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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782468/potential-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-als-pathogenesis-and-possible-novel-therapeutic-strategies
#1
Letizia Mazzini, Luca Mogna, Fabiola De Marchi, Angela Amoruso, Marco Pane, Irene Aloisio, Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Francesca Gaggìa, Ausiliatrice Lucenti, Enrica Bersano, Roberto Cantello, Diana Di Gioia, Giovanni Mogna
BACKGROUND: Recent preclinical studies suggest that dysfunction of gastrointestinal tract may play a role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis through a modification of the gut microbiota brain axis. Our study is the first focused on microbiota analysis in ALS patients. AIM: Our aim was to study the main human gut microbial groups and the overall microbial diversity in ALS and healthy subjects. Moreover we have examined the influence of a treatment with a specific bacteriotherapy composed of Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius) acting on the gastrointestinal barrier...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781158/role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-distention-associated-abdominal-pain-in-bowel-obstruction
#2
Y Fu, Y M Lin, J H Winston, R Radhakrishnan, L-Y M Huang, X Z Shi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that visceral sensitivity is increased in bowel obstruction (BO). We hypothesized that mechanical stress-induced expression of BDNF in smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the distended bowel plays a critical role in visceral hypersensitivity in BO by altering voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv ) activity in sensory neurons. METHODS: Partial colon obstruction was maintained in rats for 7 days. Colon-projecting neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, T13 to L2) were isolated for electrophysiological and gene expression studies...
May 21, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780579/managing-portal-hypertension-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#3
REVIEW
Tilman Sauerbruch, Robert Schierwagen, Jonel Trebicka
Portal hypertension is one cause and a part of a dynamic process triggered by chronic liver disease, mostly induced by alcohol or incorrect nutrition and less often by viral infections and autoimmune or genetic disease. Adequate staging - continuously modified by current knowledge - should guide the prevention and treatment of portal hypertension with defined endpoints. The main goals are interruption of etiology and prevention of complications followed, if necessary, by treatment of these. For the past few decades, shunts, mostly as intrahepatic stent bypass between portal and hepatic vein branches, have played an important role in the prevention of recurrent bleeding and ascites formation, although their impact on survival remains ambiguous...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776865/gut-microbiota-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-in-southern-china
#4
Aiqun Lin, Wenxia Zheng, Yan He, Wenli Tang, Xiaobo Wei, Rongni He, Wei Huang, Yuying Su, Yaowei Huang, Hongwei Zhou, Huifang Xie
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence has revealed alterations in the communication between the gut and brain in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and previous studies have confirmed that alterations in the gut microbiome play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including PD. The aim of this study was to determine whether the faecal microbiome of PD patients in southern China differs from that of control subjects and whether the gut microbiome composition alters among different PD motor phenotypes...
May 16, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769579/hla-class-ii-haplotypes-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Meriem Bennabi, Alexandru Gaman, Richard Delorme, Wahid Boukouaci, Céline Manier, Isabelle Scheid, Nassima Si Mohammed, Djaouida Bengoufa, Dominique Charron, Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy, Marion Leboyer, Ryad Tamouza
Infections and autoimmunity are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with both strongly influenced by the genetic regulation of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. The relationship between ASD and the HLA genetic diversity requires further investigation. Using a case control design, the distribution of HLA class II-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes were investigated in ASD patients, versus healthy controls (HC). ASD patients meeting DSM-IV TR criteria and HC (474 and 350 respectively) were genotyped at medium resolution using a Luminex-based SSO technology...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768168/a-worm-s-gut-feelings-neuronal-muscarinic-and-epithelial-canonical-wnt-pathways-promote-antimicrobial-defense
#6
Romana R Gerner, Manuela Raffatellu
Molecular mechanisms connecting the gut-brain axis to immunity remain elusive. In this issue of Immunity, Labed et al. (2018) demonstrate that two evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms, the neuronal muscarinic and the epithelial Wnt pathways, together induce antimicrobial peptide expression that protects Caenorhabditis elegans against intestinal infection.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765429/the-potentials-and-caveats-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-in-the-preterm-infant
#7
REVIEW
Judith Gronbach, Tayyab Shahzad, Sarah Radajewski, Cho-Ming Chao, Saverio Bellusci, Rory E Morty, Tobias Reicherzer, Harald Ehrhardt
