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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740931/antimicrobial-prescription-in-patients-dying-from-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
John Taverner, Lauren Ross, Claire Bartlett, M Luthe, J Ong, Louis Irving, Natasha Smallwood
INTRODUCTION: Despite rising antimicrobial resistance, treatment guidelines for COPD exacerbations are frequently ignored. Patients with terminal conditions are often prescribed antimicrobials despite the goal of care to reduce burdensome treatments. The appropriateness of antimicrobials in patients dying from an exacerbation of COPD is unknown. AIM: To review antimicrobial prescription at the time of death in patients who died from COPD. METHODS: A retrospective medical record audit was performed for 475 patients who died over twelve years (2004-2015)...
May 9, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676635/effects-of-household-air-pollution-in-malawi-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-status-on-respiratory-symptoms-and-inflammation-injury-and-repair-markers
#2
Charles Kim, Hannah Jary, Kevin Mortimer, Kelly S Schweitzer, Doug Curran-Everett, Stephen Gordon, Irina Petrache
RATIONALE: Household air pollution (HAP) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are associated with increased risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Both HAP and HIV are widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Malawi, where HIV has 10.6% prevalence in patients 15-49 years old. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that HIV infection (HIV+ ) and habitual exposure to HAP (HAP+ ) synergize to cause systemic inflammation and vascular injury, which may herald early onset of chronic respiratory diseases...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617415/emergence-of-mycobacterium-simiae-a-retrospective-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-lebanon
#3
Amal Hamieh, Ralph Tayyar, Houssam Tabaja, Saeed E L Zein, Pierre Bou Khalil, Nathalie Kara, Zeina A Kanafani, Nadim Kanj, Imad Bou Akl, George Araj, Ghina Berjaoui, Souha S Kanj
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the clinical significance of Mycobacterium simiae at a major tertiary care center in Lebanon. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with positive cultures for M. simiae isolated between 2004 and 2016 at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. RESULTS: This study included 103 M. simiae isolates recovered from 51 patients. Their mean age was 62.7 years. The majority were males and smokers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545277/aberrant-epithelial-differentiation-by-cigarette-smoke-dysregulates-respiratory-host-defence
#4
Gimano D Amatngalim, Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Fernanda Dishchekenian, Tinne C J Mertens, Dennis K Ninaber, Abraham C van der Linden, Charles Pilette, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra, Anne M van der Does
It is currently unknown how cigarette smoke-induced airway remodelling affects highly expressed respiratory epithelial defence proteins and thereby mucosal host defence.Localisation of a selected set of highly expressed respiratory epithelial host defence proteins was assessed in well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cell (PBEC) cultures. Next, PBEC were cultured at the air-liquid interface, and during differentiation for 2-3 weeks exposed daily to whole cigarette smoke. Gene expression, protein levels and epithelial cell markers were subsequently assessed...
April 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543040/cigarette-smoke-exposure-worsens-acute-lung-injury-in-antibiotic-treated-bacterial-pneumonia-in-mice
#5
Jeffrey Earl Gotts, Lauren F Chun, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Naoki Takasaki, Stephen L Nishimura, Matthew L Springer, Suzaynn F Schick, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Evidence is accumulating that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) increases the risk of developing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, which in turn is the leading cause of ARDS. Chronic smokers have increased rates of pneumococcal colonization and develop more severe pneumococcal pneumonia than nonsmokers, yet mechanistic connections between CS exposure, bacterial pneumonia, and ARDS pathogenesis remain relatively unexplored. We exposed mice to 3 weeks of moderate whole-body CS or air, followed by intranasal inoculation with an invasive serotype of S...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533444/epidemiological-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms-for-the-association-between-cigarette-smoking-and-injuries-part-1
#6
REVIEW
Joseph J Knapik, Sheryl A Bedno
Surveys indicated that 24% of military personnel are current cigarette smokers. Smoking is well known to increase the risk of cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, reproductive problems, and other medical maladies, but one of the little known effects of smoking is that on injuries. There is considerable evidence from a variety of sources that (1) smoking increases overall injury risk, (2) the greater the amount of smoking, the higher is the injury risk, and (3) smoking is an independent injury risk factor...
December 0: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524964/airway-surface-liquid-from-smokers-promotes-bacterial-growth-and-biofilm-formation-via-iron-lactoferrin-imbalance
#7
Luis G Vargas Buonfiglio, Jennifer A Borcherding, Mark Frommelt, Gavin J Parker, Bryce Duchman, Oriana G Vanegas Calderón, Ruth Fernandez-Ruiz, Julio E Noriega, Elizabeth A Stone, Alicia K Gerke, Joseph Zabner, Alejandro P Comellas
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a leading cause of respiratory infections worldwide. Tobacco particulate matter disrupts iron homeostasis in the lungs and increases the iron content in the airways of smokers. The airway epithelia secrete lactoferrin to quench iron required for bacteria to proliferate and cause lung infections. We hypothesized that smokers would have increased bacterial growth and biofilm formation via iron lactoferrin imbalance. METHODS: We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from non-smokers and smokers...
