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smokers respiratory infections

Stephanie Cargnelli, Jeff Powis, Jennifer L Y Tsang
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, a major cause of Legionnaires' disease, accounts for 2-15 % of all community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and up to 30 % of community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a crucial step in the prevention of morbidity and mortality. However, recognition of Legionnaires' disease continues to be challenging because of its nonspecific clinical features. We sought to describe hospitalized community-acquired Legionnaires' disease to increase awareness of this important and potentially lethal disease...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
A Teijeiro, H Badellino, M G Raiden, M N Cuello, G Kevorkof, C Gatti, V H Croce, D Solé
BACKGROUND: Wheezing is a very common respiratory symptom in infants. The prevalence of wheezing in infants, conducted in developed countries shows prevalence rates ranging between 20% and 30%. However, we do not know the risk factors in our population of wheezing infants. METHODS: A standardised written questionnaire (WQ-P1-EISL) in infants between 12 and 18 months of age residing in the city of Cordoba was used; population/sample included 1031 infants. Recurrent wheezing (RW) was defined as three or more episodes of wheezing reported by the parents during the first 12 months of life...
November 15, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Gregory L Kinney, Emma H Baker, Oana L Klein, Jennifer L Black-Shinn, Emily S Wan, Barry Make, Elizabeth Regan, Russell P Bowler, Sharon M Lutz, Kendra A Young, Lindsey M Duca, George R Washko, Edwin K Silverman, James D Crapo, John E Hokanson
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus and its complications are a large and increasing burden for health care worldwide. Reduced pulmonary function has been observed in diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), and this reduction is thought to occur prior to diagnosis. Other measures of pulmonary health are associated with diabetes, including lower exercise tolerance, greater dyspnea, lower quality of life (as measured by the St. George's Respiratory Questionaire [SGRQ]) and susceptibility to lung infection and these measures may also predate diabetes diagnosis...
2016: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
Ronan F O'Toole, Shakti D Shukla, Eugene H Walters
Expression of the platelet-activating factor receptor is upregulated in the respiratory epithelium of smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. We have recently determined that increased expression of PAFr correlates with higher levels of adhesion to human bronchial epithelial cells by non-typable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae which are major bacterial pathogens in acute exacerbations of COPD. In addition, we found that a PAFr antagonist decreased the adhesion of both respiratory bacterial pathogens to non-cigarette exposure control levels...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Rakesh Pore, Swati Biswas, Srirupa Das
PURPOSE: The aim of the survey was to understand the prevailing practice pattern for the management of dry cough among primary care physicians in Indian clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This single visit, cross-sectional, non-interventional, interview based physician survey was conducted over a period of 3 months where 500 registered physicians with at least 6 months of clinical practice and willing to participate in the survey were interviewed in their clinic or hospital from June to August 2015...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Cindy T McEvoy, Eliot R Spindel
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is the largest preventable cause of abnormal in-utero lung development. Despite well known risks, rates of smoking during pregnancy have only slightly decreased over the last ten years, with rates varying from 5-40% worldwide resulting in tens of millions of fetal exposures. Despite multiple approaches to smoking cessation about 50% of smokers will continue to smoke during pregnancy. Maternal genotype plays an important role in the likelihood of continued smoking during pregnancy and the degree to which maternal smoking will affect the fetus...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Wenxin Wu, Wei Zhang, J Leland Booth, David C Hutchings, Xiaoqiu Wang, Vicky L White, Houssein Youness, Cory D Cross, Ming-Hui Zou, Dennis Burian, Jordan P Metcalf
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking (CS) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and most COPD exacerbations are caused by respiratory infections including influenza. Influenza infections are more severe in smokers. The mechanism of the increased risk and severity of infections in smokers is likely multifactorial, but certainly includes changes in immunologic host defenses. METHODS: We investigated retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I) and interferon (IFN) induction by influenza A virus (IAV) in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) isolated from smokers or nonsmokers...
2016: Respiratory Research
Alejandro A Diaz, Thomas P Young, Diego J Maselli, Carlos H Martinez, Erick S Maclean, Andrew Yen, Chandra Dass, Scott A Simpson, David A Lynch, Gregory L Kinney, John E Hokanson, George R Washko, Raul San José Estépar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiectasis manifests as recurrent respiratory infections and reduced lung function. Airway dilation, which is measured as the ratio of the diameters of the bronchial lumen (B) and adjacent pulmonary artery (A), is a defining radiological feature of bronchiectasis. A challenge to equating the bronchoarterial (BA) ratio to disease severity is that the diameters of airway and vessel in health are not established. We sought to explore the variability of BA ratio in never-smokers without pulmonary disease and its associations with lung function...
August 18, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Jessica Napolitano Cox, Mohd Akhlakur Rahman, Shengying Bao, Mingjie Liu, Sarah E Wheeler, Daren L Knoell
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the U.S. is primarily caused by cigarette smoking. COPD patients are highly susceptible to respiratory infections in part due to alveolar macrophage dysfunction despite a substantial increase in macrophages in the lung. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal that is concentrated within tobacco and accumulates in the lung of smokers. We hypothesized that Cd uptake into macrophages alters immune function thereby impairing the macrophage response to invading pathogens. Our hypothesis was tested by comparing primary human monocytes and macrophages, primary mouse bronchoalveolar lavage myeloid cells, and related cell lines...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
D Lauritano, L Lo Muzio, R M Gaudio, L Lo Russo, D Mucchi, G M Nardi, M Martinelli
Periodontal diseases (PD) affect about half of the adult population all over the world. PD is caused by bacterial infection which induces an inflammatory response with progressive destruction of the periodontal tissues and finally the loss of teeth. Tobacco smoking (TS), alcohol consumption, and systemic diseases (SDs), such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, osteoporosis, malnutrition and stress, are considered additional risk factors. This short review examines the potential causal association between PD, TS and SDs...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Rosario Fernández-Plata, Rosalba Rojas-Martínez, David Martínez-Briseño, Cecilia García-Sancho, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla
BACKGROUND: Environmental tobacco smoke affects the current and future health of children. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether schoolchildren aged 8-17 years old residing at an altitude of 2,240 m and exposed to tobacco smoke at home presented a reduction in the growth of pulmonary function and a greater problem of respiratory symptoms and infections compared with non-exposed children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We followed, with questionnaires and spirometry, 1,632 boys and 1,555 girls from Mexico City and its metropolitan area (the Metropolitan Study to Evaluate the Chronic Effects of Pollution in School-age Children [EMPECE]) every six months for six years...
