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James West, W Warren Gill
Genome editing in large animals has tremendous practical applications, from more accurate models for medical research through improved animal welfare and production efficiency. Although genetic modification in large animals has a 30 year history, until recently technical issues limited its utility. The original methods - pronuclear injection and integrating viruses - were plagued with problems associated with low efficiency, silencing, poor regulation of gene expression, and variability associated with random integration...
June 2016: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science
Zhenchuan Lin, Chen Zhao, Qimei Luo, Xi Xia, Xueqing Yu, Fengxian Huang
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients was reported in many studies, while the results varied. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of RLS in this population, considering different data collecting measures and diagnostic criteria. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched for relevant studies. We limited the analyses to studies using clinical interview or questionnaire for diagnosis...
October 20, 2016: Renal Failure
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Avirupa Ghose, Meenakshi Chidambaram, Sudha K Ganesh, Jyotirmay Biswas
PURPOSE: To report the clinical profile of a series of necrotizing scleritis in an Indian population. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review of 27 consecutive patients with necrotizing scleritis. Patient demographics, ocular and systemic findings, treatment modalities, and visual outcome were recorded. RESULTS: There were 19 males and 8 females (31 eyes) with mean age at presentation of 49.5 years (range: 30-84 years). Underlying immunologically induced disorders was present in 37%...
October 20, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Steven T Lanier, Jing Liu, Claudia Chavez-Munoz, Thomas A Mustoe, Robert D Galiano
There is a growing interest in the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents that improve the cosmetic appearance of scars. Existing nonhuman animal models to study scarring, while valuable, have well-acknowledged limitations, as it is accepted that the biology of human scarring differs significantly from scarring in other species. Moreover, human clinical trials of scarring require large numbers of subjects to achieve statistical power and are plagued by inherent intersubject variability because of the complex nature of wound healing in human beings...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Aniruddha Vyas, Neeta Bachani, Hrishikesh Thakur, Yash Lokhandwala
"Digitalis toxicity, often candidly indexed as poisoning, has plagued the medical profession for over 200 years. The situation qualifies as a professional disgrace on the basis of three items: the situation persists, physicians are often slow to recognize it and, over the decades, writers have been harsh in their denunciation of fellow physicians when toxicity has occurred…." These are the opening remarks of an essay published in 1983 on the 2nd centenary of William Withering's 'magic potion from foxglove's extract for dropsy...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Paul E Farmer, Joseph J Rhatigan
Shortages of trained health care workers plague low- and middle-income countries around the world. When resources are scarce, the ability to support medical education is severely constrained. While there are many important "building blocks" of health systems that need to be bolstered in low- and middle-income countries, the authors propose that U.S. academic medicine can make unique contributions in the realm of human resource development-specifically, increasing the supply of physicians who directly provide health care to the populations they serve and who often manage and lead these health systems...
October 4, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Jack A Gilbert
It is now well accepted that our modern lifestyle has certain implications for our health (Schaub et al., ), mainly as a result of our willingness to remove ourselves from the biological diversity of our natural environments (Roduit et al., ), while still being drawn inextricably to interact with it (Kellert and Wilson, ). Much of our interaction with the biological world is shaped by our interaction with the microbiological world. The bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea and protists that comprise the microbiome of this planet, are also key to the development and normal functioning of our bodies...
October 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Aditi Makhija, Sachin Kumar
Duck plaque virus (DPV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae. The live attenuated vaccine is the only way to protect the ducks from DPV infection. The ineffectiveness of vaccine is one of the major causes of DPV outbreaks in the field condition. DPV is not well characterized for its pathogenicity and molecular biology in poultry. In the present study, we discuss briefly about the biology of DPV and its proteins under different conditions of temperature and pH in order to evaluate its infectivity under adverse physical conditions...
