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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330205/dna-record-of-some-traditional-small-millet-landraces-in-india-and-nepal
#1
Subramanyam Ragupathy, Shanmughanandhan Dhivya, Kirit Patel, Abiran Sritharan, Kathirvelu Sambandan, Hom Gartaula, Ramalingam Sathishkumar, Kamal Khadka, Balasubramanian C Nirmala, A Nirmala Kumari, Steven G Newmaster
Despite the extensive use of small millet landraces as an important source of nutrition for people living in semi-arid regions, they are presently marginalized and their diversity and distribution are threatened at a global scale. Local farmers have developed ancient breeding programs entrenched in traditional knowledge (TK) that has sustained rural cultures for thousands of years. The convention on biological diversity seeks fair and equitable sharing of genetic resources arising from local knowledge and requires signatory nations to provide appropriate policy and legal framework to farmers' rights over plant genetic resources and associated TK...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329792/types-of-non-kin-networks-and-their-association-with-survival-in-late-adulthood-a-latent-class-approach
#2
Lea Ellwardt, Marja Aartsen, Theo van Tilburg
Objectives: Integration into social networks is an important determinant of health and survival in late adulthood. We first identify different types of non-kin networks among older adults and second, investigate the association of these types with survival rates. Method: Official register information on mortality is combined with data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). The sample includes 2,440 Dutch respondents aged 54-85 at baseline in 1992 and six follow-ups covering a time span of 20 years...
October 17, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329445/nanoscale-imaging-of-current-density-with-a-single-spin-magnetometer
#3
Kevin Chang, Alexander Eichler, Jan Rhensius, Luca Lorenzelli, Christian L Degen
Charge transport in nanostructures and thin films is fundamental to many phenomena and processes in science and technology, ranging from quantum effects and electronic correlations in mesoscopic physics, to integrated charge- or spin-based electronic circuits, to photoactive layers in energy research. Direct visualization of the charge flow in such structures is challenging due to their nanometer size and the itinerant nature of currents. In this work, we demonstrate non-invasive magnetic imaging of current density in two-dimensional conductor networks including metallic nanowires and carbon nanotubes...
March 22, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329425/perpendicular-axes-of-differentiation-generated-by-mitochondrial-introgression
#4
Hernán E Morales, Paul Sunnucks, Leo Joseph, Alexandra Pavlova
Differential introgression of mitochondrial versus nuclear DNA generates discordant patterns of geographic variation and can promote population divergence and speciation. We examined a potential case of mitochondrial introgression leading to two perpendicular axes of differentiation. The Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis, a widespread Australian bird, shows a deep mitochondrial split that is perpendicular to north-south nuclear DNA and plumage colour differentiation. We propose a scenario to explain this pattern: (1) the two nuclear and mitochondrial genomes differentiated in concert during north-south population divergence; (2) later, their histories disconnected after two mitochondrial introgression events resulting in a deep mitochondrial split perpendicular to the nuclear DNA structure...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329016/accuracy-and-reliability-of-cetacean-cranial-measurements-using-computed-tomography-three-dimensional-volume-rendered-images
#5
Adams Hei Long Yuen, Henry Chun Lok Tsui, Brian Chin Wing Kot
Computed tomography (CT) has become more readily available for post-mortem examination, offering an alternative to cetacean cranial measurements obtained manually. Measurement error may result in possible variation in cranial morphometric analysis. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of cetacean cranial measurements obtained by CT three-dimensional volume rendered images (3DVRI). CT scans of 9 stranded cetaceans were performed. The acquired images were reconstructed using bone reconstruction algorithms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328943/structurally-detailed-coarse-grained-model-for-sec-facilitated-co-translational-protein-translocation-and-membrane-integration
#6
Michiel J M Niesen, Connie Y Wang, Reid C Van Lehn, Thomas F Miller
We present a coarse-grained simulation model that is capable of simulating the minute-timescale dynamics of protein translocation and membrane integration via the Sec translocon, while retaining sufficient chemical and structural detail to capture many of the sequence-specific interactions that drive these processes. The model includes accurate geometric representations of the ribosome and Sec translocon, obtained directly from experimental structures, and interactions parameterized from nearly 200 μs of residue-based coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations...
March 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328799/oral-microbiome-in-hiv-associated-periodontitis
#7
Marc Noguera-Julian, Yolanda Guillén, Jessica Peterson, David Reznik, Erica V Harris, Sandeep J Joseph, Javier Rivera, Sunil Kannanganat, Rama Amara, Minh Ly Nguyen, Simon Mutembo, Roger Paredes, Timothy D Read, Vincent C Marconi
HIV-associated periodontal diseases (PD) could serve as a source of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to characterize the oral microbial signatures of HIV+ and HIV- individuals at different levels of PD severity.This cross-sectional study included both HIV+ and HIV- patients with varying degrees of PD. Two tooth, 2 cheek, and 1 saliva samples were obtained for microbiome analysis. Mothur/SILVADB were used to classify sequences. R/Bioconductor (Vegan, PhyloSeq, and DESeq2) was employed to assess overall microbiome structure differences and differential abundance of bacterial genera between groups...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328234/quantification-of-basal-insulin-peglispro-and-human-insulin-in-adipose-tissue-interstitial-fluid-by-open-flow-microperfusion
#8
Katrin Tiffner, Beate Boulgaropoulos, Christian Höfferer, Thomas Birngruber, Niels Porksen, Helle Linnebjerg, Parag Garhyan, Eric Chen Quin Lam, Mary Pat Knadler, Thomas R Pieber, Frank Sinner
BACKGROUND: Restoration of the physiologic hepatic-to-peripheral insulin gradient may be achieved by either portal vein administration or altering insulin structure to increase hepatic specificity or restrict peripheral access. Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) is a novel, PEGylated basal insulin with a flat pharmacokinetic and glucodynamic profile and altered hepatic-to-peripheral action gradient. We hypothesized reduced BIL exposure in peripheral tissues explains the latter, and in this study assessed the adipose tissue interstitial fluid (ISF) concentrations of BIL compared with human insulin (HI)...
