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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923817/patient-willingness-to-have-tests-to-guide-antibiotic-use-for-respiratory-tract-infections-from-the-wwami-region-practice-and-research-network-wprn
#1
Malaika Schwartz, Victoria Hardy, Gina A Keppel, William Alto, Jaime Hornecker, Beth Robitaille, Jon Neher, John Holmes, M Ashworth Dirac, Allison M Cole, Matthew Thompson
INTRODUCTION: The majority of consultations for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) lead to prescriptions for antibiotics, which have limited clinical benefit. We explored patients' willingness to have blood tests as part of the diagnostic work-up for RTIs, and patient knowledge about antibiotics. METHODS: Patients at 6 family medicine clinics were surveyed. Regression modeling was used to determine independent predictors of willingness to have venous and point-of-care (POC) blood tests, and knowledge of the value of antibiotics for RTIs...
September 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883932/effect-of-vitamin-d3-on-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-human-airway-surface-liquid-preliminary-results-of-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#2
Luis G Vargas Buonfiglio, Marlene Cano, Alejandro A Pezzulo, Oriana G Vanegas Calderon, Joseph Zabner, Alicia K Gerke, Alejandro P Comellas
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D3 supplementation has been reported to prevent lung infections and increase the gene expression of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin. We investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the antimicrobial activity of airway surface liquid (ASL) in human subjects. Since smoking can increase the risk of respiratory infections, we also investigated the effect of smoking in the cathelicidin response to vitamin D3 in human airway epithelia in vitro. METHODS: This study is a subanalysis of single-centre community-based randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865477/rig-i-overexpression-decreases-mortality-of-cigarette-smoke-exposed-mice-during-influenza-a-virus-infection
#3
Xiaoqiu Wang, Wenxin Wu, Wei Zhang, J Leland Booth, Elizabeth S Duggan, Lili Tian, Sunil More, Yan D Zhao, Ravindranauth N Sawh, Lin Liu, Ming-Hui Zou, Jordan P Metcalf
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important regulator of virus-induced antiviral interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines which participate in clearing viral infections. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure increases the frequency and severity of respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We generated a RIG-I transgenic (TG) mouse strain that expresses the RIG-I gene product under the control of the human lung specific surfactant protein C promoter...
September 2, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829884/effect-of-oral-prednisolone-on-symptom-duration-and-severity-in-nonasthmatic-adults-with-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Alastair D Hay, Paul Little, Anthony Harnden, Matthew Thompson, Kay Wang, Denise Kendrick, Elizabeth Orton, Sara T Brookes, Grace J Young, Margaret May, Sandra Hollinghurst, Fran E Carroll, Harriet Downing, David Timmins, Natasher Lafond, Magdy El-Gohary, Michael Moore
Importance: Acute lower respiratory tract infection is common and often treated inappropriately in primary care with antibiotics. Corticosteroids are increasingly used but without sufficient evidence. Objective: To assess the effects of oral corticosteroids for acute lower respiratory tract infection in adults without asthma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (July 2013 to final follow-up October 2014) conducted in 54 family practices in England among 401 adults with acute cough and at least 1 lower respiratory tract symptom not requiring immediate antibiotic treatment and with no history of chronic pulmonary disease or use of asthma medication in the past 5 years...
August 22, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692139/the-health-threats-to-people-with-asthma-through-asthma-associated-infectious-disease-comorbidities-are-largely-under-recognized
#5
Y J Juhn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608758/a-systematic-narrative-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-behavioural-smoking-cessation-interventions-in-selected-disadvantaged-groups-2010-2017
#6
Amanda Wilson, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Johnson George, Alexandra Denham, Billie Bonevski
Tobacco remains the key modifiable risk factor for the development of a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis and cancer. Among priority populations, smoking prevalence remains high, smokers tend to relapse more often and earlier and fewer are able to sustain quit attempts. This systematic review provides an update on the literature. Areas covered: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials published from 2010-2017, in English language, were identified after searching on Medline, Ovid, Embase and PsycINFO databases...
August 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598060/spontaneous-pneumothorax-in-h1n1-infection
#7
Ashutosh Chaturvedi, Arun Kumar
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a very rare entity in H1N1 infection unless it is co-existent with other respiratory conditions especially COPD. The other factors are old age, children below 5 years and patients with ILD. The mortality rate goes high with pulmonary illness complicated by H1N1 infection in smokers and in pregnant women. This is the first reported case of H1N1 infection with Spontaneous Pneumothorax in India.
