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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#1
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343167/the-unappreciated-roles-of-the-cholecystokinin-receptor-cck-1-in-brain-functioning
#2
Santiago Ballaz
The CCK(1) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the sulfated forms of cholecystokinin (CCK), a gastrin-like peptide released in the gastrointestinal tract and mammal brain. A substantial body of research supports the hypothesis that CCK(1)r stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion in the gut, as well as satiety in brain. However, this receptor may also fulfill relevant roles in behavior, thanks to its widespread distribution in the brain. The strategic location of CCK(1)r in mesolimbic structures and specific hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei lead to complex interactions with neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate, as well as hypothalamic hormones and neuropeptides...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338740/the-role-of-vip-in-social-behavior-neural-hotspots-for-the-modulation-of-affiliation-aggression-and-parental-care
#3
Marcy A Kingsbury, Leah C Wilson
Although the modulation of social behaviors by most major neurochemical systems has been explored, there are still standouts, including the study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a modulator of circadian, reproductive, and seasonal rhythms and is well known for its role in reproductive behavior, as it is the main vertebrate prolactin-releasing hormone. Originally isolated as a gut peptide, VIP and its cognate receptors are present in virtually every brain area that is important for social behavior, including all nodes of the core "social behavior network" (SBN)...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338019/ghrelin-facilitates-glut2-sglt1-and-sglt2-mediated-intestinal-glucose-transport-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#4
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Naresh Ramesh, María Jesús Delgado, Ana Isabel Valenciano, Suraj Unniappan
Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336548/nutrient-sensing-by-absorptive-and-secretory-progenies-of-small-intestinal-stem-cells
#5
Kunihiro Kishida, Sarah C Pearce, Shiyan Yu, Nan Gao, Ronaldo P Ferraris
Nutrient sensing triggers responses by the gut-brain axis modulating hormone release, feeding behavior and metabolism that become dysregulated in metabolic syndrome and some cancers. Except for absorptive enterocytes and secretory enteroendocrine cells, the ability of many intestinal cell types to sense nutrients is still unknown, hence we hypothesized that progenitor stem cells (ISC) possess nutrient sensing ability inherited by progenies during differentiation. We directed via modulators of Wnt and Notch signaling, differentiation of precursor mouse intestinal crypts into specialized organoids each containing ISC, enterocyte, goblet or Paneth cells at relative proportions much higher than in situ as determined by mRNA expression and immunocytochemistry of cell type biomarkers...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334024/opposite-effects-of-5-ht-akh-and-octopamine-on-the-crop-contractions-in-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-evidence-of-a-double-brain-gut-serotonergic-circuitry
#6
Paolo Solari, Nicholas Rivelli, Francescaelena De Rose, Lorenzo Picciau, Ludovico Murru, John G Stoffolano, Anna Liscia
This study showed that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, the type of sugar-either present within the crop lumen or in the bathing solution of the crop-had no effect on crop muscle contraction. What is important, however, is the volume within the crop lumen. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that exogenous applications of serotonin on crop muscles increases both the amplitude and the frequency of crop contraction rate, while adipokinetic hormone mainly enhances the crop contraction frequency. Conversely, octopamine virtually silenced the overall crop activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332115/periodized-nutrition-for-athletes
#7
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328972/altered-gut-microbiome-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness-causes-neuroinflammation-and-intestinal-injury-via-leaky-gut-and-tlr4-activation
#8
Firas Alhasson, Suvarthi Das, Ratanesh Seth, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Caitlin N Ryan, Luisa S Chan, Traci Testerman, James Burch, Lorne J Hofseth, Ronnie Horner, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Stephen M Lasley, Saurabh Chatterjee
Many of the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) that include neurological abnormalities, neuroinflammation, chronic fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances have been traced to Gulf War chemical exposure. Though the association and subsequent evidences are strong, the mechanisms that connect exposure to intestinal and neurological abnormalities remain unclear. Using an established rodent model of Gulf War Illness, we show that chemical exposure caused significant dysbiosis in the gut that included increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes and Tenericutes, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321526/effects-of-fasting-temperature-and-photoperiod-on-preproghrelin-mrna-expression-in-chinese-perch
#9
Yi Song, Cheng Zhao, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Changxu Tian, Xiaoyan Cheng, Xiaochen Yuan, Liyuan Lv, Wenjie Guo, Min Xue, Ya-Xiong Tao
Preproghrelin, a gut/brain peptide, plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in teleost and mammals. In the present study, we obtained the full-length preproghrelin cDNA in Chinese perch. The preproghrelin messenger RNA (mRNA) tissue expression showed that level was much higher in stomach and pituitary than in other tissues. The fasting study showed, after gastric emptying (3-6 h), short-term fasting (6-12 h) increased preproghrelin expression in the stomach. While in the pituitary, fasting reduced preproghrelin expression at 1, 3, 12, and 48 h, presenting state fluctuation of self-adjustment...
March 20, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319370/uptake-and-disposition-of-select-pharmaceuticals-by-bluegill-exposed-at-constant-concentrations-in-a-flow-through-aquatic-exposure-system
#10
Jian-Liang Zhao, Edward T Furlong, Heiko L Schoenfuss, Dana Ward Kolpin, Kyle L Bird, David J Feifarek, Eric A Schwab, Guang-Guo Ying
The increasing use of pharmaceuticals has led to their subsequent input into and release from wastewater treatment plants, with corresponding discharge into surface waters that may subsequently exert adverse effects upon aquatic organisms. Although the distribution of pharmaceuticals in surface water has been extensively studied, the details of uptake, internal distribution, and kinetic processing of pharmaceuticals in exposed fish have received less attention. For this research, we investigated the uptake, disposition, and toxicokinetics of five pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, methocarbamol, rosuvastatin, sulfamethoxazole, and temazepam) in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (1,000-4,000 ng L-1) in a flow-through exposure system...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318994/more-flavor-for-flavonoid-based-interventions
#11
Nadeem O Kaakoush, Margaret J Morris
Poor diets are associated with obesity and a decline in cognitive function. Flavonoids are plant compounds that have been associated with improved metabolic parameters in obesity and reversal of cognitive decline. Given that microbial flavonoid conversion is important for bioactivity, flavonoid-derived neuroactive compounds may be functionally crucial in the gut microbiome-brain axis.