October 13, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Paul M Arnaboldi, Mariya Sambir, Christina D'Arco, Lauren A Peters, Jos F M L Seegers, Lloyd Mayer, Alison A McCormick, Raymond J Dattwyler
Yersinia pestis, one of history's deadliest pathogens, has killed millions over the course of human history. It has attributes that make it an ideal choice to produce mass casualties and is a prime candidate for use as a biological weapon. When aerosolized, Y. pestis causes pneumonic plague, a pneumonia that is 100% lethal if not promptly treated with effective antibiotics. Currently, there is no FDA approved plague vaccine. The current lead vaccine candidate, a parenterally administered protein subunit vaccine comprised of the Y...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
David S Senchina
Infectious diseases are potential catalysts for exploring 'engaged citizen' or socioscientific themes given their interwoven economic, political, scientific, and social dimensions. This article describes how an undergraduate course on the history of infectious diseases was modified to explore the impact of two 'engaged citizen' themes (poverty and technology), and to consider the ramifications of those themes on past, present, and future infectious disease outbreaks. Four outbreaks were used as the foundation for the course: plague (1350s), puerperal fever (1840s), cholera (1850s), and syphilis (1930s)...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
James D Woodman
The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker), is an important agricultural pest that oviposits into soil across vast semi-arid and arid regions. This study aimed to determine whether gravid female locusts can discriminate among substrates of increasing salinity (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 ppt NaCl) when attempting oviposition, and quantify the effects of saline substrate on direct developing egg viability, and subsequent hatchling nymph body weight and survival. Gravid female locusts increasingly excavated and withdrew prior to completing oviposition in substrates of increasing salinity, but similar numbers of completed egg pods were observed across treatments...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jannis Erhard, Patrick Bleiziffer, Andreas Görling
A power series approximation for the correlation kernel of time-dependent density-functional theory is presented. Using this approximation in the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem leads to a new family of Kohn-Sham methods. The new methods yield reaction energies and barriers of unprecedented accuracy and enable a treatment of static (strong) correlation with an accuracy of high-level multireference configuration interaction methods but are single-reference methods allowing for a black-box-like handling of static correlation...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Kathrin I Mohr
For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Joseph Caspermeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Wioletta Rozpędek, Dariusz Pytel, J Alan Diehl, Ireneusz Majsterek
Nowadays more than 24 million people suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is the most common progressive cause of dementia. Molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease is closely link with accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deposition of senile plaques is one of the main feature of Alzheimer's disease as well as is strictly correlated with impairment of cognitive abilities. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the ER triggers activation of the ER stress, and subsequently unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling branches, which consists of a cascade of events on the molecular level of nerve cell...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Antonios Zambounis, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Apostolos Kalivas, Athanasios Tsaftaris, Panagiotis Madesis
Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important fiber crop species, which is intensively plagued by a plethora of phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) causing severe wilt disease. Resistance gene analogs (RGAs) are the largest class of potential resistance (R) genes depicting highly conserved domains and structures in plants. Additionally, RGAs are pivotal components of breeding projects towards host disease resistance, serving as useful functional markers linked to R genes...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Dominique Castex, Sacha Kacki
The analysis of biological parameters such as age and sex is particularly relevant to the interpretation of ancient skeletal assemblages related to abrupt mortality crises, and more particularly epidemics. In such a context, the mechanisms of selection within a population or part of a population differ according to the pathogen involved. They may also vary depending on the period and location in which the population lived. Here, we illustrate the specificity of plague mortality through the study of several European burial sites contemporary with the first and second plague pandemics...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Olivier Dutour
Paleopathology studies the traces of disease on human and animal remains from ancient times. Infectious diseases have been, for over a century, one of its main fields of interest. The applications of paleogenetics methods to microbial aDNA, that started in the 90s combined to the recent development of new sequencing techniques allowing 'paleogenomics' approaches, have completely renewed the issue of the infections in the past. These advances open up new challenges in the understanding of the evolution of human-pathogen relationships, integrated in "One Health" concept...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Didier Raoult
We have been involved in the field of paleomicrobiology since 1998, when we used dental pulp to identify Yersinia pestis as the causative agent of the great plague of Marseille (1720). We recently designed a specific technique, "suicide PCR," that can prevent contamination. A controversy arose between two teams, with one claiming that DNA must be altered to amplify it and the other group claiming that demographic data did not support the role of Y. pestis in the Black Death (i.e., the great plague of the Middle Ages)...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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