May 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584492/prevalence-of-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-among-higher-secondary-school-students-in-ernakulam-district-kerala-southern-india
#8
P S Rakesh, Jishnu Satheesh Lalu, K Leelamoni
INTRODUCTION: The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547823/asthma-other-atopic-conditions-and-risk-of-infections-in-105-519-general-population-never-and-ever-smokers
#9
J Helby, B G Nordestgaard, T Benfield, S E Bojesen
BACKGROUND: Individuals with atopic conditions may have increased susceptibility to infections outside the organs directly affected by their atopic condition. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that atopic conditions overall, and stratified by smoking history, are associated with increased risk of hospitalization for infections. METHODS: We collected information on smoking history and self-reported atopic conditions from 105 519 individuals from the general population and followed them for up to 23 years for infectious disease hospitalizations and deaths...
September 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530117/combined-impact-of-smoking-and-early-life-exposures-on-adult-lung-function-trajectories
#10
James P Allinson, Rebecca Hardy, Gavin C Donaldson, Seif O Shaheen, Diana Kuh, Jadwiga A Wedzicha
BACKGROUND: Both adverse early life exposures and adult smoking can negatively influence adult lung function trajectory but few studies consider how the impact of early life exposures may be modified by subsequent smoking. METHODS: The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development is a nationally representative cohort, initially of 5362 individuals, followed since enrolment at birth in March 1946. Using data collected prospectively across life and multilevel modelling we investigated how the relationships between early life exposures (infant lower respiratory infection, manual social class, home overcrowding and pollution exposure) and FEV1 and FVC trajectories between ages 43 and 60-64 were influenced by smoking behaviour...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360458/prevalence-and-etiological-profile-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-nonsmokers
#11
Tariq Mahmood, Ravindra Kumar Singh, Surya Kant, Amitabh Das Shukla, Alok Chandra, Rajneesh Kumar Srivastava
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has been recognized as the most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for a long time, but recent studies have shown that nonsmokers also contribute to a significant proportion of COPD. This study was performed to find out the proportion of nonsmoker individuals among COPD patients and to determine various etiologies in nonsmoker COPD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was an observational cross-sectional study conducted in Department of Pulmonary Medicine, MLN Medical College, Allahabad...
March 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319817/indoor-air-quality-of-low-and-middle-income-urban-households-in-durban-south-africa
#12
Nkosana Jafta, Lars Barregard, Prakash M Jeena, Rajen N Naidoo
INTRODUCTION: Elevated levels of indoor air pollutants may cause cardiopulmonary disease such as lower respiratory infection, chronic obstructive lung disease and lung cancer, but the association with tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. So far the risk estimates of TB infection or/and disease due to indoor air pollution (IAP) exposure are based on self-reported exposures rather than direct measurements of IAP, and these exposures have not been validated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to characterize and develop predictive models for concentrations of three air pollutants (PM10, NO2 and SO2) in homes of children participating in a childhood TB study...
July 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260599/peritonsillar-abscess-clinical-aspects-of-microbiology-risk-factors-and-the-association-with-parapharyngeal-abscess
#13
REVIEW
Tejs Ehlers Klug
PTA is a collection of pus located between the tonsillar capsule and the pharyngeal constrictor muscle. It is considered a complication of acute tonsillitis and is the most prevalent deep neck infection (approximately 2000 cases annually in Denmark) and cause of acute admission to Danish ENT departments. Teenagers and young adults are most commonly affected and males may predominate over females. However, no studies of age- and gender-stratified incidence rates have previously been published. Furthermore, smoking may be associated with increased risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) development, although the magnitude of the association has not been estimated...
March 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236369/patients-hospitalized-with-an-infective-exacerbation-of-bronchiectasis-unrelated-to-cystic-fibrosis-clinical-physiological-and-sputum-characteristics
#14
Victoria Venning, James Bartlett, Lata Jayaram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiectasis is a growing health burden both globally and in Australasia. Associated with repeated respiratory infections, the disease often results in hospital admission, impaired quality of life, reduced lung function and shortened life expectancy. We describe the local clinical, physiological and sputum characteristics in patients hospitalized with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis. METHODS: This study examined the medical records of all 61 adults admitted to a metropolitan Australian hospital with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis in a calendar year...