March 10, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486583/predictors-of-copd-in-symptomatic-smokers-and-ex-smokers-seen-in-primary-care
#8
Oliver Djurhuus Tupper, Peter Kjeldgaard, Anders Løkke, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
Even in subjects at high risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the diagnosis is often missed due to lack of awareness of symptoms and risk factors. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of a diagnosis of COPD in symptomatic current and ex-smokers seen in a primary care setting. General practitioners ( n = 241) consecutively recruited subjects ≥ 35 years, with tobacco exposure, at least one respiratory symptom (i.e. cough, sputum, wheeze, dyspnoea and/or recurrent lower respiratory tract infections), and no previous diagnosis of obstructive airways disease...
January 1, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351447/cigarette-smoke-dampens-antiviral-signaling-in-small-airway-epithelial-cells-by-disrupting-tlr3-cleavage
#9
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to second-hand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, and yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection, we used an air-liquid interface culture system and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke, followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310905/role-of-airway-glucose-in-bacterial-infections-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Patrick Mallia, Jessica Webber, Simren K Gill, Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria Adelaide Calderazzo, Lydia Finney, Eteri Bakhsoliani, Hugo Farne, Aran Singanayagam, Joseph Footitt, Richard Hewitt, Tatiana Kebadze, Julia Aniscenko, Vijay Padmanaban, Philip L Molyneaux, Ian M Adcock, Peter J Barnes, Kazihuro Ito, Sarah L Elkin, Onn Min Kon, William O Cookson, Miriam F Moffat, Sebastian L Johnston, John S Tregoning
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infection, which contributes to disease progression and mortality, but mechanisms of increased susceptibility to infection remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether glucose concentrations were increased in airway samples (nasal lavage fluid, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) from patients with stable COPD and to determine the effects of viral infection on sputum glucose concentrations and how airway glucose concentrations relate to bacterial infection...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301918/ers-ats-workshop-report-on-respiratory-health-effects-of-household-air-pollution
#11
Akshay Sood, Nour A Assad, Peter J Barnes, Andrew Churg, Stephen B Gordon, Kevin S Harrod, Hammad Irshad, Om P Kurmi, William J Martin, Paula Meek, Kevin Mortimer, Curtis W Noonan, Rogelio Perez-Padilla, Kirk R Smith, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Tony Ward, John Balmes
Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion affects almost half of the world population. Adverse respiratory outcomes such as respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to HAP exposure. Solid fuel smoke is a heterogeneous mixture of various gases and particulates. Cell culture and animal studies with controlled exposure conditions and genetic homogeneity provide important insights into HAP mechanisms. Impaired bacterial phagocytosis in exposed human alveolar macrophages possibly mediates several HAP-related health effects...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260309/hiv-infection-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-copd-in-rural-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Crystal M North, Joseph G Allen, Samson Okello, Ruth Sentongo, Bernard Kakuhikire, Edward T Ryan, Alexander C Tsai, David C Christiani, Mark J Siedner
PURPOSE: HIV is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in high resource settings. Similar relationships are less understood in low resource settings. We aimed to estimate the association between HIV infection, tuberculosis, and COPD in rural Uganda. METHODS: The Uganda Non-communicable Diseases and Aging Cohort study observes people 40 years and older living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy, and population-based HIV-uninfected controls in rural Uganda...
February 2018: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210195/hair-nicotine-at-15-months-old-tobacco-exposure-and-wheeze-or-asthma-from-15-months-to-6-years-old
#13
Philip K Pattemore, Karen M Silvers, Chris M Frampton, Kristin Wickens, Tristram Ingham, David Fishwick, Julian Crane, G Ian Town, Michael J Epton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between hair nicotine levels at 15 months of age and prior parent-reported smoking exposure, and the risk of wheezing and current asthma from 15 months to 6 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: We measured hair nicotine levels at 15 months of age in 376 of 535 infants enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Christchurch, New Zealand. We obtained detailed information from parents about smoking exposure during pregnancy and in the home at 3 and 15 months of age...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150279/resolution-of-recurrent-tonsillitis-in-a-non-smoker-who-became-a-vaper-a-case-study-and-new-hypothesis
#14
Joanna Astrid Miler, Peter Hajek
BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the impact of vaping on respiratory infections remains contradictory. Cell and animal studies suggested that vaping may increase vulnerability to respiratory infections, but human data do not confirm this concern. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a never-smoker who became a vaper and after a few months of e-cigarette use experienced a complete resolution of chronic tonsillitis and a marked improvement in tonsilloliths. CONCLUSIONS: As this is a never-smoker, the improvements cannot be attributed to smoking cessation...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091081/protective-role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-cigarette-smoke-and-influenza-infection
#15
M J Hong, B H Gu, M C Madison, C Landers, H Y Tung, M Kim, X Yuan, R You, A A Machado, B E Gilbert, P Soroosh, M Elloso, L Song, M Chen, D B Corry, G Diehl, F Kheradmand
Airborne pathogens commonly trigger severe respiratory failure or death in smokers with lung disease. Cigarette smoking compromises the effectiveness of innate immunity against infections but the underlying mechanisms responsible for defective acquired immune responses in smokers remains less clear. We found that mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke recovered poorly from primary Influenza A pneumonia with reduced type I and II interferons (IFNs) and viral-specific immunoglobulins, but recruited γδ T cells to the lungs that predominantly expressed interleukin 17A (IL-17A)...
