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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444291/endocrine-regulation-of-gut-function-a-role-for-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-the-pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Dervla O'Malley
NEW FINDINGS: Pathophysiological changes linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) include stress and immune activation, changes in gastrointestinal microbial and bile acids profiles and sensitisation of extrinsic and intrinsic gut neurons. This review explores the potential role for L-cells in these pathophysiological changes. L-cells, which secrete glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to nutrients, microbial factors, bile acids and short-chain fatty acids, may sense IBS-related changes in the luminal environment...
November 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443904/organ-on-chip-models-implications-in-drug-discovery-and-clinical-applications
#2
REVIEW
Rahul Mittal, Frank W Woo, Carlo S Castro, Madeline A Cohen, Joana Karanxha, Jeenu Mittal, Tanya Chhibber, Vasanti M Jhaveri
Before a lead compound goes through a clinical trial, preclinical studies utilize two-dimensional (2D) in vitro models and animal models to study the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of that lead compound. However, these current preclinical studies may not accurately represent the efficacy and safety of a lead compound in humans, as there has been a high failure rate of drugs that enter clinical trials. All of these failures and the associated costs demonstrate a need for more representative models of human organ systems for screening in the preclinical phase of drug development...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443713/ace2-in-brain-physiology-and-pathophysiology-evidence-from-transgenic-animal-models
#3
Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a protein consisting of two domains, the N-terminus is a carboxypeptidase homologous to ACE and the C-terminus is homologous to collectrin and responsible for the trafficking of the neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 to the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells. The carboxypeptidase domain not only metabolizes angiotensin II to angiotensin-(1-7), but also other peptide substrates, such as apelin, kinins and morphins. In addition, the collectrin domain regulates the levels of some amino acids in the blood, in particular of tryptophan...
November 15, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30441866/gut-microbiota-and-their-neuroinflammatory-implications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Vo Van Giau, Si Ying Wu, Angelo Jamerlan, Seong Soo A An, Sang Yun Kim, John Hulme
The bidirectional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in human health. Increasing numbers of studies suggest that the gut microbiota can influence the brain and behavior of patients. Various metabolites secreted by the gut microbiota can affect the cognitive ability of patients diagnosed with neurodegenerative diseases. Nearly one in every ten Korean senior citizens suffers from Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. This review highlights the impact of metabolites from the gut microbiota on communication pathways between the brain and gut, as well as the neuroinflammatory roles they may have in AD patients...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30439457/gut-brain-axis-and-addictive-disorders-a-review-with-focus-on-alcohol-and-drugs-of-abuse
#5
REVIEW
Elisabet Jerlhag
Due to the limited efficacy of existing medications for addictive disorders including alcohol use disorder (AUD), the need for additional medications is substantial. Potential new medications for addiction can be identified through investigation of the neurochemical substrates mediating the ability of drugs of abuse such as alcohol to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. Interestingly, recent studies implicate neuropeptides of the gut-brain axis as modulators of reward and addiction processes. The present review therefore summarizes the current studies investigating the ability of the gut-brain peptides ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), amylin and neuromedin U (NMU) to modulate alcohol- and drug-related behaviors in rodents and humans...
November 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430765/maternal-immune-activation-central-nervous-system-development-and-behavioral-phenotypes
#6
REVIEW
Elena Minakova, Barbara B Warner
Maternal immune activation (MIA) refers to a maternal immune system triggered by infectious or infectious-like stimuli. A cascade of cytokines and immunologic alterations are transmitted to the fetus, resulting in adverse phenotypes most notably in the central nervous system. Epidemiologic studies implicate maternal infections in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In animal models, MIA causes neurochemical and anatomic changes in the brain that correspond to those found in humans with the disorders...
November 14, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429485/regional-variations-in-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-vietnam-suggest-fuctx-activity-besides-fuct2-and-fuct3
#7
Sander S van Leeuwen, Eline Stoutjesdijk, Geert A Ten Kate, Anne Schaafsma, Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, Frits A J Muskiet, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development (WHO). Human milk oligosaccharides (hMOS) constitute a highly important class of nutrients that are attracting strong attention in recent years. Several studies have indicated that hMOS have prebiotic properties, but also are effective in anti-adhesion of pathogens, modulating the immune system and providing nutrients for brain growth and development. Most of the latter functions seem to be linked to the presence of fucose-containing immunodeterminant epitopes, and Neu5Ac-bearing oligosaccharides...
