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gut and brain

Anna M Sandgren, Robert J M Brummer
The microbiome-gut-brain axis paradigm explains that alterations in the central nervous system and behavior may be secondary to functional changes in the gut in general and more specifically the enteric nervous system. An unfavorable development of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, leading to e.g. a diminished microbial diversity, may play a central role. This paper outlines, and describes the theoretical basis of, a novel integrative model explaining the etiology and pathogenesis of ADHD in a microbiota-gut-brain context, taking into account the complexity of the bi-directional signaling between the gut and the brain...
November 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Max Schmulson, Mohammad Bashashati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysbiosis has been related to the pathophysiology of disorders of - gut-brain interaction (DGBI) including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC). Accordingly, modulation of gut microbiota has been proposed as a potential treatment for these disorders. Gut microbiota modulation can be effected by probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, postbiotics, antibiotics and fecal transplantation (FMT) or bacteriotherapy. The latter is currently used for recurrent or severe Clostridium difficile colitis and has been the focus of recent research in IBS and FC...
September 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Hong-Ai Su, Xue Bai, Tian Zeng, Yong-Yue Lu, Yi-Xiang Qi
BACKGROUND: Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily are proteins that are critical for insects to detect changes in environmental stimuli and also play key roles in their sensory physiology. Moreover, this family provides potential targets for the design of insecticides. In contrast to a large number of studies conducted on Drosophila melanogaster, molecular studies to characterize TRP channels in agricultural pests are lacking. RESULTS: In this study, we identified 15 TRP channel genes in the genome of a notorious agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)...
September 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
Alice E Adriaenssens, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
The enteroendocrine system of the gut acts both locally and peripherally, regulating gastrointestinal function as well as metabolism, energy expenditure, and central appetite control through the release of a variety of hormones. The chemosensing ability of enteroendocrine cells is integral to their role in eliciting physiological changes in response to fluctuations in the composition of the intestinal lumen. Regulation of enteroendocrine cell activity is complex, and requires that these cells can integrate signals deriving from dietary sources as well as the nervous and endocrine systems...
September 14, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Andrea Ticinesi, Claudio Tana, Antonio Nouvenne, Beatrice Prati, Fulvio Lauretani, Tiziana Meschi
Cognitive frailty, defined as the coexistence of mild cognitive impairment symptoms and physical frailty phenotype in older persons, is increasingly considered the main geriatric condition predisposing to dementia. Recent studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota may be involved in frailty physiopathology by promoting chronic inflammation and anabolic resistance. The contribution of gut microbiota to the development of cognitive impairment and dementia is less defined, even though the concept of "gut-brain axis" has been well demonstrated for other neuropsychiatric disorders...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Andreas Stengel, Yvette Taché
The gut-brain axis represents a bidirectional communication route between the gut and the central nervous system comprised of neuronal as well as humoral signaling. This system plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal as well as homeostatic functions such as hunger and satiety. Recent years also witnessed an increased knowledge on the modulation of this axis under conditions of exogenous or endogenous stressors. The present review will discuss the alterations of neuroendocrine gut-brain signaling under conditions of stress and the respective implications for the regulation of food intake...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
S Salvatore, L Pensabene, O Borrelli, M Saps, N Thapar, D Concolino, A Staiano, Y Vandenplas
The gut-brain axis has recently emerged as a key modulator of human health and the intestinal microbiome has a well-recognised pivotal role in this strong connection. The aim of this narrative review is to update and summarise the effect and clinical applicability of probiotics in paediatric neurogastroenterology. The Cochrane Database and PubMed were searched using keywords relating to different subtypes of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and their symptoms, those relating to the CNS and related neurological or behavioural dysfunction as well as 'probiotic' OR 'probiotics'...
September 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Shugui Wang, Louise Harvey, Rocio Martin, Eline M van der Beek, Jan Knol, John Cryan, Ingrid B Renes
In the first 2 - 3 years of life, the gut microbiota of infants quickly becomes diverse and rich. Disruptions in the evolving gut microbiota during this critical developmental period can impact brain development. Communication between the microbiota, gut and brain is driven by hormonal and neural regulation, as well as immune and metabolic pathways, however, our understanding of how the parallel developments that may underlie this communication are limited. In this paper, we review the known associations between the gut microbiota and brain development and brain function in early life, speculate on the potential mechanisms involved in this complex relationship and describe how nutritional intervention can further modulate the microbiota and, ultimately, brain development and function...
September 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Yuanyuan Luo, Benhua Zeng, Li Zeng, Xiangyu Du, Bo Li, Ran Huo, Lanxiang Liu, Haiyang Wang, Meixue Dong, Junxi Pan, Peng Zheng, Chanjuan Zhou, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
Gut microbiota has an important role in the immune system, metabolism, and digestion, and has a significant effect on the nervous system. Recent studies have revealed that abnormal gut microbiota induces abnormal behaviors, which may be associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Therefore, we investigated the behavioral changes in germ-free (GF) mice by behavioral tests, quantified the basal serum cortisol levels, and examined glucocorticoid receptor pathway genes in hippocampus using microarray analysis followed by real-time PCR validation, to explore the molecular mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influences the host's behaviors and brain function...
September 7, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Geraldine Kong, Kim-Anh Lê Cao, Louise M Judd, ShanShan Li, Thibault Renoir, Anthony J Hannan
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene, which is expressed ubiquitously throughout the brain and peripheral tissues. Whilst the focus of much research has been on the cognitive, psychiatric and motor symptoms of HD, the extent of peripheral pathology and its potential impact on central symptoms has been less intensely explored. Disruption of the gastrointestinal microbiome (gut dysbiosis) has been recently reported in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and therefore we hypothesized that it might also occur in HD...