November 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020176/dpp4-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-receptor-is-upregulated-in-lungs-of-smokers-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#16
Leen J M Seys, W Widagdo, Fien M Verhamme, Alex Kleinjan, Wim Janssens, Guy F Joos, Ken R Bracke, Bart L Haagmans, Guy G Brusselle
Background: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes pneumonia with a relatively high case fatality rate in humans. Smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have been reported to be more susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. Here, we determined the expression of MERS-CoV receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), in lung tissues of smokers without airflow limitation and COPD patients in comparison to nonsmoking individuals (never-smokers). Methods: DPP4 expression was measured in lung tissue of lung resection specimens of never-smokers, smokers without airflow limitation, COPD GOLD stage II patients and in lung explants of end-stage COPD patients...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018566/risks-of-smoking-and-benefits-of-smoking-cessation-on-hospitalisations-for-cardiovascular-events-and-respiratory-infection-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-retrospective-cohort-study-using-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink
#17
Rebecca M Joseph, Mohammad Movahedi, William G Dixon, Deborah Pm Symmons
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between smoking status, smoking cessation and hospitalisations for cardiovascular events (CVE) and respiratory tract infections (RTI) in an inception cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The study was set within UK primary care electronic health records (the Clinical Practice Research Datalink) linked to hospital inpatient data (Hospital Episode Statistics). Patients with RA were followed from diagnosis to hospitalisation with a record of CVE or RTI, leaving their general practice, death, or 10 January 2012, whichever was earliest...
2017: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923817/patient-willingness-to-have-tests-to-guide-antibiotic-use-for-respiratory-tract-infections-from-the-wwami-region-practice-and-research-network-wprn
#18
Malaika Schwartz, Victoria Hardy, Gina A Keppel, William Alto, Jaime Hornecker, Beth Robitaille, Jon Neher, John Holmes, M Ashworth Dirac, Allison M Cole, Matthew Thompson
INTRODUCTION: The majority of consultations for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) lead to prescriptions for antibiotics, which have limited clinical benefit. We explored patients' willingness to have blood tests as part of the diagnostic work-up for RTIs, and patient knowledge about antibiotics. METHODS: Patients at 6 family medicine clinics were surveyed. Regression modeling was used to determine independent predictors of willingness to have venous and point-of-care (POC) blood tests, and knowledge of the value of antibiotics for RTIs...
September 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883932/effect-of-vitamin-d-3-on-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-human-airway-surface-liquid-preliminary-results-of-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#19
Luis G Vargas Buonfiglio, Marlene Cano, Alejandro A Pezzulo, Oriana G Vanegas Calderon, Joseph Zabner, Alicia K Gerke, Alejandro P Comellas
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D3 supplementation has been reported to prevent lung infections and increase the gene expression of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin. We investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the antimicrobial activity of airway surface liquid (ASL) in human subjects. Since smoking can increase the risk of respiratory infections, we also investigated the effect of smoking in the cathelicidin response to vitamin D3 in human airway epithelia in vitro. METHODS: This study is a subanalysis of single-centre community-based randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865477/rig-i-overexpression-decreases-mortality-of-cigarette-smoke-exposed-mice-during-influenza-a-virus-infection
#20
Xiaoqiu Wang, Wenxin Wu, Wei Zhang, J Leland Booth, Elizabeth S Duggan, Lili Tian, Sunil More, Yan D Zhao, Ravindranauth N Sawh, Lin Liu, Ming-Hui Zou, Jordan P Metcalf
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important regulator of virus-induced antiviral interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines which participate in clearing viral infections. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure increases the frequency and severity of respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We generated a RIG-I transgenic (TG) mouse strain that expresses the RIG-I gene product under the control of the human lung specific surfactant protein C promoter...
September 2, 2017: Respiratory Research
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