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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785509/why-so-far-have-epidemics-always-eventually-petered-out-quasispecies-theory-suggests-a-testable-answer
#1
Andreas Dress
In this paper, it is argued that the fact that, so far, even the worst and most far-reaching epidemics-from the Plague of Athens in 430 BC and the Plague of Justinian in 541/542 AD to the Hong Kong Flu from 1968/69-always finally petered out can be explained using Manfred Eigen's quasispecies concept: Indeed, as the infectious agents, while duplicating themselves in the infected organisms, mutate all the time, these infected organisms carry along quite a multitude of mutational variants or-in Manfred Eigen's terms-a whole quasispecies of infectious agents implying that, within that quasispecies, those variants that differ from the wild type may actually serve as some kind of vaccination program when infecting some previously uninfected persons...
May 21, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785138/a-review-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas-translation-of-biological-advances-into-treatment-measures
#2
REVIEW
Ngoc T Hoang, Luis A Acevedo, Michael J Mann, Bhairavi Tolani
Soft-tissue sarcomas are rare malignant tumors arising from connective tissues and have an overall incidence of about five per 100,000 per year. While this diverse family of malignancies comprises over 100 histological subtypes and many molecular aberrations are prevalent within specific sarcomas, very few are therapeutically targeted. Instead of utilizing molecular signatures, first-line sarcoma treatment options are still limited to traditional surgery and chemotherapy, and many of the latter remain largely ineffective and are plagued by disease resistance...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780878/microfluidics-in-malignant-glioma-research-and-precision-medicine
#3
Meghan Logun, Wujun Zhao, Leidong Mao, Lohitash Karumbaiah
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of brain cancer that has no effective treatments and a prognosis of only 12-15 months. Microfluidic technologies deliver microscale control of fluids and cells, and have aided cancer therapy as point-of-care devices for the diagnosis of breast and prostate cancers. However, a few microfluidic devices are developed to study malignant glioma. The ability of these platforms to accurately replicate the complex microenvironmental and extracellular conditions prevailing in the brain and facilitate the measurement of biological phenomena with high resolution and in a high-throughput manner could prove useful for studying glioma progression...
May 2018: Advanced Biosystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778412/assessing-cancer-risk-factors-faced-by-an-ancestral-puebloan-population-in-the-north-american-southwest
#4
Catrina Banks Whitley, Jeffrey L Boyer
Ancestral Puebloan people in the North American Southwest suffered high rates of disease, poor health, and early age-at-death. Four individuals with skeletal expressions of cancer were found in a pre-Columbian population in the Taos Valley - Reports of malignant neoplasms in the archaeological record are uncommon and their presence in four of 82 individuals is a high occurrence. This study continues Whitley and Boyer's (2012) research testing whether concentrations of ionizing radiation were sufficiently high to induce cancer and related health issues...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777753/characterization-of-impaired-cerebrovascular-structure-in-app-ps1-mouse-brains
#5
Kee-Chan Ahn, Cameron R Learman, Gary L Dunbar, Panchanan Maiti, Won-Cheoul Jang, Hyeon-Cheol Cha, Mee-Sook Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by senile plaques, tauopathy and neuronal cell death in specific area of the brain. Recent studies suggest that neurovascular dysfunction may be an integral part of AD pathogenesis, contributing to the onset and development of AD pathologies such as neuronal death, inflammatory response, and breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB). In addition, vascular complications caused by age-related metabolic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure have high incidence in development of dementia and AD...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775046/solvent-assisted-surface-engineering-for-high-performance-all-inorganic-perovskite-nanocrystals-light-emitting-diodes
#6
Lin Wang, Baiquan Liu, Xin Zhao, Hilmi Volkan Demir, Haoshuang Gu, Handong Sun
All-inorganic cesium halide perovskite nanocrystals have attracted booming interests in optoelectronic applications for the sake of the readily adjustable bandgaps, high photoluminescence quantum yield, pure color emission and affordable cost. However, due to the ineluctable utilization of organic surfactants during the synthesis, the structural and optical properties of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals degrade upon transforming from colloidal solutions to solid thin films, which plagues the device operation. Here, we develop a novel solvent-assisted surface engineering strategy, producing high quality CsPbBr3 thin films for device applications...