November 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426067/the-cognitive-ageing-nutrition-and-neurogenesis-cann-trial-design-and-progress
#8
Michael A Irvine, Andrew Scholey, Rebecca King, Rachel Gillings, David Vauzour, Stephen J Demichele, Tapas Das, Keith A Wesnes, Brad P Sutton, Aedin Cassidy, Andrew Pipingas, John F Potter, Glyn Johnson, David White, Ryan Larsen, Neal J Cohen, Anne-Marie Minihane
Introduction: The Cognitive Ageing, Nutrition and Neurogenesis trial hypothesizes that a combined intervention with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3) and cocoa flavan-3-ols (FLAV) will mitigate the cognitive decline anticipated to naturally occur over 1 year in older adults. Methods: In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel design, 259 individuals with mild cognitive impairment or subjective memory impairment were randomized to a control or n-3 FLAV group (1...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425612/the-gut-brain-axis-historical-reflections
#9
Ian Miller
The gut-brain axis and the microbiome have recently acquired an important position in explaining a wide range of human behaviours and emotions. Researchers have typically presented developments in understandings of the microbiome as radical and new, offering huge potential for better understandings of our bodies and what it means to be human. Without refuting the value of this research, this article insists that, traditionally, doctors and patients acknowledged the complex interactions between their guts and emotions, although using alternative models often based on nerves or psychology...
2018: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30424585/what-is-the-evidence-that-parkinson-s-disease-is-a-prion-disorder-which-originates-in-the-gut
#10
REVIEW
Małgorzata Kujawska, Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). PD is characterized by motor dysfunctions as well as gastrointestinal symptoms and mental impairment. The pathological hallmark of PD is an accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein aggregates within the brain. The etiology of PD and related synucleinopathy is poorly understood, but recently, the hypothesis that α-synuclein pathology spreads in a prion-like fashion originating in the gut has gained much scientific attention...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419026/the-structure-of-resilience-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-its-improvement-through-hypnotherapy-cross-sectional-and-prospective-longitudinal-data
#11
Johannes Peter, Ulrich S Tran, Maria Michalski, Gabriele Moser
BACKGROUND: Resilience refers to a class of variables that are highly relevant to wellbeing and coping with stress, trauma, and chronic adversity. Despite its significance for health, resilience suffers from poor conceptual integration. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder with altered psychological stress reactivity and a brain-gut-microbiota axis, which causes high levels of chronic strain. Gut-directed Hypnotherapy (GHT) is a standardized treatment for IBS aimed at improving resilience...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418574/central-nervous-system-and-peripheral-hormone-responses-to-a-meal-in-children
#12
Christian L Roth, Susan J Melhorn, Clinton T Elfers, Kelley Scholz, Mary Rosalynn B De Leon, Maya Rowland, Sue Kearns, Elizabeth Aylward, Thomas J Grabowski, Brian E Saelens, Ellen A Schur
Context: Behavioral studies suggest that responses to food consumption are altered in children with obesity. Objective: To test central nervous system and peripheral hormone response by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and satiety-regulating hormone levels before and after a meal. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional study comparing children with obesity (OB) and children of healthy weight (HW) recruited from across the Puget Sound region of Washington...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417952/chronic-alcohol-exposure-induced-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-its-correlations-with-neuropsychic-behaviors-and-brain-bdnf-gabra1-changes-in-mice
#13
Zheng Xu, Can Wang, Xiaoguang Dong, Tao Hu, Lingling Wang, Wenbo Zhao, Shaowei Zhu, Guibao Li, Yanlai Hu, Qing Gao, Jiale Wan, Zengxun Liu, Jinhao Sun
Alcohol addiction can cause brain dysfunction and many other diseases. Recently, increasing evidences have suggested that gut microbiota plays a vital role in regulating alcohol addiction. However, the exact mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Here, our study focused on the intestinal bacteria alternations and their correlations with alcohol-induced neuropsychic behaviors. When consuming alcohol over 3-week period, animals gradually displayed anxiety/depression-like behaviors. Moreover, 16S rRNA sequencing showed significant intestinal microflora dysbiosis and distinct community composition...
