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smokers respiratory infections

Gimano D Amatngalim, Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Fernanda Dishchekenian, Tinne C J Mertens, Dennis K Ninaber, Abraham C van der Linden, Charles Pilette, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra, Anne M van der Does
Research question : It is currently unknown how cigarette smoke-induced airway remodelling affects highly expressed respiratory epithelial defence proteins and thereby mucosal host defence. Methods: Localization of a selected set of highly expressed respiratory epithelial host defence proteins was assessed in well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cell (PBEC) cultures. Next, PBEC were cultured at the air-liquid interface and during differentiation for 2-3 weeks daily exposed to whole cigarette smoke...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Jeffrey Earl Gotts, Lauren F Chun, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Naoki Takasaki, Stephen L Nishimura, Matthew L Springer, Suzaynn F Schick, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Evidence is accumulating that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) increases the risk of developing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, which in turn is the leading cause of ARDS. Chronic smokers have increased rates of pneumococcal colonization and develop more severe pneumococcal pneumonia than nonsmokers, yet mechanistic connections between CS exposure, bacterial pneumonia, and ARDS pathogenesis remain relatively unexplored. We exposed mice to 3 weeks of moderate whole-body CS or air, followed by intranasal inoculation with an invasive serotype of S...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Joseph J Knapik, Sheryl A Bedno
Surveys indicated that 24% of military personnel are current cigarette smokers. Smoking is well known to increase the risk of cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, reproductive problems, and other medical maladies, but one of the little known effects of smoking is that on injuries. There is considerable evidence from a variety of sources that (1) smoking increases overall injury risk, (2) the greater the amount of smoking, the higher is the injury risk, and (3) smoking is an independent injury risk factor...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Luis G Vargas Buonfiglio, Jennifer A Borcherding, Mark Frommelt, Gavin J Parker, Bryce Duchman, Oriana G Vanegas Calderón, Ruth Fernandez-Ruiz, Julio E Noriega, Elizabeth A Stone, Alicia K Gerke, Joseph Zabner, Alejandro P Comellas
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a leading cause of respiratory infections worldwide. Tobacco particulate matter disrupts iron homeostasis in the lungs and increases the iron content in the airways of smokers. The airway epithelia secrete lactoferrin to quench iron required for bacteria to proliferate and cause lung infections. We hypothesized that smokers would have increased bacterial growth and biofilm formation via iron lactoferrin imbalance. METHODS: We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from non-smokers and smokers...
March 10, 2018: Respiratory Research
Oliver Djurhuus Tupper, Peter Kjeldgaard, Anders Løkke, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
Even in subjects at high risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the diagnosis is often missed due to lack of awareness of symptoms and risk factors. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of a diagnosis of COPD in symptomatic current and ex-smokers seen in a primary care setting. General practitioners ( n = 241) consecutively recruited subjects ≥ 35 years, with tobacco exposure, at least one respiratory symptom (i.e. cough, sputum, wheeze, dyspnoea and/or recurrent lower respiratory tract infections), and no previous diagnosis of obstructive airways disease...
January 1, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection we used an air-liquid interface culture system, and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Patrick Mallia, Jessica Webber, Simren K Gill, Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria Adelaide Calderazzo, Lydia Finney, Eteri Bakhsoliani, Hugo Farne, Aran Singanayagam, Joseph Footitt, Richard Hewitt, Tatiana Kebadze, Julia Aniscenko, Vijay Padmanaban, Philip L Molyneaux, Ian M Adcock, Peter J Barnes, Kazihuro Ito, Sarah L Elkin, Onn Min Kon, William O Cookson, Miriam F Moffat, Sebastian L Johnston, John S Tregoning
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infection, which contributes to disease progression and mortality, but mechanisms of increased susceptibility to infection remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether glucose concentrations were increased in airway samples (nasal lavage fluid, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) from patients with stable COPD and to determine the effects of viral infection on sputum glucose concentrations and how airway glucose concentrations relate to bacterial infection...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Akshay Sood, Nour A Assad, Peter J Barnes, Andrew Churg, Stephen B Gordon, Kevin S Harrod, Hammad Irshad, Om P Kurmi, William J Martin, Paula Meek, Kevin Mortimer, Curtis W Noonan, Rogelio Perez-Padilla, Kirk R Smith, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Tony Ward, John Balmes
Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion affects almost half of the world population. Adverse respiratory outcomes such as respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to HAP exposure. Solid fuel smoke is a heterogeneous mixture of various gases and particulates. Cell culture and animal studies with controlled exposure conditions and genetic homogeneity provide important insights into HAP mechanisms. Impaired bacterial phagocytosis in exposed human alveolar macrophages possibly mediates several HAP-related health effects...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Crystal M North, Joseph G Allen, Samson Okello, Ruth Sentongo, Bernard Kakuhikire, Edward T Ryan, Alexander C Tsai, David C Christiani, Mark J Siedner
PURPOSE: HIV is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in high resource settings. Similar relationships are less understood in low resource settings. We aimed to estimate the association between HIV infection, tuberculosis, and COPD in rural Uganda. METHODS: The Uganda Non-communicable Diseases and Aging Cohort study observes people 40 years and older living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy, and population-based HIV-uninfected controls in rural Uganda...
