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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212441/depressive-disorder-and-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-after-myocardial-infarct-are-associated-with-abnormal-tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine-metabolism-in-rats
#1
Xiaofang Lu, Yuefen Wang, Chunyan Liu, Yangang Wang
In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211554/psychiatric-illnesses-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-psychiatric-comorbidity-and-biological-underpinnings
#2
REVIEW
Jarosław Nowakowski, Adrian Andrzej Chrobak, Dominika Dudek
Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of chronic medical conditions comprising Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that involves increased frequency of mental disorders. The most common psychiatric disorders in inflammatory bowel disease are depression and anxiety, however, some epidemiologic and biological evidence suggest that other disorders like bipolar disorder occur more often. Biological mechanisms concerning both inflammatory bowel disease and depression or anxiety explain susceptibility to developing mental disorders in inflammatory bowel disease...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210270/face-to-face-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-effects-on-gastrointestinal-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#3
Hanna Edebol-Carlman, Brjánn Ljótsson, Steven J Linton, Katja Boersma, Martien Schrooten, Dirk Repsilber, Robert J Brummer
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder linked to disturbances in the gut-brain axis. Visceral hypersensitivity and pain are hallmarks of IBS and linked to the physiological and psychological burden and to the nonadaptive coping with stress. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for IBS has proven effective in reducing gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in IBS by means of coping with stress. The present pilot study evaluated for the first time whether CBT for IBS affected visceral sensitivity and pain...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204956/centrally-targeted-pharmacotherapy-for-chronic-abdominal-pain-understanding-and-management
#4
Hans Törnblom, Douglas A Drossman
Chronic abdominal pain has a widespread impact on the individual and the society. Identifying and explaining mechanisms of importance for the pain experience within a biopsychosocial context are central in order to select treatment that has a chance for symptom reduction. With current knowledge of brain-gut interactions, chronic abdominal pain, which mostly appears in functional gastrointestinal disorders, to a large extent involves pain mechanisms residing within the brain. As such, the use of centrally targeted pharmacotherapy as an effective treatment option is obvious in a selected number of patients...
February 16, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202372/gut-microbiota-implications-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Arun Parashar, Malairaman Udayabanu
Gut microbiota (GM) can influence various neurological outcomes, like cognition, learning, and memory. Commensal GM modulates brain development and behavior and has been implicated in several neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety, stress and much more. A recent study has shown that Parkinson's disease patients suffer from GM dysbiosis, but whether it is a cause or an effect is yet to be understood. In this review, we try to connect the dots between GM and PD pathology using direct and indirect evidence...
February 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194099/gut-to-brain-dysbiosis-mechanisms-linking-western-diet-consumption-the-microbiome-and-cognitive-impairment
#6
REVIEW
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Scott E Kanoski
Consumption of a Western Diet (WD) that is high in saturated fat and added sugars negatively impacts cognitive function, particularly mnemonic processes that rely on the integrity of the hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences cognitive function via the gut-brain axis, and that WD factors significantly alter the proportions of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we review mechanisms through which consuming a WD negatively impacts neurocognitive function, with a particular focus on recent evidence linking the gut microbiome with dietary- and metabolic-associated hippocampal impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193513/the-importance-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-controlling-food-intake-and-regulating-energy-balance
#7
M P Monteiro, R L Batterham
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the key interface between ingested nutrients and the body, plays a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis. Gut-derived signals convey information regarding incoming nutrients to the brain, initiating changes in eating behavior and energy expenditure, to maintain energy balance. Here we review hormonal, neural and nutrient signals emanating from the GI tract and evidence for their role in controlling feeding behavior. Mechanistic studies that have utilized pharmacological and/or transgenic approaches targeting an individual hormone/mediator have yielded somewhat disappointing bodyweight changes, often leading to the hormone/mediator in question being dismissed as a potential obesity therapy...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192894/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-cardiac-anesthesia-a-review-focusing-on-translation
#8
Christian Stoppe, Patrick Meybohm, Carina Benstoem, Andreas Goetzenich
INTRODUCTION: Remote Ischaemic Conditioning (RIC) is a powerful cardioprotective strategy. Its clinical application is simple, cheap and so far free from secondary side effects. Given the heterogeneous results of recent large-scale clinical trials, its clinical relevant benefit is still doubted. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Following a MEDLINE-based search on all publications concerning RIC in experimental or clinical settings, this review focuses on the translation from bench to bedside...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191693/gene-expression-profiles-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-correlate-with-salience-network-activity-in-chronic-visceral-pain-a-pilot-study
#9
A Gupta, S Cole, J S Labus, S Joshi, T J Nguyen, L A Kilpatrick, K Tillisch, B D Naliboff, L Chang, E A Mayer
BACKGROUND: Distinct gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) consistent with increased sympathetic nervous system activity have been described in different populations under chronic stress. Neuroinflammatory brain changes, possibly related to the migration of primed monocytes to the brain, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive gastrointestinal disorder associated with altered brain-gut interactions and increased sympathetic/vagal tone and anxiety...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190885/bacterial-pathogenesis-microbial-manipulation-of-the-gut-brain-axis
#10
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181979/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-part-1-an-integrated-system-of-immunological-neural-and-hormonal-signals
#11
Stephanie Maxine Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180112/oral-multiple-sclerosis-drugs-inhibit-the-in-vitro-growth-of-epsilon-toxin-producing-gut-bacterium-clostridium-perfringens
#12
Kareem R Rumah, Timothy K Vartanian, Vincent A Fischetti
There are currently three oral medications approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Two of these medications, Fingolimod, and Teriflunomide, are considered to be anti-inflammatory agents, while dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is thought to trigger a robust antioxidant response, protecting vulnerable cells during an MS attack. We previously proposed that epsilon toxin from the gut bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, may initiate newly forming MS lesions due to its tropism for blood-brain barrier (BBB) vasculature and central nervous system myelin...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179108/revisiting-metchnikoff-age-related-alterations-in-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-the-mouse
#13
Karen A Scott, Masayuki Ida, Veronica L Peterson, Jack A Prenderville, Gerard M Moloney, Takayuki Izumo, Kiera Murphy, Amy Murphy, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the role of the gut microbiome in health including brain health. This is by no means a new theory; Elie Metchnikoff proposed over a century ago that targeting the gut by consuming lactic acid bacteria such as those in yogurt, could improve or delay the onset of cognitive decline associated with ageing. However, there is limited information characterising the relationship between the behavioural and physiological sequelae of aging and alterations in the gut microbiome...