November 12, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415849/symposium-review-the-relevance-of-bovine-milk-phospholipids-in-human-nutrition-evidence-of-the-effect-on-infant-gut-and-brain-development
#14
Joana Ortega-Anaya, Rafael Jiménez-Flores
This paper reflects the concepts reviewed during the presentation in the Joint MILK/Lactation Biology Symposium at the ADSA 2018 Annual Meeting. Our intention is to update the concepts and advances in the area of research regarding milk phospholipids or polar lipid fraction as part of a dairy ingredient used today in nutritional studies that focus on gut health as well as brain development of infants. Although processing advances have allowed the production of novel ingredients rich in milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) components, mostly monitored by phospholipid concentration and presence of membrane proteins, there is wide variability in their composition and structure...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415609/fermented-foods-the-gut-and-mental-health-a-mechanistic-overview-with-implications-for-depression-and-anxiety
#15
Hajara Aslam, Jessica Green, Felice N Jacka, Fiona Collier, Michael Berk, Julie Pasco, Samantha L Dawson
Mental disorders including depression and anxiety are often comorbid with gut problems, suggesting a bidirectional relationship between mental health and gut function. Several mechanisms might explain this comorbidity, such as inflammation and immune activation; intestinal permeability; perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; neurotransmitter/neuropeptide dysregulation; dietary deficiencies; and disturbed gut microbiome composition. The potential of modulating the microbiome-gut-brain axis, and subsequently mental health, through the use of functional foods, is an emerging and novel topic of interest...
November 11, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406643/the-carbamate-aldicarb-altered-the-gut-microbiome-metabolome-and-lipidome-of-c57bl-6j-mice
#16
Bei Gao, Liang Chi, Pengcheng Tu, Nan Gao, Kun Lu
The gut microbiome is highly involved in numerous aspects of host physiology, from energy harvest to stress response, and can confer many benefits to the host. The gut microbiome development could be affected by genetic and environmental factors, including the pesticides. The carbamate insecticide aldicarb has been extensively used in agriculture, which raises serious public health concern. However, the impact of aldicarb on the gut microbiome, host metabolome and lipidome has not been well studied yet. Herein, we use multi-omics approaches, including16S rRNA sequencing, shotgun metagenomics sequencing, metabolomics and lipidomics, to elucidate aldicarb-induced toxicity in the gut microbiome and the host metabolic homeostasis...
November 8, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406186/maternal-immune-activation-alters-adult-behavior-gut-microbiome-and-juvenile-brain-oscillations-in-ferrets
#17
Yuhui Li, Supritha R Dugyala, Travis S Ptacek, John H Gilmore, Flavio Frohlich
Maternal immune activation (MIA) has been identified as a causal factor in psychiatric disorders by epidemiological studies in humans and mechanistic studies in rodent models. Addressing this gap in species between mice and human will accelerate the understanding of the role of MIA in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Here, we provide the first study of MIA in the ferret ( Mustela putorius furo ), an animal model with a rich history of developmental investigations due to the similarities in developmental programs and cortical organization with primates...
September 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405455/metabolic-and-microbiota-measures-as-peripheral-biomarkers-in-major-depressive-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Rachael Horne, Jane A Foster
Advances in understanding the role of the microbiome in physical and mental health are at the forefront of medical research and hold potential to have a direct impact on precision medicine approaches. In the past 7 years, we have studied the role of microbiota-brain communication on behavior in mouse models using germ-free mice, mice exposed to antibiotics, and healthy specific pathogen free mice. Through our work and that of others, we have seen an amazing increase in our knowledge of how bacteria signal to the brain and the implications this has for psychiatry...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399404/childhood-adversity-impact-on-gut-microbiota-and-inflammatory-response-to-stress-during-pregnancy
#19
Liisa Hantsoo, Eldin Jašarević, Stephanie Criniti, Brendan McGeehan, Ceylan Tanes, Mary D Sammel, Michal A Elovitz, Charlene Compher, Gary Wu, C Neill Epperson
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as abuse or chronic stress, program an exaggerated adult inflammatory response to stress. Emerging rodent research suggests that the gut microbiome may be a key mediator in the association between early life stress and dysregulated glucocorticoid-immune response. However, ACE impact on inflammatory response to stress, or on the gut microbiome, have not been studied in human pregnancy, when inflammation increases risk of poor outcomes...
November 3, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397821/psychotropics-antidepressants-and-visceral-analgesics-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Hans Törnblom, Douglas A Drossman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The functional gastrointestinal disorders, or disorders of gut-brain interaction as defined by the Rome IV criteria, are the most common diagnostic entities in gastroenterology. Treatments that address the dysregulation of gut-brain interaction with these disorders are increasingly gaining interest as a better option than for example traditional analgesics, particularly opioids. Antidepressants, antianxiety and antipsychotic medications, and visceral analgesics, now termed neuromodulators, are included in this update addressing the evidence of treatment benefit in disorders of brain-gut interaction...
November 5, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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