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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352191/oral-administration-of-proteus-mirabilis-damages-dopaminergic-neurons-and-motor-functions-in-mice
#1
Jin Gyu Choi, Namkwon Kim, In Gyoung Ju, Hyeyoon Eo, Su-Min Lim, Se-Eun Jang, Dong-Hyun Kim, Myung Sook Oh
Recently, studies on the relationship between gut dysbiosis and Parkinson's disease (PD) have increased, but whether a specific gut bacterium may cause PD remains unexplored. Here, we report, for the first time, that a specific gut bacterium directly induces PD symptoms and dopaminergic neuronal damage in the mouse brain. We found that the number of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Proteus mirabilis, markedly and commonly increased in PD mouse models. Administration of P. mirabilis isolated from PD mice significantly induced motor deficits, selectively caused dopaminergic neuronal damage and inflammation in substantia nigra and striatum, and stimulated α-synuclein aggregation in the brain as well as in the colon...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352076/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-permeability-the-yin-and-yang-in-alcohol-dependence-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Peter Stärkel, Sophie Leclercq, Philippe de Timary, Bernd Schnabl
Alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease represent a major public health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. By yet incompletely understood mechanisms, chronic alcohol abuse is associated with increased intestinal permeability and alterations of the gut microbiota composition, allowing bacterial components, bacteria, and metabolites to reach the portal and the systemic circulation. These gut-derived bacterial products are recognized by immune cells circulating in the blood or residing in remote organs such as the liver leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are considered important mediators of the liver-gut-brain communication...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351398/visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-optogenetic-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-conscious-rats
#3
Anthony C Johnson, Rocco Latorre, Casey O Ligon, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
In vivo optogenetics identifies brain circuits controlling behaviors in conscious animals by using light to alter neuronal function and offers a novel tool to study the brain-gut axis. Using adenoviral-mediated expression, we aimed to investigate whether photoactivation with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) or photoinhibition with halorhodopsin (HR3.0) of fibers originating from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) at the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) had any effect on colonic sensitivity. We also investigated whether that there was any deleterious effect of the adenovirus on the neuronal population or the neuronal phenotype within the CeA-BNST circuitry activated during the optogenetic stimulation...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350301/constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-nuisance-or-nuanced-answer-to-the-pathophysiological-puzzle
#4
REVIEW
Amol Sharma, Julie Kurek, John C Morgan, Chandramohan Wakade, Satish S C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic constipation is a common, nonmotor, and prodromal symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Its underlying neuropathology may provide pathophysiological insight into PD. Here, we critically review what is currently known about the neuroanatomical and brain-gut interactions, and the origin and progression of Lewy pathology (LP) at three levels-brain/brainstem, spinal cord, and enteric nervous system. RECENT FINDINGS: Many recent studies have illustrated the challenges of examining LP in tissues obtained from colon biopsies of PD patients...