February 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178559/bariatric-surgery-restores-gut-brain-signaling-to-reduce-fat-intake
#14
Stephanie Caligiuri, Paul J Kenny
Hankir and colleagues (2017) show that gastric bypass surgery in rats enhances the sensitivity of cells in the gut to dietary lipids. In turn, these cells signal to stimulate dopamine neurotransmission in the striatum to inhibit fat consumption. The findings have important implications for the development of non-invasive therapeutics for obesity.
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176819/reduction-of-abeta-amyloid-pathology-in-appps1-transgenic-mice-in-the-absence-of-gut-microbiota
#15
T Harach, N Marungruang, N Duthilleul, V Cheatham, K D Mc Coy, G Frisoni, J J Neher, F Fåk, M Jucker, T Lasser, T Bolmont
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia in the western world, however there is no cure available for this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Despite clinical and experimental evidence implicating the intestinal microbiota in a number of brain disorders, its impact on Alzheimer's disease is not known. To this end we sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA from fecal samples of Aβ precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse model and found a remarkable shift in the gut microbiota as compared to non-transgenic wild-type mice...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176047/gastrointestinal-physiology-and-function
#16
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson, David Grundy
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract...
February 8, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167496/a-maternal-western-diet-during-gestation-and-lactation-modifies-offspring-s-microbiota-activity-blood-lipid-levels-cognitive-responses-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-yucatan-pigs
#17
David Val-Laillet, Marie Besson, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Ameni Kanzari, Hélène Quesnel, Nathalie Bonhomme, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Bas Kemp, Sophie Blat, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Caroline Clouard
A suboptimal early nutritional environment (i.e., excess of energy, sugar, and fat intake) can increase susceptibility to diseases and neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate in nonobese Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) the impact of maternal diet [standard (SD) vs. Western (WD) diet] during gestation and 25 d of lactation on milk composition, blood metabolism, and microbiota activity of sows (n = 17) and their piglets (n = 65), and on spatial cognition (n = 51), hippocampal plasticity (n = 17), and food preferences/motivation (n = 51) in the progeny...
February 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164856/the-gut-microbiome-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-other-functional-bowel-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Yehuda Ringel
Emerging data from epidemiologic, microbiome, and physiology research in patients with functional bowel disorders (FBDs) provide evidence for a linkage between alterations in the intestinal microbiota and FBDs. However, currently most of the data is based on association studies, and the causality role of the microbiota in these disorders is not established. Growing evidence for compositional changes and the increasing recognition of the association between the intestinal microbiota and gut-brain functions that are relevant to the pathophysiology and/or clinical symptoms of FBDs have led to increased interest in manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the treatment of these disorders...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164854/the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-in-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. Evidence is accumulating to support the view that gut microbes influence central neurochemistry and behavior. Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis that can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may have an impact on stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics, or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders, such as depression and autism...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161446/drunk-bugs-chronic-vapour-alcohol-exposure-induces-marked-changes-in-the-gut-microbiome-in-mice
#20
Veronica L Peterson, Nicholas J Jury, Raúl Cabrera-Rubio, Lorraine A Draper, Fiona Crispie, Paul D Cotter, Timothy G Dinan, Andrew Holmes, John F Cryan
The gut microbiota includes a community of bacteria that play an integral part in host health and biological processes. Pronounced and repeated findings have linked gut microbiome to stress, anxiety, and depression. Currently, however, there remains only a limited set of studies focusing on microbiota change in substance abuse, including alcohol use disorder. To date, no studies have investigated the impact of vapour alcohol administration on the gut microbiome. For research on gut microbiota and addiction to proceed, an understanding of how route of drug administration affects gut microbiota must first be established...
February 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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