March 17, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318126/infant-colic-is-still-a-mysterious-disorder-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#12
EDITORIAL
Anna Pärtty, Marko Kalliomäki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316999/does-the-gut-microbiota-influence-immunity-and-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis-pathophysiology
#13
Monika Adamczyk-Sowa, Aldona Medrek, Paulina Madej, Wirginia Michlicka, Pawel Dobrakowski
Aim. Evaluation of the impact of gut microflora on the pathophysiology of MS. Results. The etiopathogenesis of MS is not fully known. Gut microbiota may be of a great importance in the pathogenesis of MS, since recent findings suggest that substitutions of certain microbial population in the gut can lead to proinflammatory state, which can lead to MS in humans. In contrast, other commensal bacteria and their antigenic products may protect against inflammation within the central nervous system. The type of intestinal flora is affected by antibiotics, stress, or diet...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315773/the-time-enzyme-in-melatonin-biosynthesis-in-fish-day-night-expressions-of-three-aralkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-genes-in-three-spined-stickleback
#14
REVIEW
Ewa Kulczykowska, Agnieszka Kleszczyńska, Magdalena Gozdowska, Ewa Sokołowska
In vertebrates, aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT; EC 2.3.1.87) is a time-keeping enzyme in melatonin (Mel) biosynthesis. Uniquely in fish, there are several AANAT isozymes belonging to two AANAT subfamilies, AANAT1 and AANAT2, which are encoded by distinct genes. The different substrate preferences, kinetics and spatial expression patterns of isozymes indicate that they may have different functions. In the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), there are three genes encoding three AANAT isozymes...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315374/glp-1-analogue-cjc-1131-prevents-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-induced-impirments-of-spatial-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-rats
#15
Sheng-Xiao Zhang, Hong-Yan Cai, Xiao-Wen Ma, Li Yuan, Jun Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wang, Yu-Feng Li, Jin-Shun Qi
Although amyloid β protein (Aβ) has been recognized as one of the main pathological characteristics in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the effective strategies against Aβ neurotoxicity are still deficient up to now. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a natural gut hormone, was found to be effective in modulating insulin signaling and neural protection, but short half-life limited its clinical application in AD treatment. CJC-1131, a newly designed GLP-1 analogue with very longer half-life, has shown good effectiveness in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303750/the-gut-microbiome-obesity-and-weight-control-in-women-s-reproductive-health
#16
K Leigh Greathouse, Mary Ann Faucher, Marie Hastings-Tolsma
The microbes residing in the human gut, referred to as the microbiome, are intricately linked to energy homeostasis and subsequently obesity. Integral to the origins of obesity, the microbiome is believed to affect not only health of the human gut but also overall health. This microbiome-obesity association is mediated through the process of energy extraction, metabolism, and cross talk between the brain and the gut microbiome. Host exposures, including diet, that potentially modify genetic predisposition to obesity and affect weight management are reviewed...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303651/what-s-new-in-rome-iv
#17
REVIEW
J Tack, D A Drossman
The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are the most common disorders seen in Gastroenterology clinical practice. The Rome process has generated consensus definitions of FGIDS, allowing to subdivide patients into diagnostic categories based on the symptom pattern. The Rome IV consensus, presented in 2016, is the most recent update of this diagnostic scheme. This article summarizes the main changes, which include the use of epidemiology-based symptom thresholds to define FGIDs, characterization of FGIDS as disorders of Gut-Brain interaction, and updates of criteria for esophageal disorders, irritable bowel syndrome and Biliary and Sphincter of Oddi disorders based on scientific and technical progress made over the last decade...
March 17, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302577/methamphetamine-effects-on-the-brain-gut-and-immune-system
#18
REVIEW
Monica D Prakash, Kathy Tangalakis, Juliana Antonipillai, Lily Stojanovska, Kulmira Nurgali, Vasso Apostolopoulos
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant which elevates mood, alertness, energy levels and concentration in the short-term. However, chronic use and/or at higher doses METH use often results in psychosis, depression, delusions and violent behavior. METH was formerly used to treat conditions such as obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but now is primarily used recreationally. Its addictive nature has led to METH abuse becoming a global problem. At a cellular level, METH exerts a myriad of effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, immune system and the gastrointestinal system...
March 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#19
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294985/effects-of-a-diet-based-weight-reducing-program-with-probiotic-supplementation-on-satiety-efficiency-eating-behaviour-traits-and-psychosocial-behaviours-in-obese-individuals
#20
Marina Sanchez, Christian Darimont, Shirin Panahi, Vicky Drapeau, André Marette, Valerie H Taylor, Jean Doré, Angelo Tremblay
This study evaluated the impact of probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR)) on appetite sensations and eating behaviors in the context of a weight-reducing program. Obese men (n = 45) and women (n = 60) participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that included a 12-week weight loss period (Phase 1) based on moderate energy restriction, followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance (Phase 2). During the two phases of the program, each subject consumed two capsules per day of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (10 mg of LPR equivalent to 1...
March 15, 2017: Nutrients
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