Preponderance of proinflammatory signals is a characteristic feature of all acute and resulting long-term morbidities of the preterm infant. The proinflammatory actions are best characterized for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is the chronic lung disease of the preterm infant with lifelong restrictions of pulmonary function and severe consequences for psychomotor development and quality of life. Besides BPD, the immature brain, eye, and gut are also exposed to inflammatory injuries provoked by infection, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen toxicity...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763437/postnatal-colonization-with-human-infant-type-bifidobacterium-species-alters-behavior-of-adult-gnotobiotic-mice
#8
Berkley Luk, Surabi Veeraragavan, Melinda Engevik, Miriam Balderas, Angela Major, Jessica Runge, Ruth Ann Luna, James Versalovic
Accumulating studies have defined a role for the intestinal microbiota in modulation of host behavior. Research using gnotobiotic mice emphasizes that early microbial colonization with a complex microbiota (conventionalization) can rescue some of the behavioral abnormalities observed in mice that grow to adulthood completely devoid of bacteria (germ-free mice). However, the human infant and adult microbiomes vary greatly, and effects of the neonatal microbiome on neurodevelopment are currently not well understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761405/depleting-macrophages-in-vivo-with-clodronate-liposomes
#9
Stéphanie G Moreno
In order to decipher the role of macrophages in vivo, it could be necessary to establish a model of macrophage depletion in the whole animal. One method to obtain animal models efficiently depleted in macrophages in different tissues (bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, brain, gut, peritoneal cavity, lymph nodes/vessels) and blood is the use of a clodronate-liposome solution.Here, we describe the protocol used to deplete efficiently macrophages in mouse bone marrow.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760448/the-gut-microbiota-and-the-brain-gut-kidney-axis-in-hypertension-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Elaine M Richards, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
Crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the host has attracted considerable attention owing to its involvement in diverse diseases. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly associated with hypertension and is characterized by immune dysregulation, metabolic disorder and sympathetic activation, which are all linked to gut dysbiosis and altered host-microbiota crosstalk. In this Review, we discuss the complex interplay between the brain, the gut, the microbiota and the kidney in CKD and hypertension and explain our brain-gut-kidney axis hypothesis for the pathogenesis of these diseases...
May 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758074/comparison-of-the-effect-of-dietary-copper-nanoparticles-and-one-copper-ii-salt-on-the-copper-biodistribution-and-gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-morphology-and-function-in-a-rat-model
#11
Ewelina Cholewińska, Katarzyna Ognik, Bartosz Fotschki, Zenon Zduńczyk, Jerzy Juśkiewicz
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of two forms (CuCO3 (CuS); and Cu nanoparticles (CuNP)) and dosages (standard 6.5 mg/kg (H), half of the standard (L)) of additional dietary Cu administered to growing rats on gastrointestinal and hepatic function and morphology. Copper in the form of CuNP vs CuS caused lower Cu faecal/urinal excretion and increased Cu accumulation in the brain tissue. Hepatic high-grade hydropic degeneration and necrotic lesions were observed only in the CuNP-H animals. In the lower gut, the dietary application of CuNP stifled bacterial enzymatic activity of caecal gut microbiota and resulted in lower SCFA production...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753796/the-neuroendocrinology-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-a-behavioural-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Sofia Cussotto, Kiran V Sandhu, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The human gut harbours trillions of symbiotic bacteria that play a key role in programming different aspects of host physiology in health and disease. These intestinal microbes are also key components of the gut-brain axis, the bidirectional communication pathway between the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the CNS is closely interconnected with the endocrine system to regulate many physiological processes. An expanding body of evidence is supporting the notion that gut microbiota modifications and/or manipulations may also play a crucial role in the manifestation of specific behavioural responses regulated by neuroendocrine pathways...
May 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752611/comparison-of-electroacupuncture-and-mild-warm-moxibustion-on-brain-gut-function-in-patients-with-constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Ji-Meng Zhao, Jin-Hua Lu, Xiao-Jun Yin, Lu-Yi Wu, Chun-Hui Bao, Xing-Kui Chen, Yue-Hua Chen, Wei-Jun Tang, Xiao-Ming Jin, Huan-Gan Wu, Yin Shi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and mild-warm moxibustion (Mox) therapies for constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS) patients. METHODS: Sixty C-IBS patients were assigned to 2 groups by simple randomized method, i.e. EA group (30 cases) and Mox group (30 cases). Both EA and Mox treatments were performed on bilateral Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) for 30 min each time, 6 times per week, for 4 consecutive weeks...
