assess attitudes to, and awareness of, infection prevention and control policies and guidelines among healthcare workers of different professions and institution types in Saudi Arabia...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214237/knowledge-attitudes-and-preferences-of-advance-decisions-end-of-life-care-and-place-of-care-and-death-in-hong-kong-a%C3%A2-population-based-telephone-survey-of-1067-adults
#12
Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Eliza Lai-Yi Wong, Nicole Kiang, Patsy Yuen-Kwan Chau, Janice Y C Lau, Samuel Yeung-Shan Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh, Jean W Woo
OBJECTIVES: According to the 2015 Quality of Death Index published by the Intelligence Unit of the Economist, Hong Kong is ranked 22nd in terms of quality of palliative care in the world, behind many other major developed countries in Asia, including Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and South Korea. The objectives of the present study were to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preferences of the general Hong Kong adult population across different age groups regarding end-of-life (EOL) care decisions, place of care and death, as well as advance directive (AD)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213723/differences-in-orgasm-frequency-among-gay-lesbian-bisexual-and-heterosexual-men-and-women-in-a-u-s-national-sample
#13
David A Frederick, H Kate St John, Justin R Garcia, Elisabeth A Lloyd
There is a notable gap between heterosexual men and women in frequency of orgasm during sex. Little is known, however, about sexual orientation differences in orgasm frequency. We examined how over 30 different traits or behaviors were associated with frequency of orgasm when sexually intimate during the past month. We analyzed a large US sample of adults (N = 52,588) who identified as heterosexual men (n = 26,032), gay men (n = 452), bisexual men (n = 550), lesbian women (n = 340), bisexual women (n = 1112), and heterosexual women (n = 24,102)...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212905/will-patients-perceive-a-numbing-spray-to-be-an-effective-method-of-anesthetizing-an-intravenous-site
#14
Pamela G Falotico, Linda Ryan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if patients would perceive a numbing spray to be an effective method of anesthetizing an intravenous (IV) site. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental design was used. METHODS: The first 50 patients were given no pain management strategy before their IV insertion, and the next 50 patients were given a numbing spray. FINDINGS: The hypothesis that pain scores reported from the numbing spray group would be less than pain scores reported from the non-numbing spray group was not supported...
February 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212054/machine-learning-for-medical-imaging
#15
Bradley J Erickson, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Zeynettin Akkus, Timothy L Kline
Machine learning is a technique for recognizing patterns that can be applied to medical images. Although it is a powerful tool that can help in rendering medical diagnoses, it can be misapplied. Machine learning typically begins with the machine learning algorithm system computing the image features that are believed to be of importance in making the prediction or diagnosis of interest. The machine learning algorithm system then identifies the best combination of these image features for classifying the image or computing some metric for the given image region...
February 17, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209187/perceptions-and-experiences-of-pregnant-women-about-routine-hiv-testing-and-counselling-in-ghimbi-town-ethiopia-a-qualitative-study
#16
Israel Mitiku, Adamu Addissie, Mitike Molla
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has implemented routine HIV testing and counselling using a provider initiated HIV testing ('opt-out' approach) to achieve high coverage of testing and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, women's perceptions and experiences with this approach have not been well studied. We conducted a qualitative study to explore pregnant women's perceptions and experiences of routine HIV testing and counselling in Ghimbi town, Ethiopia, in May 2013. In-depth interviews were held with 28 women tested for HIV at antenatal clinics (ANC), as well as four health workers involved in routine HIV testing and counselling...
February 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208938/institutional-experience-in-the-management-of-hilar-liver-obstruction-a-series-of-13-cases
#17
Adithya Malolan Pathanki, Adithya V Naragund, Basant Mahadevappa
Neoplastic hilar obstruction to the liver outflow presents a unique challenge to the surgeon, wherein, the balance between a curative and possibly larger resection has to be achieved against a more conservative local resection. These are often technically demanding and have thus, far produced equivocal outcomes on both ends. The present case series is on 13 patients who presented with hilar obstruction. They all underwent resections with possible curative intent. The focus of our review is on the technical nuances and the strategies we used, intra- and peri-operatively to make resections possible in these patients, who at first look were deemed inoperable...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208171/update-on-didactic-and-clinical-education-in-fluency-disorders-2013-2014
#18
J Scott Yaruss, Jieun Lee, Kaya B Kikani, Paula Leslie, Caryn Herring, Sujini Ramachandar, Seth Tichenor, Robert W Quesal, Malcolm R McNeil
Purpose: This study surveyed didactic and clinical education in fluency disorders at undergraduate and graduate institutions in the United States that provide education in speech-language pathology to determine whether a previously observed reduction in requirements has continued since prior surveys (Yaruss, 1999; Yaruss & Quesal, 2002). Method: The study involved a detailed questionnaire that was sent to 282 communication science and disorders departments. Questions examined didactic and clinical education, as well as faculty knowledge about fluency disorders...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207878/attitudes-to-in-vitro-meat-a-survey-of-potential-consumers-in-the-united-states
#19
Matti Wilks, Clive J C Phillips
Positivity towards meat consumption remains strong, despite evidence of negative environmental and ethical outcomes. Although awareness of these repercussions is rising, there is still public resistance to removing meat from our diets. One potential method to alleviate these effects is to produce in vitro meat: meat grown in a laboratory that does not carry the same environmental or ethical concerns. However, there is limited research examining public attitudes towards in vitro meat, thus we know little about the capacity for it be accepted by consumers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202372/gut-microbiota-implications-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Arun Parashar, Malairaman Udayabanu
Gut microbiota (GM) can influence various neurological outcomes, like cognition, learning, and memory. Commensal GM modulates brain development and behavior and has been implicated in several neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety, stress and much more. A recent study has shown that Parkinson's disease patients suffer from GM dysbiosis, but whether it is a cause or an effect is yet to be understood. In this review, we try to connect the dots between GM and PD pathology using direct and indirect evidence...
February 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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