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G Nentwig, S Frohberger, R Sonneck
One essential oil (clove oil), one skin repellent (icaridin), and one insecticide (transfluthrin) were tested for spatial repellent effects against non-blood-fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. The compounds were tested in acetone dilution series using a Y-olfactometer, a double cage system, and a double room system. All compounds exhibited spatial repellent effects at certain concentrations. Clove oil required relative high dosages to cause high effects (Y-olfactometer 6 mg, double cage 60 mg, and double room 1,200 mg)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Marta Ferreira Maia, Katharina Kreppel, Edgar Mbeyela, Deogratius Roman, Valeriana Mayagaya, Neil F Lobo, Amanda Ross, Sarah Jane Moore
BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination is unlikely to occur if vector control efforts focus entirely on transmission occurring indoors without addressing vectors that bite outdoors and outside sleeping hours. Additional control tools such as spatial repellents may provide the personal protection required to fill this gap. However, since repellents do not kill mosquitoes it is unclear if vectors will be diverted from households that use spatial repellents to those that do not. METHODS: A crossover study was performed over 24 weeks in Kilombero, Tanzania...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Diane B Choi, John P Grieco, Charles S Apperson, Coby Schal, Loganathan Ponnusamy, Dawn M Wesson, Nicole L Achee
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue virus (DENV), the causative agent of dengue fever, an arthropod-borne disease of global importance. Although a vaccine has been recommended for prevention, current dengue prevention strategies rely on vector control. Recently, volatile pyrethroids-spatial repellents-have received interest as a novel delivery system for adult Ae. aegypti control. Understanding the full range of behavioral effects spatial repellents elicit in mosquito species will be critical to understanding the overall impact these products have on vector populations and will guide expectations of efficacy against DENV transmission...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sebastian Horstmann, Rainer Sonneck
BACKGROUND: Mosquito strains that exhibit increased tolerance to the chemical class of compounds with a sodium channel modulator mode of action (pyrethroids and pyrethrins) are typically described as "pyrethroid resistant". Resistance to pyrethroids is an increasingly important challenge in the control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria or dengue, because one of the main interventions (the distribution of large numbers of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets) currently relies entirely on long-lasting pyrethroids...
2016: PloS One
Lu Hu, Panjie Zhang, Wanyu Shan, Xuan Wang, Songqing Li, Wenfeng Zhou, Haixiang Gao
A novel dispersion liquid-liquid microextraction method based on the solidification of sedimentary ionic liquids (SSIL-DLLME), in which an in situ metathesis reaction forms an ionic liquid (IL) extraction phase, was developed to determine four pyrethroid insecticides (i.e., permethrin, cyhalothrin, fenpropathrin, and transfluthrin) in water followed by separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the developed method, in situ DLLME was used to enhance the extraction efficiency and yield. After centrifugation, the extraction solvent, tributyldodecylphosphonium hexafluorophosphate ([P44412][PF6]), was easily collected by solidification in the bottom of the tube...
November 1, 2015: Talanta
Xuejiao Jia, Junya Wang, Xue Ding, Jun Yang, Nan Li, Na Zhao, Zhiyan Huang
Directing group and transition metal free C-H bond functionalization of a simple molecule is an ideal but challenging chemical transformation. Herein, we report a general Mg-prompted approach to synthesize versatile polyfluoroaryl carbinols at ambient temperature via polyfluoroarene C-H bond addition to aldehydes, which featured excellent monoaddition selectivity and broad functional group compatibility. The usefulness of this practical and efficient method was demonstrated in gram-scale formal synthesis of pyrethroid insecticides transfluthrin, tefluthrin, and fenfluthrin...
November 6, 2015: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ulrich R Bernier, Pablo Gurman, Gary G Clark, Noel Elman
Functional Micro-Dispensers (FMDs) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) were designed to deliver spatial repellents that reduce the ability of mosquitoes to feed on humans. FMDs were integrated with fabrics as functional materials for protection against mosquito bites. The use of MEMS devices provides an unprecedented control over the release kinetics by means of integration with electronics for selective and timely activation of each device to perform controlled release of pesticides in air. In addition, because MEMS manufacturing techniques evolved from the microelectronic industry, FMDs can be mass produced at very low cost...
