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gut and brain

Marta Grochowska, Marcin Wojnar, Marek Radkowski
The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders. It is estimated that the human gut is colonized by up to 1018 microorganisms, mostly anaerobic bacteria. The gut microbiome is responsible for multiple functions, e.g. tightness of the intestine barrier, digestion and absorption. The correlation between gut dysbiosis and development of psychiatric, autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as bidirectional communication between brain and gut microflora have been shown...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Nora Al-Orf, Afaf El-Ansary, Geir Bjørklund, Nadine Moubaye, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Abir Ben Bacha
The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of probiotics on brain intoxication induced by clindamycin and propionic acid (PPA) in hamsters. Fifty golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into five experimental groups of ten animals each: (A) control group receiving phosphate buffered saline; (B) oral buffered PPA-treated group being administered with a neurotoxic dose of 250 mg/kg PPA during three days; (C) oral clindamycin-treated group receiving a single dose of 30 mg clindamycin/kg; and (D, E) the two therapeutic groups being administered the same doses of clindamycin and PPA followed by probiotics for three weeks at a daily dose of 0...
July 17, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yijun Cheng, Jieyu Zan, Yaying Song, Guoyuan Yang, Hanbing Shang, Weiguo Zhao
Intestinal injury is a common complication following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which leads to malnutrition, impaired immunity and unsatisfactory prognosis. Previous studies have revealed the pathogenesis of intestinal injury following traumatic brain injury using ischemic stroke models. However, the effects of ICH on intestinal injury remain unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the pathological alterations and molecular mechanism, as well as the time course of intestinal injury following ICH in mice...
July 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Thomas Heitkamp, Reinhard Grisshammer, Michael Börsch
Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is important for signaling in the brain and the gut. Its agonist ligand neurotensin (NTS), a 13-amino-acid peptide, binds with nanomolar affinity from the extracellular side to NTSR1 and induces conformational changes that trigger intracellular signaling processes. Our goal is to monitor the conformational dynamics of single fluorescently labeled NTSR1. For this, we fused the fluorescent protein mNeonGreen to the C terminus of NTSR1, purified the receptor fusion protein from E...
January 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
Caroline Park, Elisa Brietzke, Joshua D Rosenblat, Natalie Musial, Hannah Zuckerman, Renee-Marie Ragguett, Zihang Pan, Carola Rong, Dominika Fus, Roger S McIntyre
During the past decade, there has been renewed interest in the relationship between brain-based disorders, the gut microbiota, and the possible beneficial effects of probiotics. Emerging evidence suggests that modifying the composition of the gut microbiota via probiotic supplementation may be a viable adjuvant treatment option for individuals with major depressive disorder. Convergent evidence indicates that persistent low-grade inflammatory activation is associated with the diagnosis of MDD as well as the severity of depressive symptoms and probability of treatment response...
July 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ranmali Ranasinghe, Rajaraman Eri
C-C chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) receptor 6 (CCR6) and its exclusive binding molecule CCL20 is an extremely important chemokine receptor-ligand pair which controls cell migration and immune induction during inflammatory disease. Not many scientific studies have been undertaken to study its immune mechanisms in detail, but its unique contribution to steady state cell chemotaxis in upholding immune tolerance and regulating immune homeostasis during inflammation is evident in multiple systems in the human body, including skin, liver, lung, kidney, brain, eye, joints, gonads and the gut...
July 2, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Antonio Inserra, Geraint B Rogers, Julio Licinio, Ma-Li Wong
We propose the "microbiota-inflammasome" hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD, a mental illness affecting the way a person feels and thinks, characterized by long-lasting feelings of sadness). We hypothesize that pathological shifts in gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) caused by stress and gut conditions result in the upregulation of pro-inflammatory pathways mediated by the Nod-like receptors family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome (an intracellular platform involved in the activation of inflammatory processes)...
July 13, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Chathur Acharya, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Hepatic encephalopathy is a state of brain dysfunction resulting from decompensation of cirrhosis. The mortality and morbidity associated with the overt form of hepatic encephalopathy are high, and even the covert form associates with poor outcomes and poor quality of life. We know that the dysfunction is not just an acute insult to the brain but rather results in long-standing cognitive issues that get worse with each episode of HE. Hence, there is an urgency to accurately diagnose these conditions, start appropriate therapy, and to maintain remission...
July 13, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Shih-Yi Huang, Li-Han Chen, Ming-Fu Wang, Chih-Chieh Hsu, Ching-Hung Chan, Jia-Xian Li, Hui-Yu Huang
Probiotic supplements are potential therapeutic agents for age-related disorders due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of probiotics on age-related brain dysfunction remains unclear. To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus paracasei PS23 (LPPS23) on the progression of age-related cognitive decline, male and female senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into two groups ( n = 6 each): the control and PS23 groups. From the age of 16 weeks, these groups were given saline and LPPS23, respectively, because SAMP8 mice start aging rapidly after four months of age...
July 12, 2018: Nutrients
Sean W Dooling, Mauro Costa-Mattioli
Why ketogenic diet (KD) effectively controls seizures in some people with epilepsy is unclear. In a recent issue of Cell, Olson et al. (2018) showed that KD prevents seizures by upregulating key bacterial species (Akkermansia muciniphila and Parabacteroides merdae). These bacteria synergize to decrease gammaglutamylation of amino acids, increase hippocampal GABA/Glutamate ratios, and, ultimately, prevent seizures.