September 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Claudia Cristiano, Claudio Pirozzi, Lorena Coretti, Gina Cavaliere, Adriano Lama, Roberto Russo, Francesca Lembo, Maria Pina Mollica, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano, Giuseppina Mattace Raso
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by impaired social interaction, and repetitive stereotyped behaviours. Interestingly, functional and inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases are often reported as a comorbidity in ASDs, indicating gut-brain axis as a novel emerging approach. Recently, a central role for peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α has been addressed in neurological functions, associated with the behaviour. Among endogenous lipids, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a PPAR-α agonist, has been extensively studied for its anti-inflammatory effects both at central and peripheral level...
September 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
S M Consoli
A critical analysis of the basic hypotheses of psychosomatic research and the sometimes hasty assertions drawn from the previous works makes it possible to better discern the data confirmed by the most recent works or the most rigorous meta-analyses and to highlight the emerging tracks. If the hypothesis of behavioral patterns specifically related to the risk of certain pathologies seems abandoned, the predictive value of depression in the cardiovascular field, more than in that of oncology, becomes clearer...
September 4, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Shin-Ichiro Hagiwara, Esha Kaushal, Sreenivasan Paruthiyil, Pankaj J Pasricha, Burcu Hasdemir, Aditi Bhargava
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by dysregulated gut-brain interactions. Emerging evidence shows that low-grade mucosal inflammation and immune activation contribute to FGIDs, including functional dyspepsia (FD). Stress plays an important role in the onset of FD symptoms. In human subjects with FD, presence of gastric mast cells has been reported, but factors that influence mast cell infiltration remain uncharacterized. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) initiates the body's stress response and is known to degranulate mast cells...
2018: PloS One
Masanori Kosako, Hiraku Akiho, Hiroto Miwa, Motoyori Kanazawa, Shin Fukudo
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) is a representative psychosomatic disorder. Several pathophysiological factors have been linked to IBS symptoms such as the modulation of gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, dysregulation of the gut-brain axis, genetic and environmental factors, sequelae of infection, and psychosocial disorders. It is likely that biopsychosocial aspects of IBS-C underlie its gender and age effects. However, the influence of each symptom of IBS-C by gender and age is not well understood...
2018: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
Yang Li, Ying Peng, Ping Ma, Hanlin Yang, Haiyan Xiong, Mengyue Wang, Chongsheng Peng, Pengfei Tu, Xiaobo Li
Growing evidence shows that neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, are linked with gut microbiome through the gut-brain axis. Cistanches Herba is well known for the treatment of "kidney-yang" deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and has been used for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in recent years. In this study, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depression model was established to explore the impact of Cistanche tubulosa extract (CTE) on behavioral tests, monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in hippocampus and colon, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Si Ming Man
Inflammasome signalling is an emerging pillar of innate immunity and has a central role in the regulation of gastrointestinal health and disease. Activation of the inflammasome complex mediates both the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and the execution of a form of inflammatory cell death known as pyroptosis. In most cases, these mediators of inflammation provide protection against bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. However, unchecked inflammasome activities perpetuate chronic inflammation, which underpins the molecular and pathophysiological basis of gastritis, IBD, upper and lower gastrointestinal cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity...
September 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ali M Shendi, Nathan Davies, Andrew Davenport
Previous reports linked systemic endotoxemia in dialysis patients to increased markers of inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Many peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients use acidic, hypertonic dialysates, which could potentially increase gut permeability, resulting in systemic endotoxemia. However, the results from studies measuring endotoxin in PD patients are discordant. We therefore measured systemic endotoxin in 55 PD outpatients attending for routine assessment of peritoneal membrane function; mean age 58...
September 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Zhigang Liu, Bing Xia, Jasmina Saric, Jurg Utzinger, Elaine Holmes, Jennifer Keiser, Jia V Li
The reduction in gut microbiota diversity is associated with a range of human diseases. Overuse of antibiotics has been associated with a diminished gut-microbial diversity in humans, and may promote microbiota-associated negative effects to physical health, such as the metabolic syndrome-cluster of diseases and mental illnesses. There is a pressing need to deepen the understanding of the effects of antibiotics at the biochemical level. The current study investigated metabolic effects of two widely prescribed antibiotics - vancomycin and ciprofloxacin - on biofluids and brain tissue samples of NMRI female mice, using a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling approach...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Vilma Maria Junges, Vera Elizabeth Closs, Guilherme Marcos Nogueira, Maria Gabriela Valle Gottlieb
The role of diet and gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, has recently come under intense investigation. Studies suggest that human gut microbiota may contribute to the modulation of several neurochemical and neurometabolic pathways, through complex systems that interact and interconnect with the central nervous system. The brain and intestine form a bidirectional communication axis, or vice versa, they form an axis through bi-directional communication between endocrine and complex immune systems, involving neurotransmitters and hormones...
September 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Piriyah Sinclair, Donal J Brennan, Carel W le Roux
Metabolic surgery is the best treatment for long-term weight loss maintenance and comorbidity control. Metabolic operations were originally intended to change anatomy to alter behaviour, but we now understand that the anatomical changes can modulate physiology to change behaviour. They are no longer considered only mechanically restrictive and/or malabsorptive procedures; rather, they are considered metabolic procedures involving complex physiological changes, whereby gut adaptation influences signalling pathways in several other organs, including the liver and the brain, regulating hunger, satiation, satiety, body weight, glucose metabolism and immune functions...
September 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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