December 28, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Marta Andrés, Lena M Lorenz, Edgar Mbeleya, Sarah J Moore
BACKGROUND: Efforts to control malaria vectors have primarily focused on scaling-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying. Although highly efficient against indoor-biting and indoor-resting vectors, these interventions have lower impact on outdoor-biting mosquitoes. Innovative vector control tools are required to prevent outdoor human-mosquito contacts. In this work, the potential of spatial repellents, delivered in an active system that requires minimal user compliance, to provide personal protection against exophagic mosquitoes active in the early evening was explored...
June 24, 2015: Malaria Journal
Nicodem J Govella, Sheila B Ogoma, John Paliga, Prosper P Chaki, Gerry Killeen
BACKGROUND: Semi-field trials using laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis have shown that, delivering the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin by absorption into hessian strips, consistently provided > 99% human protective efficacy against bites for 6 months without retreating. Here the impact of this approach upon human exposure to wild populations of vectors for both malaria and filariasis under full field conditions is assessed for the first time. METHODS: Transfluthrin-treated and untreated strips were placed around human volunteers conducting human landing catch in an outdoor environment in urban Dar es Salaam, where much human exposure to malaria and filariasis transmission occurs outdoors...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Joseph M Wagman, Nicole L Achee, John P Grieco
BACKGROUND: New vector control paradigms expanding the use of spatial repellents are promising, but there are many gaps in our knowledge about how repellents work and how their long-term use might affect vector populations over time. Reported here are findings from a series of in vitro studies that investigated the plasticity and heritability of spatial repellent (SR) behaviors in Aedes aegypti exposed to airborne transfluthrin, including results that indicate a possible link between repellent insensitivity and insecticide resistance...
April 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kiran Lata Shringi, Sc Dulara, Rk Aseri, Usha Daria
Transfluthrin is being used as fast acting insecticide and liquid mosquito repellent. This is a case report of poisoning with transfluthrin (90 ml liquid containing 792 mg of transfluthrin) by a 25-year-old female. Tonic-clonic convulsions were not controlled with conventional drugs. In intensive care unit, patient was managed with muscle paralysis by neuromuscular blocking drug vecuronium and elective mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h under care of the anaesthesiologist with uneventful recovery.
January 2015: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Sheila B Ogoma, Hassan Ngonyani, Emmanuel T Simfukwe, Antony Mseka, Jason Moore, Marta F Maia, Sarah J Moore, Lena M Lorenz
Malaria vector control relies on toxicity of insecticides used in long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This is despite evidence that sub-lethal insecticides reduce human-vector contact and malaria transmission. The impact of sub-lethal insecticides on host seeking and blood feeding of mosquitoes was measured. Taxis boxes distinguished between repellency and attraction inhibition of mosquitoes by measuring response of mosquitoes towards or away from Transfluthrin coils and humans...
2014: PloS One
Mgeni Mohamed Tambwe, Edgar Mtaki Mbeyela, Brian Migamyo Massinda, Sarah Jane Moore, Marta Ferreira Maia
BACKGROUND: Malaria vector control is in need of new tools to face its current challenges such as the spread of pyrethroid-resistance and the increase of outdoor feeding mosquitoes. New strategies such as spatial repellents need to be evaluated as supplemental tools to existing control measures such as insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying. Linalool is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol commonly found in flowers and spices with reportedly repellent properties. METHODS: Four experimental huts fitted with exit traps and enclosed inside a large screened semi-field system were used for the evaluation...
2014: Parasites & Vectors
Juergen Pauluhn, Keisuke Ozaki
Stringent requirements are in place for the evaluation and registration of new compounds with biocidal or pesticidal activities. However, the registration requirements for established compounds from new suppliers or for established compounds produced by a different manufacturing process have been less clear and ambiguity exists as to how 'equivalence of health hazards' can unequivocally be demonstrated analytically and by toxicological assays. The case presented in this analysis focuses on the chiral pyrethroid transfluthrin (TFL) synthesized by esterification of an acid chloride and alcoholic moiety...