May 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749694/trimethylamine-n-oxide-promotes-brain-aging-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#14
Dang Li, Yilang Ke, Rui Zhan, Changjie Liu, Mingming Zhao, Aiping Zeng, Xiaoyun Shi, Liang Ji, Si Cheng, Bing Pan, Lemin Zheng, Huashan Hong
Gut microbiota can influence the aging process and may modulate aging-related changes in cognitive function. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of intestinal flora, has been shown to be closely associated with cardiovascular disease and other diseases. However, the relationship between TMAO and aging, especially brain aging, has not been fully elucidated. To explore the relationship between TMAO and brain aging, we analysed the plasma levels of TMAO in both humans and mice and administered exogenous TMAO to 24-week-old senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) and age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice for 16 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748817/the-role-of-the-microbiome-for-human-health-from-basic-science-to-clinical-applications
#15
M Hasan Mohajeri, Robert J M Brummer, Robert A Rastall, Rinse K Weersma, Hermie J M Harmsen, Marijke Faas, Manfred Eggersdorfer
The 2017 annual symposium organized by the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands focused on the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease. Experts from academia and industry examined interactions of prebiotics, probiotics, or vitamins with the gut microbiome in health and disease, the development of the microbiome in early-life and the role of the microbiome on the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota changes dramatically during pregnancy and intrinsic factors (such as stress), in addition to extrinsic factors (such as diet, and drugs) influence the composition and activity of the gut microbiome throughout life...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746845/detection-of-stress-and-the-effects-of-central-nervous-system-depressants-by-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-electromyography-in-wakeful-rats
#16
K F Szűcs, G Grosz, M Süle, A Sztojkov-Ivanov, E Ducza, A Márki, A Kothencz, L Balogh, R Gáspár
AIMS: The altered gut-brain interaction can be in the background of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. In the GI tract, the slow-wave myoelectric signals can be detected by electromyography (EMG). The aims of our study were to follow up the stress induced alteration in the GI tract by smooth muscle EMG in wakeful rats. MAIN METHODS: The GI tract myoelectric activity of male rats was measured by an electrode pair under the abdominal skin, the responses were detected and analyzed by a software using fast Fourier transformation...
May 7, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742478/autoimmune-phenotypes-in-schizophrenia-reveal-novel-treatment-targets
#17
REVIEW
Emily G Severance, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
Typical and atypical antipsychotics are the first-line treatments for schizophrenia, but these classes of drugs are not universally effective, and they can have serious side effects that impact compliance. Antipsychotic drugs generally target the dopamine pathways with some variation. As research of schizophrenia pathophysiology has shifted away from a strictly dopamine-centric focus, the development of new pharmacotherapies has waned. A field of inquiry with centuries-old roots is gaining traction in psychiatric research circles and may represent a new frontier for drug discovery in schizophrenia...
May 6, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737560/brain-and-gut-partners-in-crime
#18
Manu Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730508/beneficial-psychological-effects-of-novel-psychobiotics-in-diabetic-rats-the-interaction-among-the-gut-blood-and-amygdala
#19
Mohammad Morshedi, Khadijeh Bavafa Valenlia, Elaheh Sadat Hosseinifard, Parviz Shahabi, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi, Meysam Ghorbani, Abolfazl Barzegari, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Maryam Saghafi-Asl
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can lead to major complications such as psychiatric disorders which include depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. The association of the gut-brain axis in the development of such disorders, especially in T2DM, has been elucidated; however, gut dysbiosis is also reported in patients with T2DM. Hence, the regulation of the gut-brain axis, in particular, the gut-amygdala, as a vital region for the regulation of behavior is essential. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were divided into six groups...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723105/probiotics-drive-gut-microbiome-triggering-emotional-brain-signatures
#20
Deepika Bagga, Johanna Louise Reichert, Karl Koschutnig, Christoph Stefan Aigner, Peter Holzer, Kaisa Koskinen, Christine Moissl Eichinger, Veronika Schöpf
Experimental manipulation of the gut microbiome was found to modify emotional and cognitive behavior, neurotransmitter expression and brain function in rodents, but corresponding human data remain scarce. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study aimed at investigating the effects of 4 weeks' probiotic administration on behavior, brain function and gut microbial composition in healthy volunteers. Forty-five healthy participants divided equally into three groups (probiotic, placebo and no intervention) underwent functional MRI (emotional decision-making and emotional recognition memory tasks)...
May 3, 2018: Gut Microbes
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