July 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Christian L Roth, Julia von Schnurbein, Clinton Elfers, Anja Moss, Martin Wabitsch
BACKGROUND: We tested whether leptin treatment affects secretion of satiety-related gut peptides and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a regulator of energy homeostasis downstream of hypothalamic leptin signaling. METHODS: We report the case of a morbidly obese 14.7-year-old girl with a novel previously reported homozygous leptin gene mutation, in whom hormone secretion was evaluated in 30-min intervals for 10 h (07.30-17.30) to assess BDNF, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY) secretion before as well as 11 and 46 weeks after start of metreleptin treatment...
July 11, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Anne Abot, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
The gut is one of the most important sources of bioactive peptides in the body. In addition to their direct actions in the brain and/or peripheral tissues, the intestinal peptides can also have an impact on enteric nervous neurons. By modifying the endogenousproduction of these peptides, one may expect modify the "local" physiology such as glucose absorption, but also could have a "global" action via the gut-brain axis. Due to the various origins of gut peptides (i.e., nutrients, intestinal wall, gut microbiota) and the heterogeneity of enteric neurons population, the potential physiological parameters control by the interaction between the two partners are multiple...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Khaled Abduljalil, Masoud Jamei, Trevor N Johnson
BACKGROUND: The growth of fetal organs is a dynamic process involving considerable changes in the anatomical and physiological parameters that can alter fetal exposure to xenobiotics in utero. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models can be used to predict the fetal exposure as time-varying parameters can easily be incorporated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to collate, analyse and integrate the available time-varying parameters needed for the physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling of xenobiotic kinetics in a fetal population...
July 10, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Catherine Hornby, Susan P Mollan, Hannah Botfield, Michael W OʼReilly, Alexandra J Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Traditional risk factors associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) include obesity, weight gain, and female sex. The incidence of IIH is increasing and yet the underlying trigger and the fueling pathological mechanisms are still poorly understood. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Review of ophthalmology, neurology, general surgery, obesity, endocrinology, nutrition, and neurosurgery literature was made. RESULTS: The facts that implicate sex and obesity in IIH and headache are examined...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Maria R C de Godoy
The prominent incidence of overweight and obese pet animals not only results in higher morbidity and mortality, but also poses a threat for the quality of life, longevity, and well-being of dogs and cats. To date, strategies to prevent BW gain or to induce weight loss have had modest success in the pet population. In part, due to the complexity and the multifactorial nature of this disease, which involves pet-human interaction, environmental and dietary factors, and an intertwined metabolic process that still is not fully understood...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Nadia Cattane, Juliet Richetto, Annamaria Cattaneoa
When considering neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are considered to be among the most severe in term of prevalence, morbidity and impact on the society. Similar features and overlapping symptoms have been observed at multiple levels, suggesting common pathophysiological bases. Indeed, recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and epidemiological data report shared vulnerability genes and environmental triggers across the two disorders. In this review, we will discuss the possible biological mechanisms, including glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions, inflammatory signals and oxidative stress related systems, which are targeted by adverse environmental exposures and that have been associated with the development of SZ and ASD...
July 4, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Patricia López, Mónica Sánchez, Claudia Perez-Cruz, Laura A Velázquez-Villegas, Tauqeerunnisa Syeda, Miriam Aguilar-López, Ana K Rocha-Viggiano, María Del Carmen Silva-Lucero, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Lilia G Noriega, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar
SCOPE: The aim of this study was to assess whether the long-term addition of genistein to a high-fat diet can ameliorate the metabolic and the cognitive alterations and whether the changes can be associated with modifications to the gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thus, C57/BL6 mice were fed either a control (C) diet, a high-fat (HF) diet or a high-fat diet containing genistein (HFG) for 6 months. During the study, indirect calorimetry, IP glucose tolerance tests and behavioural analyses were performed...
July 6, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Yukari Tanaka, Motoyori Kanazawa, Michiko Kano, Manabu Tashiro, Shin Fukudo
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mediates stress responses in the brain-gut axis. Administration of CRH modulates brain activation, for example by controlling the autonomic nervous system in response to colorectal distention. Here, we investigated the relationship between sympathoadrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to colorectal distention in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We enrolled 32 patients with IBS (16 women and 16 men) and 32 healthy subjects (16 women and 16 men), and randomly divided them between CRH and saline injection groups...
2018: PloS One
Hiroaki Masuzaki, Chisayo Kozuka, Shiki Okamoto, Masato Yonamine, Hideaki Tanaka, Michio Shimabukuro
Chronic overconsumption of animal fats causes a variety of health problems including diabetes mellitus and obesity disease. Underlying molecular mechanisms encompass leptin resistance, decrease in rewarding effects of physical activities, xanthine oxidase-induced oxidative stress in vasculature and peripheral tissue, impaired activation of incretin signaling, deviation in food preference and dysbiosis of gut microbiota. Based on our clinical observation that dairy intake of brown rice effectively ameliorates body weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance / insulin resistance and dependence on fatty foods in obese, pre-diabetic men, a line of research on brown rice (rice bran)-derived γ-oryzanol in mice experiments, cultured cells and human clinical trials is underway in our laboratory...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
L A Ramos-Chávez, R Lugo Huitrón, D González Esquivel, B Pineda, C Ríos, D Silva-Adaya, L Sánchez-Chapul, G Roldán-Roldán, V Pérez de la Cruz
The catabolism of tryptophan has gained great importance in recent years due to the fact that the metabolites produced during this process, with neuroactive and redox properties, are involved in physiological and pathological events. One of these metabolites is kynurenic acid (KYNA), which is considered as a neuromodulator since it can interact with NMDA, nicotinic, and GPR35 receptors among others, modulating the release of neurotransmitters as glutamate, dopamine, and acetylcholine. Kynureninate production is attributed to kynurenine aminotransferases...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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