May 2016: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Rosalyn Singleton, Aaron J Salkoski, Lisa Bulkow, Chris Fish, Jennifer Dobson, Leif Albertson, Jennifer Skarada, Thomas Kovesi, Christy McDonald, Thomas W Hennessy, Troy Ritter
Alaska Native children experience high rates of respiratory infections and conditions. Household crowding, indoor smoke, lack of piped water, and poverty have been associated with respiratory infections. We describe the baseline household characteristics of children with severe or chronic lung disease participating in a 2012-2015 indoor air study. We monitored indoor PM2.5, CO2 , relative humidity %, temperature and VOCs, and interviewed caregivers about children's respiratory symptoms. We evaluated the association between reported children's respiratory symptoms and indoor air quality indicators using multiple logistic regression analysis...
June 18, 2016: Indoor Air
P Pappu, D Madduru, M Chandrasekharan, V Modhukur, S Nallapeta, P Suravajhala
Cigarette smoking leads to serious epidemics in humans, creating torsion of infection in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tracts. Several researchers in the recent past have theorized that the next generation sequencing (NGS), especially transcriptome sequencing has enhanced understanding lung cancers and other epithelial epidemics. Conversely, pathogenesis specific to lung cancer with respect to molecular fraction of genomic ribonucleic acid has some mutant effect in various populations like smokers with lung cancer, healthy never smokers and vice versa...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
Leah Jayes, Patricia L Haslam, Christina G Gratziou, Pippa Powell, John Britton, Constantine Vardavas, Carlos Jimenez-Ruiz, Jo Leonardi-Bee
BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco increases the risk of respiratory disease in adults and children, but communicating the magnitude of these effects in a scientific manner that is accessible and usable by the public and policymakers presents a challenge. We have therefore summarized scientific data on the impact of smoking on respiratory diseases to provide the content for a unique resource, SmokeHaz. METHODS: We conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses of longitudinal studies (published to 2013) identified from electronic databases, gray literature, and experts...
July 2016: Chest
Alessandro G Fois, Antonella Arcadu, Luigi Santoru, Rocco Trisolini, Vincenzo Marras, Giorgio C Ginesu, Sara Canu, Lorenzo Cordero, Gabriella Diana, Pietro Pirina
BACKGROUND: Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica (TBPO) is an uncommon and benign condition characterized by osseous or metaplastic cartilaginous 1-3 mm nodules in the submucosa of the tracheo-bronchial tree. Posterior membranous wall of trachea is typically spared. Ecchondrosis and exostosis nodules can cause chronic inflammation and mucosal metaplasia, stiffness and airway obstruction. The prevalence of this disease, often asymptomatic or associated with nonspecific symptoms, is underestimated, and the mean age at diagnosis is 50 years...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Amarjargal Dagvadorj, Erika Ota, Sadequa Shahrook, Purevdorj Baljinnyam Olkhanud, Kenji Takehara, Naoko Hikita, Bayasgalantai Bavuusuren, Rintaro Mori, Takeo Nakayama
This study aimed to assess the potential risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-related hospital admissions in Mongolian children. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in rural Mongolia in 2013, and 1,013 mother-child pairs were included. Of the participating children, 38.9% were admitted to hospital with LRTIs. Home smoking, low birthweight, being a male child, exclusive breastfeeding and healthcare-seeking behaviour showed substantial association with LRTI-related hospital admissions...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sonia Brescianini, Corrado Fagnani, Elisabetta Aquilini, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Maria A Stazi
This study aims to: (i) estimate genetic and environmental components of four early respiratory diseases and (ii) test if these components are modified by parental smoking exposure. Study subjects were 2068 Italian twins aged 3-17. We performed biometric modeling under the assumptions of the twin design. For bronchitis and bronchiolitis, variance was mostly explained by shared environment, with no modification effect by parental smoking. For pneumonia and wheezy bronchitis, shared environmental component was larger among passive smokers, while genetic component was predominant among non-smokers...
June 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Rebecca M Joseph, Mohammad Movahedi, William G Dixon, Deborah P M Symmons
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between (i) smoking status and (ii) smoking cessation and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: An incident cohort of patients with RA was identified using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a database of UK primary care electronic medical records. Time-varying smoking status, years of cessation and amount smoked were determined from patients' medical records. The date and underlying cause of death were identified by linkage with Office for National Statistics records...
March 18, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
Pushpa Thapa, Achyut Raj Pandey, Raja Ram Dhungana, Bihungum Bista, Barsha Thapa, Shiva Raj Mishra
BACKGROUND: As Nepal witnesses high burden of both acute respiratory infection (ARI) and passive smoking among under-five children, studies on effect modification of exclusive breastfeeding on passive smoking and ARI carry huge significance. With Nepal holding no evidence in this regard, findings would be useful to promote a cost-effective intervention: exclusive breastfeeding. This study was therefore conceived as an effort to bring to light the modifying effect that exclusive breastfeeding may have on the association between household passive smoking and ARI among under-five children...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
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