May 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774842/detection-of-low-pathogenicity-influenza-a-h7n3-virus-during-duck-mortality-event-cambodia-2017
#7
Annika Suttie, Sokhoun Yann, Phalla Y, Sothyra Tum, Yi-Mo Deng, Vibol Hul, Viseth Srey Horm, Ian Barr, Andrew Greenhill, Paul F Horwood, Kristina Osbjer, Erik A Karlsson, Philippe Dussart
In January 2017, an estimated 3,700 (93%) of 4,000 Khaki Campbell ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) died in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. We detected low pathogenicity avian influenza A(H7N3) virus and anatid herpesvirus 1 (duck plague) in the affected flock; however, the exact cause of the mortality event remains unclear.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773334/plague-bridging-gaps-towards-better-disease-control
#8
REVIEW
E D'Ortenzio, N Lemaître, C Brouat, P Loubet, F Sebbane, M Rajerison, L Baril, Y Yazdanpanah
After centuries of epidemics and more than a hundred years since the identification of the causative bacterium, very little is known about the plague dynamics in animal reservoirs, vectors and the changing vulnerabilities for humans. The recent plague epidemic in Madagascar in 2017 highlights these gaps existing within the knowledge of the disease dynamics, the factors influencing it, the performance of diagnostic tests and the best recommended treatment. As the eradication of plague will not be possible due to the widespread existence of the bacterium in wildlife, a One Health approach, drawing on animal, human and environmental health disciplines is needed to better control this poverty-related disease...
May 14, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771116/a-sno2-reduced-graphene-oxide-interlayer-mitigating-shuttle-effect-of-li-s-batteries
#9
Nana Hu, Xingshuai Lv, Ying Dai, Linlin Fan, Dongbin Xiong, Xifei Li
The short cycle life of lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) plagues its practical application. In this study, a uniform SnO2/reduced graphene oxide (denoted as SnO2/rGO) composite is successfully designed onto the commercial polypropylene separator for use of interlayer of LSBs to decrease the charge transfer resistance and trap the soluble lithium polysulfides (LPS). As a result, the assembled devices using the separator modified with the functional interlayer (SnO2/rGO) exhibit improved cycle performance, for instance, over 200 cycles at 1C, the discharge capacity of the cells reaches 734 mAh g-1...
May 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770727/a-survival-analysis-of-the-last-great-european-plagues-the-case-of-nonantola-northern-italy-in-1630
#10
Guido Alfani, Marco Bonetti
This paper develops the first survival analysis of a large-scale mortality crisis caused by plague. For the time-to-event analyses we used the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Our case study is the town of Nonantola during the 1630 plague, which was probably the worst to affect Italy since the Black Death. Individual risk of death did not depend on sex, grew with age (peaking at ages 40-60 and then declining), was not affected by socio-economic status, and was positively associated with household size...
May 17, 2018: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768127/an-evaluation-of-removal-trapping-to-control-rodents-inside-homes-in-a-plague-endemic-region-of-rural-northwestern-uganda
#11
Rebecca J Eisen, Linda A Atiku, Karen A Boegler, Joseph T Mpanga, Russell E Enscore, Katherine MacMillan, Kenneth L Gage
Rodents pose a significant threat to human health, particularly in rural subsistence farming communities in Africa, where rodents threaten food security and serve as reservoirs of human pathogens, including the agents of plague, leptospirosis, murine typhus, rat-bite fever, Lassa fever, salmonellosis, and campylobacteriosis. Our study focused on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda, where a majority of residents live in Uganda government-defined poverty, rely on subsistence farming for a living, and frequently experience incursions of rodents into their homes...
