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Christopher S Bibbs, Maia Tsikolia, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Ulrich R Bernier, Rui-De Xue, Phillip E Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Mosquito mortality has been documented in numerous studies of spatial repellents but the concentration-dependent toxicity of spatial repellent vapors has not been documented. To address this issue, prallethrin, flumethrin, metofluthrin, transfluthrin, and meperfluthrin were selected for comparative study against Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Ae. aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Mosquito were exposed to vapors of each chemical for 2h, 4h, and 24h with mortality recorded at each time point...
May 25, 2018: Pest Management Science
Manas Sarkar, Ambadas Akulwad, Rajendra Kshirsagar, Siva Muthukrishnan
Intensive exposure to insecticides has resulted in the evolution of insecticide resistance in the mosquitoes. We tested the bio-efficacy of two Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory strains differentially bio-responsive to pyrethroids to understand the comparative efficacy of different polyfluorobenzyle and conventional pyrethroid molecules and the role of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in synergizing these molecules in increased tolerance of mosquitoes to these molecules. We have taken deltamethrin (α-cyano pyrethroid with phenoxybenzyl moiety); permethrin (phenoxybenzyl pyrethroid without an α-cyano group); transfluthrin, dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin (polyfluorinated benzyl compounds); and prallethrin (modified cyclopentadienone compound) for this study...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yuan Shen, Rui-De Xue, Christopher S Bibbs
Three repellent products, OFF! Mosquito Lamp, Insecticandel, and Rescue DecoShield, were comparatively evaluated against Aedes aegypti in 130-m2 enclosed areas with a 317-m3 air volume. The results showed that the OFF! Mosquito Lamp with metofluthrin had a greater effect than the Insecticandel with transfluthrin, which had greater effect than the DecoShield with lemongrass oil and several other plant oils against Ae. aegypti. The OFF! Mosquito Lamp was the only product to exceed 50% mortality. An outdoor semi-field evaluation was conducted to determine the effect by distance of the product...
December 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan, Waseem Akram, Ammara Fatima
House flies are one of the major public health pests in urban settings. People usually use insecticides containing pyrethroids for the management of house flies; however, there is a lack of information on pyrethroid resistance in house flies from urban areas. In the present study, resistance to four pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, transfluthrin) was assessed in house flies collected from urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Significant levels of resistance to all the pyrethroids were found in different strains of house flies...
December 2017: Parasitology Research
Natasha M Agramonte, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Ulrich R Bernier
Emerging insecticide resistance is a major issue for vector control. It decreases the effectiveness of insecticides, thereby requiring greater quantities for comparable control with a net increase in risk of disease resurgence, product cost, and damage risk to the ecosystem. Pyrethroid resistance has been documented in Puerto Rican populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. In this study, topical toxicity of five insecticides (permethrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, DDT, transfluthrin) was determined for susceptible (Orlando-ORL) and resistant (Puerto Rico-PR) strains of Ae...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shirin Hooshfar, Tanzir B Mortuza, Clinton A Rogers, Michael R Linzey, Darren R Gullick, James V Bruckner, Catherine A White, Michael G Bartlett
RATIONALE: Transfluthrin is a relatively non-toxic rapid-acting synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. It is widely used in household and hygiene products. A sensitive and accurate bioanalytical method is required for quantification of its concentration in plasma and its potential target organ, the brain for studies to assess its health effects and toxicokinetics in mammals. METHODS: The samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was performed for the determination of transfluthrin in biological samples with an overall method run time of 15 min...
October 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Haozhe Zeng, Xiaoling Yang, Miyi Yang, Xiaoling Wu, Wenfeng Zhou, Sanbing Zhang, Runhua Lu, Jing Li, Haixiang Gao
An ultrasound-assisted, hybrid ionic liquid, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with a variable-wavelength detector was developed to detect ten insecticides, including diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, diafenthiuron, transfluthrin, fenpropathrin, γ-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, in fruit juices. In this method, an appropriate extraction solvent was chosen based on the partition coefficient of the target compounds...
September 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Lee P McPhatter, Paula D Mischler, Meiling Z Webb, Kamal Chauhan, Erica J Lindroth, Alec G Richardson, Mustapha Debboun
Two transfluthrin-based spatial repellent products (Raid Dual Action Insect Repellent and Home Freshener and Raid Shield (currently not commercially available), SC Johnson, Racine WI) were evaluated for spatial repellent effects against female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes under laboratory (wind tunnel) and semi-field (outdoor enclosure) conditions. The placement of either product in the wind tunnel significantly reduced host-seeking behaviors. The mean baseline (control) landing counts for the Raid Dual Action and Raid Shield were reduced by 95% and 74% respectively...
January 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
John P Masalu, Marceline Finda, Fredros O Okumu, Elihaika G Minja, Arnold S Mmbando, Maggy T Sikulu-Lord, Sheila B Ogoma
BACKGROUND: A number of mosquito vectors bite and rest outdoors, which contributes to sustained residual malaria transmission in endemic areas. Spatial repellents are thought to create a protective "bubble" within which mosquito bites are reduced and may be ideal for outdoor use. This study builds on previous studies that proved efficacy of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against outdoor biting mosquitoes. The goal of this study was to modify strips into practical, attractive and acceptable transfluthrin treated sisal and hessian emanators that confer protection against potential infectious bites before people use bed nets especially in the early evening and outdoors...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Sheila B Ogoma, Arnold S Mmando, Johnson K Swai, Sebastian Horstmann, David Malone, Gerry F Killeen
BACKGROUND: The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
G Nentwig, S Frohberger, R Sonneck
One essential oil (clove oil), one skin repellent (icaridin), and one insecticide (transfluthrin) were tested for spatial repellent effects against non-blood-fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. The compounds were tested in acetone dilution series using a Y-olfactometer, a double cage system, and a double room system. All compounds exhibited spatial repellent effects at certain concentrations. Clove oil required relative high dosages to cause high effects (Y-olfactometer 6 mg, double cage 60 mg, and double room 1,200 mg)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Marta Ferreira Maia, Katharina Kreppel, Edgar Mbeyela, Deogratius Roman, Valeriana Mayagaya, Neil F Lobo, Amanda Ross, Sarah Jane Moore
BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination is unlikely to occur if vector control efforts focus entirely on transmission occurring indoors without addressing vectors that bite outdoors and outside sleeping hours. Additional control tools such as spatial repellents may provide the personal protection required to fill this gap. However, since repellents do not kill mosquitoes it is unclear if vectors will be diverted from households that use spatial repellents to those that do not. METHODS: A crossover study was performed over 24 weeks in Kilombero, Tanzania...