December 19, 2017: Lung
Philip K Pattemore, Karen M Silvers, Chris M Frampton, Kristin Wickens, Tristram Ingham, David Fishwick, Julian Crane, G Ian Town, Michael J Epton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between hair nicotine levels at 15 months of age and prior parent-reported smoking exposure, and the risk of wheezing and current asthma from 15 months to 6 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: We measured hair nicotine levels at 15 months of age in 376 of 535 infants enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Christchurch, New Zealand. We obtained detailed information from parents about smoking exposure during pregnancy and in the home at 3 and 15 months of age...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
Joanna Astrid Miler, Peter Hajek
BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the impact of vaping on respiratory infections remains contradictory. Cell and animal studies suggested that vaping may increase vulnerability to respiratory infections, but human data do not confirm this concern. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a never-smoker who became a vaper and after a few months of e-cigarette use experienced a complete resolution of chronic tonsillitis and a marked improvement in tonsilloliths. CONCLUSIONS: As this is a never-smoker, the improvements cannot be attributed to smoking cessation...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
M J Hong, B H Gu, M C Madison, C Landers, H Y Tung, M Kim, X Yuan, R You, A A Machado, B E Gilbert, P Soroosh, M Elloso, L Song, M Chen, D B Corry, G Diehl, F Kheradmand
Airborne pathogens commonly trigger severe respiratory failure or death in smokers with lung disease. Cigarette smoking compromises the effectiveness of innate immunity against infections but the underlying mechanisms responsible for defective acquired immune responses in smokers remains less clear. We found that mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke recovered poorly from primary Influenza A pneumonia with reduced type I and II interferons (IFNs) and viral-specific immunoglobulins, but recruited γδ T cells to the lungs that predominantly expressed interleukin 17A (IL-17A)...
November 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
Leen J M Seys, W Widagdo, Fien M Verhamme, Alex Kleinjan, Wim Janssens, Guy F Joos, Ken R Bracke, Bart L Haagmans, Guy G Brusselle
Background: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes pneumonia with a relatively high case fatality rate in humans. Smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have been reported to be more susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. Here, we determined the expression of MERS-CoV receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), in lung tissues of smokers without airflow limitation and COPD patients in comparison to non-smoking individuals (never-smokers). Methods: DPP4 expression was measured in lung tissue of lung resection specimens of never-smokers, smokers without airflow limitation, COPD GOLD stage II patients and in lung explants of end-stage COPD patients...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Rebecca M Joseph, Mohammad Movahedi, William G Dixon, Deborah Pm Symmons
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between smoking status, smoking cessation and hospitalisations for cardiovascular events (CVE) and respiratory tract infections (RTI) in an inception cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The study was set within UK primary care electronic health records (the Clinical Practice Research Datalink) linked to hospital inpatient data (Hospital Episode Statistics). Patients with RA were followed from diagnosis to hospitalisation with a record of CVE or RTI, leaving their general practice, death, or 10 January 2012, whichever was earliest...
2017: RMD Open
Malaika Schwartz, Victoria Hardy, Gina A Keppel, William Alto, Jaime Hornecker, Beth Robitaille, Jon Neher, John Holmes, M Ashworth Dirac, Allison M Cole, Matthew Thompson
INTRODUCTION: The majority of consultations for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) lead to prescriptions for antibiotics, which have limited clinical benefit. We explored patients' willingness to have blood tests as part of the diagnostic work-up for RTIs, and patient knowledge about antibiotics. METHODS: Patients at 6 family medicine clinics were surveyed. Regression modeling was used to determine independent predictors of willingness to have venous and point-of-care (POC) blood tests, and knowledge of the value of antibiotics for RTIs...
September 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Luis G Vargas Buonfiglio, Marlene Cano, Alejandro A Pezzulo, Oriana G Vanegas Calderon, Joseph Zabner, Alicia K Gerke, Alejandro P Comellas
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D3 supplementation has been reported to prevent lung infections and increase the gene expression of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin. We investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the antimicrobial activity of airway surface liquid (ASL) in human subjects. Since smoking can increase the risk of respiratory infections, we also investigated the effect of smoking in the cathelicidin response to vitamin D3 in human airway epithelia in vitro. METHODS: This study is a subanalysis of single-centre community-based randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Xiaoqiu Wang, Wenxin Wu, Wei Zhang, J Leland Booth, Elizabeth S Duggan, Lili Tian, Sunil More, Yan D Zhao, Ravindranauth N Sawh, Lin Liu, Ming-Hui Zou, Jordan P Metcalf
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important regulator of virus-induced antiviral interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines which participate in clearing viral infections. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure increases the frequency and severity of respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We generated a RIG-I transgenic (TG) mouse strain that expresses the RIG-I gene product under the control of the human lung specific surfactant protein C promoter...
September 2, 2017: Respiratory Research
Alastair D Hay, Paul Little, Anthony Harnden, Matthew Thompson, Kay Wang, Denise Kendrick, Elizabeth Orton, Sara T Brookes, Grace J Young, Margaret May, Sandra Hollinghurst, Fran E Carroll, Harriet Downing, David Timmins, Natasher Lafond, Magdy El-Gohary, Michael Moore
Importance: Acute lower respiratory tract infection is common and often treated inappropriately in primary care with antibiotics. Corticosteroids are increasingly used but without sufficient evidence. Objective: To assess the effects of oral corticosteroids for acute lower respiratory tract infection in adults without asthma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (July 2013 to final follow-up October 2014) conducted in 54 family practices in England among 401 adults with acute cough and at least 1 lower respiratory tract symptom not requiring immediate antibiotic treatment and with no history of chronic pulmonary disease or use of asthma medication in the past 5 years...
August 22, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Y J Juhn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
Amanda Wilson, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Johnson George, Alexandra Denham, Billie Bonevski
Tobacco remains the key modifiable risk factor for the development of a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis and cancer. Among priority populations, smoking prevalence remains high, smokers tend to relapse more often and earlier and fewer are able to sustain quit attempts. This systematic review provides an update on the literature. Areas covered: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials published from 2010-2017, in English language, were identified after searching on Medline, Ovid, Embase and PsycINFO databases...
August 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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