May 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764189/plagues-wars-the-spanish-flu-pandemic-as-a-lesson-from-history
#12
Daniel Flecknoe, Benjamin Charles Wakefield, Aidan Simmons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760088/lead-pollution-recorded-in-greenland-ice-indicates-european-emissions-tracked-plagues-wars-and-imperial-expansion-during-antiquity
#13
Joseph R McConnell, Andrew I Wilson, Andreas Stohl, Monica M Arienzo, Nathan J Chellman, Sabine Eckhardt, Elisabeth M Thompson, A Mark Pollard, Jørgen Peder Steffensen
Lead pollution in Arctic ice reflects midlatitude emissions from ancient lead-silver mining and smelting. The few reported measurements have been extrapolated to infer the performance of ancient economies, including comparisons of economic productivity and growth during the Roman Republican and Imperial periods. These studies were based on sparse sampling and inaccurate dating, limiting understanding of trends and specific linkages. Here we show, using a precisely dated record of estimated lead emissions between 1100 BCE and 800 CE derived from subannually resolved measurements in Greenland ice and detailed atmospheric transport modeling, that annual European lead emissions closely varied with historical events, including imperial expansion, wars, and major plagues...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755452/influenza-virus-a-master-tactician-in-innate-immune-evasion-and-novel-therapeutic-interventions
#14
REVIEW
Alan Chen-Yu Hsu
Influenza is a contagion that has plagued mankind for many decades, and continues to pose concerns every year, with millions of infections globally. The frequent mutations and recombination of the influenza A virus (IAV) cast a looming threat that antigenically novel strains/subtypes will rise with unpredictable pathogenicity and fear of it evolving into a pandemic strain. There have been four major influenza pandemics, since the beginning of twentieth century, with the great 1918 pandemic being the most severe, killing more than 50 million people worldwide...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754884/circulating-salivary-mirna-hsa-mir-221-as-clinically-validated-diagnostic-marker-for-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-pediatric-patients
#15
Nyo Min, Previtha Dawn Sakthi Vale, Anng Anng Wong, Natalie Woon Hui Tan, Chia Yin Chong, Chih-Jung Chen, Robert Y L Wang, Justin Jang Hann Chu
Enhancements in the diagnostic capabilities using host biomarkers are currently much needed where sensitivity and specificity issues plague the diagnosis of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in pediatrics clinical samples. We investigated miRNome profiles of HFMD saliva samples against healthy children and developed miRNA-based diagnosis models. Our 6-miRNA scoring model predicted HFMD with an overall accuracy of 85.11% in the training set and 92.86% in the blinded test set of Singapore cohort. Blinded evaluation of the model in Taiwan HFMD cases resulted in 77...
May 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751222/development-of-forensic-medicine-in-post-reform-indonesia
#16
Yoni Fuadah Syukriani, Nita Novita, Deni K Sunjaya
Forensic medicine practice in Indonesia was introduced through the Dutch colonial criminal justice system in the early twentieth century. After more than 70 years of national independence, the development of forensic medicine still faces fundamental challenges, including confusion in the distribution of responsibility with law enforcement agencies, difficulties in managing conflicts of interest, and impediments in scientific practice and professional development. Despite of the golden opportunity from the Indonesian Reform movement in the late 1990s, the impact on forensic medicine development has been less than expected...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748103/gabapentin-as-an-adjunct-to-standard-postoperative-pain-management-protocol-in-lower-extremity-surgery
#17
REVIEW
P Andrew Crisologo, Erik K Monson, Said A Atway
Postoperative pain is a problem that plagues physicians and has since the dawn of the surgical arts. Many interventions are available and used as the standard such as preoperative local anesthetic blocks, opiates, both oral and intravenous, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Although the temptation often exists to increase the postoperative opiate dose, opiate abuse is an increasing problem. This abuse has fueled the search for nonopiate pain adjuncts. Gabapentinoids have been shown to both decrease postoperative pain and, secondarily, decrease opiate dependence...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747724/maternal-mortality-in-the-twenty-first-century
#18
REVIEW
John A Ozimek, Sarah J Kilpatrick
Maternal mortality plagues much of the world. There were 303,000 maternal deaths in 2015 representing an overall global maternal mortality ratio of 216 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. In the United States, the maternal mortality ratio had been decreasing until 1987, remained stable until 1999, and then began to increase. Racial disparities exist in the rates of maternal mortality in the United States with maternal death affecting a higher proportion of black women compared with white women. To reduce maternal mortality, national organizations in the United States have called for standardized review of cases of maternal morbidity and mortality...
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747550/influence-of-organisational-culture-on-the-implementation-of-health-sector-reforms-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-qualitative-interpretive-review
#19
Rahab Mbau, Lucy Gilson
BACKGROUND: Health systems, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, are commonly plagued by poor access, poor performance, inefficient use and inequitable distribution of resources. To improve health system efficiency, equity and effectiveness, the World Development Report of 1993 proposed a first wave of health sector reforms, which has been followed by further waves. Various authors, however, suggest that the early reforms did not lead to the anticipated improvements. They offer, as one plausible explanation for this gap, the limited consideration given to the influence over implementation of the software aspects of the health system, such as organisational culture - which has not previously been fully investigated...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746923/use-of-amplicon-sequencing-to-improve-sensitivity-in-pcr-based-detection-of-microbial-pathogen-in-environmental-samples
#20
Prakit Saingam, Bo Li, Tao Yan
DNA-based molecular detection of microbial pathogens in complex environments is still plagued by sensitivity, specificity and robustness issues. We propose to address these issues by viewing them as inadvertent consequences of requiring specific and adequate amplification (SAA) of target DNA molecules by current PCR methods. Using the invA gene of Salmonella as the model system, we investigated if next generation sequencing (NGS) can be used to directly detect target sequences in false-negative PCR reaction (PCR-NGS) in order to remove the SAA requirement from PCR...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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