July 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182643/ige-sensitization-to-inhalant-allergens-and-the-risk-of-airway-infection-and-disease-a-population-based-study
#15
Tea Skaaby, Lise Lotte Nystrup Husemoen, Betina Heinsbæk Thuesen, Runa Vavia Fenger, Allan Linneberg
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization, which is the propensity to develop IgE antibodies against common environmental allergens, is associated with a lymphocyte T-helper type 2 (Th2) skewed immune response and a high risk of allergic respiratory disease. Little is known about whether IgE sensitization confers an increased risk of respiratory infections in adults. We investigated the association between IgE sensitization and the incidence of acute airway infections, other infections and chronic lower airway disease events as recorded in nation-wide registries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149657/evaluation-of-olfactory-function-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#16
Lütfi Akyol, Emre Günbey, Rıfat Karlı, Soner Önem, Metin Özgen, Mehmet Sayarlıoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing type of vasculitis of unknown etiology and is characterized by oral and urogenital ulcers and ocular inflammation with cutaneous, musculoskeletal, vascular, and nervous system manifestations. Few cases involving the nasal mucosa have been reported in the literature, and the true prevalence of BD remains unknown. Neurological involvement associated with BD might play a more important role in causing olfactory dysfunction than mucosal involvement, but sufficient clinical data are not available on the effect of BD on olfaction in adults...
December 2016: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093442/rococo-study-a-real-world-evaluation-of-an-over-the-counter-medicine-in-acute-cough-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-study
#17
S S Birring, J Brew, A Kilbourn, V Edwards, R Wilson, A H Morice
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and safety of CS1002, an over-the-counter cough treatment containing diphenhydramine, ammonium chloride and levomenthol in a cocoa-based demulcent. DESIGN: A multicentre, randomised, parallel group, controlled, single-blinded study in participants with acute upper respiratory tract infection-associated cough. SETTING: 4 general practitioner (GP) surgeries and 14 pharmacies in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged ≥18 years who self-referred to a GP or pharmacist with acute cough of <7 days' duration...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056984/the-main-rhinovirus-respiratory-tract-adhesion-site-icam-1-is-upregulated-in-smokers-and-patients-with-chronic-airflow-limitation-cal
#18
Shakti Dhar Shukla, Malik Quasir Mahmood, Steven Weston, Roger Latham, Hans Konrad Muller, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Eugene Haydn Walters
BACKGROUND: ICAM-1 is a major receptor for ~60% of human rhinoviruses, and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, two major pathogens in COPD. Increased cell-surface expression of ICAM-1 in response to tobacco smoke exposure has been suggested. We have investigated epithelial ICAM-1 expression in both the large and small airways, and lung parenchyma in smoking-related chronic airflow limitation (CAL) patients. METHODS: We evaluated epithelial ICAM-1 expression in resected lung tissue: 8 smokers with normal spirometry (NLFS); 29 CAL patients (10 small-airway disease; 9 COPD-smokers; 10 COPD ex-smokers); Controls (NC): 15 normal airway/lung tissues...
January 5, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005296/current-wheeze-asthma-respiratory-infections-and-rhinitis-among-adults-in-relation-to-inspection-data-and-indoor-measurements-in-single-family-houses-in-sweden-the-betsi-study
#19
J Wang, K Engvall, G Smedje, H Nilsson, D Norbäck
In the Swedish Building Energy, Technical Status and Indoor environment study, a total of 1160 adults from 605 single-family houses answered a questionnaire on respiratory health. Building inspectors investigated the homes and measured temperature, air humidity, air exchange rate, and wood moisture content (in attic and crawl space). Moisture load was calculated as the difference between indoor and outdoor absolute humidity. Totally, 7.3% were smokers, 8.7% had doctor' diagnosed asthma, 11.2% current wheeze, and 9...
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906087/legionella-pneumonia-in-the-niagara-region-ontario-canada-a-case-series
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Stephanie Cargnelli, Jeff Powis, Jennifer L Y Tsang
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, a major cause of Legionnaires' disease, accounts for 2-15 % of all community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and up to 30 % of community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a crucial step in the prevention of morbidity and mortality. However, recognition of Legionnaires' disease continues to be challenging because of its nonspecific clinical features. We sought to describe hospitalized community-acquired Legionnaires' disease to increase awareness of this important and potentially lethal disease...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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