January 19, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344328/management-of-functional-dyspepsia-state-of-the-art-and-emerging-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Hiroshi Yamawaki, Seiji Futagami, Mako Wakabayashi, Noriko Sakasegawa, Shuhei Agawa, Kazutoshi Higuchi, Yasuhiro Kodaka, Katsuhiko Iwakiri
Patients with functional dyspepsia, defined in the 2016 Rome IV criteria as bothersome clinical dyspepsia symptoms, experience markedly reduced quality of life. Several etiologies have been associated with the disorder. In the Rome IV criteria, the brain-gut axis was acknowledged as an important factor in the etiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The distinct subgroups of functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), are treated differently: acid secretion inhibitors are recommended with patients with EPS, whereas prokinetic drugs as mosapride and acotiamide are recommended for patients with PDS...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#6
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339415/genome-wide-identification-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing-of-escherichia-coli-k1-genes-essential-for-in-vitro-growth-gastrointestinal-colonizing-capacity-and-survival-in-serum
#7
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338008/interactions-between-species-introduce-spurious-associations-in-microbiome-studies
#8
Rajita Menon, Vivek Ramanan, Kirill S Korolev
Microbiota contribute to many dimensions of host phenotype, including disease. To link specific microbes to specific phenotypes, microbiome-wide association studies compare microbial abundances between two groups of samples. Abundance differences, however, reflect not only direct associations with the phenotype, but also indirect effects due to microbial interactions. We found that microbial interactions could easily generate a large number of spurious associations that provide no mechanistic insight. Using techniques from statistical physics, we developed a method to remove indirect associations and applied it to the largest dataset on pediatric inflammatory bowel disease...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337226/glp-1-signaling-and-alcohol-mediated-behaviors-preclinical-and-clinical-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Elisabet Jerlhag
Alcohol addiction, affecting approximately four percent of the population, contributes significantly to the global burden of diseases and is a substantial cost to the society. The neurochemical mechanisms regulating alcohol mediated behaviors is complex and in more recent years a new physiological role of the gut-brain peptides, traditionally known to regulate appetite and food intake, have been suggested. Indeed, regulators of alcohol-mediated behaviors. One of these gut-brain peptides is the annorexigenic peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), Preclinical studies show that GLP-1 receptor activation, either by GLP-1 or analogues, attenuate the ability of alcohol to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system as well as decrease alcohol consumption and operant self-administration...
January 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335694/the-seventh-biennial-berry-health-benefits-symposium
#10
EDITORIAL
Navindra P Seeram, Britt Burton-Freeman
Research advancing current scientific understanding of the health benefits of berries continues to increase. The Berry Health Benefits Symposium (BHBS) is a biennial meeting highlighting the most recent berry health benefits research from all over the world. Pismo Beach, California was the venue for the seventh biennial BHBS in 2017, and featured oral invited papers on heart health and healthy aging, gut/microbiome health, brain aging, inflammation, cancer prevention, berry special topics, technology and chemistry...
January 16, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335605/dietary-salt-promotes-neurovascular-and-cognitive-dysfunction-through-a-gut-initiated-th17-response
#11
Giuseppe Faraco, David Brea, Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Gang Wang, Gianfranco Racchumi, Haejoo Chang, Izaskun Buendia, Monica M Santisteban, Steven G Segarra, Kenzo Koizumi, Yukio Sugiyama, Michelle Murphy, Henning Voss, Joseph Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
A diet rich in salt is linked to an increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases and dementia, but it remains unclear how dietary salt harms the brain. We report that, in mice, excess dietary salt suppresses resting cerebral blood flow and endothelial function, leading to cognitive impairment. The effect depends on expansion of TH17 cells in the small intestine, resulting in a marked increase in plasma interleukin-17 (IL-17). Circulating IL-17, in turn, promotes endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment by the Rho kinase-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reduced nitric oxide production in cerebral endothelial cells...
January 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#12
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324833/evidence-for-pmat-and-oct-like-biogenic-amine-transporters-in-a-probiotic-strain-of-lactobacillus-implications-for-interkingdom-communication-within-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#13
Mark Lyte, David R Brown
The ability of prokaryotic microbes to produce and respond to neurochemicals that are more often associated with eukaryotic systems is increasingly recognized through the concept of microbial endocrinology. Most studies have described the phenomena of neurochemical production by bacteria, but there remains an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which microbe- or host-derived neuroactive substances can be recognized by bacteria. Based on the evolutionary origins of eukaryotic solute carrier transporters, we hypothesized that bacteria may possess an analogous uptake function for neuroactive biogenic amines...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321189/gut-brain-signaling-in-energy-homeostasis-the-unexpected-role-of-microbiota-derived-succinate
#14
REVIEW
Filipe de Vadder, Gilles Mithieux
In the context of the obesity epidemic, dietary fibers that are found essentially in fruit and vegetables attract more and more attention, since they exert numerous metabolic benefits resulting in the moderation of body weight. Short-chain fatty acids, such as propionate and butyrate, produced through their fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, have long been thought to be the mediators of these benefits. In fact, propionate and butyrate were recently shown to activate intestinal gluconeogenesis, a function exerting metabolic benefits via its capacity of signaling to the brain by gastrointestinal nerves...