February 2015: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Nigel Hill, Hong Ning Zhou, Piyu Wang, Xiaofang Guo, Ilona Carneiro, Sarah J Moore
BACKGROUND: Mosquito coils are the most commonly used household insecticidal product in the world with sales exceeding 50 billion coils, used by two billion people worldwide annually. Despite strong evidence that coils prevent mosquito bites a systematic review concluded that there is no evidence that burning mosquito coils prevents malaria acquisition. Therefore, the current trial was designed to measure and compare prevention of malaria infection by mosquito coils or long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) or a combination of the two in Yunnan, China in the Greater Mekong sub-region...
May 31, 2014: Malaria Journal
Zareen S Khan, Rakesh Kumar Ghosh, Rushali Girame, Sagar C Utture, Manasi Gadgil, Kaushik Banerjee, D Damodar Reddy, Nalli Johnson
A selective and sensitive multiresidue analysis method, comprising 4 7pesticides, was developed and validated in tobacco matrix. The optimized sample preparation procedure in combination with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in selected-ion-monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) mode offered limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) in the range of 3-5 and 7.5-15ng/g, respectively, with recoveries between 70 and 119% at 50-100ng/g fortifications. In comparison to the modified QuEChERS (Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe method: 2g tobacco+10ml water+10ml acetonitrile, 30min vortexing, followed by dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup), the method performed better in minimizing matrix co-extractives e...
May 23, 2014: Journal of Chromatography. A
Sheila B Ogoma, Lena M Lorenz, Hassan Ngonyani, Robert Sangusangu, Mohammed Kitumbukile, Masoudi Kilalangongono, Emmanuel T Simfukwe, Anton Mseka, Edgar Mbeyela, Deogratius Roman, Jason Moore, Katharina Kreppel, Marta F Maia, Sarah J Moore
BACKGROUND: Current malaria vector control programmes rely on insecticides with rapid contact toxicity. However, spatial repellents can also be applied to reduce man-vector contact, which might ultimately impact malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to quantify effects of airborne pyrethroids from coils and DDT used an indoor residual spray (IRS) on entomological parameters that influence malaria transmission. METHODS: The effect of Transfluthrin and Metofluthrin coils compared to DDT on house entry, exit and indoor feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were measured in experimental huts in the field and in the semi-field...
2014: Malaria Journal
Enrique M Ostrea, Esterlita Villanueva-Uy, Dawn Bielawski, Sarah Birn, James J Janisse
BACKGROUND/AIM: Pesticides are neurotoxic and can adversely affect children's neurobehavioral outcome. Ongoing pesticide exposure has to be monitored in the study of long term outcome of pesticide adverse effects since changes in the type and amount of exposure can influence outcome. The aim of this paper is to describe the trend in long term pesticide exposure in children through the analysis of pesticides in their hair. PATIENTS AND METHODS: As part of an NIH study on the long term effects of pesticide exposure in young children, ongoing exposure to pesticides was determined by the analysis of children's hair for propoxur and pyrethroids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at 2, 4 and 6 years of age...
May 2014: Environmental Research
Toshiaki Yoshida
The urinary excretion kinetics of a fluorine-containing pyrethroid transfluthrin [(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate], which is widely used recently as mosquito repellents, was examined in rats to search for urinary metabolites suitable as biomarkers for monitoring transfluthrin exposure of the general population. After a single dose of 26, 64, 160 or 400 mg/kg body weight of transfluthrin had been administered intraperitoneally to male Sprague-Dawley rats, their urine was collected periodically for one week...
January 2014: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Enrique M Ostrea, Esterlita Villanueva-Uy, Dawn Bielawski, Sarah Birn, James J Janisse
BACKGROUND/AIM: The long term study of the adverse effects of pesticides on child neuro development requires monitoring not only of initial, but ongoing pesticide exposure. Our aim was to compare house dust and children's hair as environmental and biological markers of ongoing pesticide exposure in children. DESIGN/METHODS: In a continuing NIH study on the adverse effects of prenatal pesticide exposure on child neurodevelopment, ongoing pesticide exposure after birth was measured in swept house dust and hair in the children at 4 years of age for propoxur and pyrethroids (transfluthrin, bioallethrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
November 16, 2011: Journal of Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
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