August 15, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Diane B Choi, John P Grieco, Charles S Apperson, Coby Schal, Loganathan Ponnusamy, Dawn M Wesson, Nicole L Achee
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue virus (DENV), the causative agent of dengue fever, an arthropod-borne disease of global importance. Although a vaccine has been recommended for prevention, current dengue prevention strategies rely on vector control. Recently, volatile pyrethroids-spatial repellents-have received interest as a novel delivery system for adult Ae. aegypti control. Understanding the full range of behavioral effects spatial repellents elicit in mosquito species will be critical to understanding the overall impact these products have on vector populations and will guide expectations of efficacy against DENV transmission...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sebastian Horstmann, Rainer Sonneck
BACKGROUND: Mosquito strains that exhibit increased tolerance to the chemical class of compounds with a sodium channel modulator mode of action (pyrethroids and pyrethrins) are typically described as "pyrethroid resistant". Resistance to pyrethroids is an increasingly important challenge in the control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria or dengue, because one of the main interventions (the distribution of large numbers of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets) currently relies entirely on long-lasting pyrethroids...
2016: PloS One
Lu Hu, Panjie Zhang, Wanyu Shan, Xuan Wang, Songqing Li, Wenfeng Zhou, Haixiang Gao
A novel dispersion liquid-liquid microextraction method based on the solidification of sedimentary ionic liquids (SSIL-DLLME), in which an in situ metathesis reaction forms an ionic liquid (IL) extraction phase, was developed to determine four pyrethroid insecticides (i.e., permethrin, cyhalothrin, fenpropathrin, and transfluthrin) in water followed by separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the developed method, in situ DLLME was used to enhance the extraction efficiency and yield. After centrifugation, the extraction solvent, tributyldodecylphosphonium hexafluorophosphate ([P44412][PF6]), was easily collected by solidification in the bottom of the tube...
November 1, 2015: Talanta
Xuejiao Jia, Junya Wang, Xue Ding, Jun Yang, Nan Li, Na Zhao, Zhiyan Huang
Directing group and transition metal free C-H bond functionalization of a simple molecule is an ideal but challenging chemical transformation. Herein, we report a general Mg-prompted approach to synthesize versatile polyfluoroaryl carbinols at ambient temperature via polyfluoroarene C-H bond addition to aldehydes, which featured excellent monoaddition selectivity and broad functional group compatibility. The usefulness of this practical and efficient method was demonstrated in gram-scale formal synthesis of pyrethroid insecticides transfluthrin, tefluthrin, and fenfluthrin...
November 6, 2015: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ulrich R Bernier, Pablo Gurman, Gary G Clark, Noel Elman
Functional Micro-Dispensers (FMDs) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) were designed to deliver spatial repellents that reduce the ability of mosquitoes to feed on humans. FMDs were integrated with fabrics as functional materials for protection against mosquito bites. The use of MEMS devices provides an unprecedented control over the release kinetics by means of integration with electronics for selective and timely activation of each device to perform controlled release of pesticides in air. In addition, because MEMS manufacturing techniques evolved from the microelectronic industry, FMDs can be mass produced at very low cost...
December 28, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Marta Andrés, Lena M Lorenz, Edgar Mbeleya, Sarah J Moore
BACKGROUND: Efforts to control malaria vectors have primarily focused on scaling-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying. Although highly efficient against indoor-biting and indoor-resting vectors, these interventions have lower impact on outdoor-biting mosquitoes. Innovative vector control tools are required to prevent outdoor human-mosquito contacts. In this work, the potential of spatial repellents, delivered in an active system that requires minimal user compliance, to provide personal protection against exophagic mosquitoes active in the early evening was explored...
June 24, 2015: Malaria Journal
Nicodem J Govella, Sheila B Ogoma, John Paliga, Prosper P Chaki, Gerry Killeen
BACKGROUND: Semi-field trials using laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis have shown that, delivering the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin by absorption into hessian strips, consistently provided > 99% human protective efficacy against bites for 6 months without retreating. Here the impact of this approach upon human exposure to wild populations of vectors for both malaria and filariasis under full field conditions is assessed for the first time. METHODS: Transfluthrin-treated and untreated strips were placed around human volunteers conducting human landing catch in an outdoor environment in urban Dar es Salaam, where much human exposure to malaria and filariasis transmission occurs outdoors...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Joseph M Wagman, Nicole L Achee, John P Grieco
BACKGROUND: New vector control paradigms expanding the use of spatial repellents are promising, but there are many gaps in our knowledge about how repellents work and how their long-term use might affect vector populations over time. Reported here are findings from a series of in vitro studies that investigated the plasticity and heritability of spatial repellent (SR) behaviors in Aedes aegypti exposed to airborne transfluthrin, including results that indicate a possible link between repellent insensitivity and insecticide resistance...
April 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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