February 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317592/gut-microbiome-populations-are-associated-with-structure-specific-changes-in-white-matter-architecture
#15
Irene M Ong, Jose G Gonzalez, Sean J McIlwain, Emily A Sawin, Andrew J Schoen, Nagesh Adluru, Andrew L Alexander, John-Paul J Yu
Altered gut microbiome populations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder and mood disorders. In animal models, modulation of gut microbiome populations via dietary manipulation influences brain function and behavior and has been shown to ameliorate behavioral symptoms. With striking differences in microbiome-driven behavior, we explored whether these behavioral changes are also accompanied by corresponding changes in neural tissue microstructure...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317064/comparison-of-geographic-distributions-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-fail-to-support-common-evolutionary-roots-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-are-not-related-by-evolution
#16
Andrew Szilagyi, Xiaoqing Xue
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) shares overlapping symptoms and some features of pathogenesis with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD: Crohn's disease [CD], and Ulcerative Colitis [UC]). Geographic markers such as latitude/sunshine and more recently lactase population distributions are found to be correlated with IBD. As a result of clinical and pathogenic similarities between the 2 conditions, some authorities questioned whether a connection exists between them. We compare IBS directly with IBD, and indirectly with geographic markers associated with IBD, in order to evaluate possible evolutionary links between IBS and IBD...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316965/decreased-microglial-activation-through-gut-brain-axis-by-prebiotics-probiotics-or-synbiotics-effectively-restored-cognitive-function-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#17
Titikorn Chunchai, Wannipa Thunapong, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Keerati Wanchai, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Gabrielle Metzler, Anusorn Lungkaphin, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Sasithorn Sirilun, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only obese-insulin resistance, but also cognitive decline and microglial hyperactivity. Modified gut microbiota by prebiotics and probiotics improved obese-insulin resistance. However, the effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics on cognition and microglial activity in an obese-insulin resistant condition have not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of prebiotic (Xyloolidosaccharide), probiotic (Lactobacillus paracasei HII01), or synbiotics in male obese-insulin resistant rats induced by a HFD...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316856/food-functionality-research-as-a-new-national-project-in-special-reference-to-improvement-of-cognitive-and-locomotive-abilities
#18
Keiko Abe, Takumi Misaka
In Japan, where a super-aging society is realized, we are most concerned about healthy longevity, which would ascertain the wellness of people by improving their quality of life (QOL). In 2014, the Cabinet Office proposed a strategic innovation promotion programme, launching a national project for the development of the agricultural-forestry-fisheries food products with new functionalities for the next generation. In addition to focusing on a conventional prevention of lifestyle-associated metabolic syndromes, the project targets the scientific evidence of the activation of brain cognitive ability and the improvement of bodily locomotive function...
January 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316320/human-microbiota-blood-group-antigens-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315980/probiotics-or-pro-healers-the-role-of-beneficial-bacteria-in-tissue-repair
#20
Jovanka Lukic, Vivien Chen, Ivana Strahinic, Jelena Begovic, Hadar Lev-Tov, Stephen C Davis, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Irena Pastar
Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms, known to exert numerous positive effects on human health, primarily in the battle against pathogens. Probiotics have been associated with improved healing of intestinal ulcers, and healing of infected cutaneous wounds. This manuscript reviews the latest findings on probiotics related to their pro-healing properties on gut epithelium and skin. Proven mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria exert their beneficial effects include direct killing of pathogens, competitive displacement of pathogenic bacteria, reinforcement of epithelial barrier, induction of fibroblasts and epithelial cells' migration and function...
January 8, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
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