March 22, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327658/miniaturization-for-ultrathin-metamaterial-perfect-absorber-in-the-vhf-band
#9
Bui Xuan Khuyen, Bui Son Tung, Young Joon Yoo, Young Ju Kim, Ki Won Kim, Liang-Yao Chen, Vu Dinh Lam, YoungPak Lee
An efficient resolution for ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) is proposed and demonstrated in the VHF radio band (30-300 MHz). By adjusting the lumped capacitors and the through vertical interconnects, the absorber is miniaturized to be only λ/816 and λ/84 for its thickness and periodicity with respect to the operating wavelength (at 102 MHz), respectively. The detailed simulation and calculation show that the MPA can maintain an absorption rate over 90% in a certain range of incident angle and with a wide variation of capacitance...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327631/the-influence-of-environmental-factors-on-communities-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-associated-with-chenopodium-ambrosioides-revealed-by-miseq-sequencing-investigation
#10
Xihui Xu, Chen Chen, Zhou Zhang, Zehua Sun, Yahua Chen, Jiandong Jiang, Zhenguo Shen
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) affect multiple ecosystem functions and processes, the assemblages of which vary across ecosystems. However, the influences of environmental factors on AMF communities which may shape these communities are still largely unknown. In this study, AMF communities from roots and rhizosphere soils of Chenopodium ambrosioides in different natural soils were investigated. The root habitat showed significantly smaller numbers of OTUs and lower community richness compared to the rhizosphere soil habitat...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327629/a-novel-model-on-time-resolved-photoluminescence-measurements-of-polar-ingan-gan-multi-quantum-well-structures
#11
Yuchen Xing, Lai Wang, Di Yang, Zilan Wang, Zhibiao Hao, Changzheng Sun, Bing Xiong, Yi Luo, Yanjun Han, Jian Wang, Hongtao Li
Based on carrier rate equation, a new model is proposed to explain the non-exponential nature of time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) decay curves in the polar InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures. From the study of TRPL curves at different temperatures, it is found that both radiative and non-radiative recombination coefficients vary from low temperature to room temperature. The variation of the coefficients is compatible with the carrier density of states distribution as well as the carrier localization process...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327611/biomimetic-surface-structuring-using-cylindrical-vector-femtosecond-laser-beams
#12
Evangelos Skoulas, Alexandra Manousaki, Costas Fotakis, Emmanuel Stratakis
We report on a new, single-step and scalable method to fabricate highly ordered, multi-directional and complex surface structures that mimic the unique morphological features of certain species found in nature. Biomimetic surface structuring was realized by exploiting the unique and versatile angular profile and the electric field symmetry of cylindrical vector (CV) femtosecond (fs) laser beams. It is shown that, highly controllable, periodic structures exhibiting sizes at nano-, micro- and dual- micro/nano scales can be directly written on Ni upon line and large area scanning with radial and azimuthal polarization beams...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327552/probing-medin-monomer-structure-and-its-amyloid-nucleation-using-13-c-direct-detection-nmr-in-combination-with-structural-bioinformatics
#13
Hannah A Davies, Daniel J Rigden, Marie M Phelan, Jillian Madine
Aortic medial amyloid is the most prevalent amyloid found to date, but remarkably little is known about it. It is characterised by aberrant deposition of a 5.4 kDa protein called medin within the medial layer of large arteries. Here we employ a combined approach of ab initio protein modelling and (13)C-direct detection NMR to generate a model for soluble monomeric medin comprising a stable core of three β-strands and shorter more labile strands at the termini. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that detachment of the short, C-terminal β-strand from the soluble fold exposes key amyloidogenic regions as a potential site of nucleation enabling dimerisation and subsequent fibril formation...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327513/indoor-positioning-system-using-magnetic-field-map-navigation-and-an-encoder-system
#14
Han-Sol Kim, Woojin Seo, Kwang-Ryul Baek
In the indoor environment, variation of the magnetic field is caused by building structures, and magnetic field map navigation is based on this feature. In order to estimate position using this navigation, a three-axis magnetic field must be measured at every point to build a magnetic field map. After the magnetic field map is obtained, the position of the mobile robot can be estimated with a likelihood function whereby the measured magnetic field data and the magnetic field map are used. However, if only magnetic field map navigation is used, the estimated position can have large errors...
March 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327504/theoretical-study-of-monolayer-and-double-layer-waveguide-love-wave-sensors-for-achieving-high-sensitivity
#15
Shuangming Li, Ying Wan, Chunhai Fan, Yan Su
Love wave sensors have been widely used for sensing applications. In this work, we introduce the theoretical analysis of the monolayer and double-layer waveguide Love wave sensors. The velocity, particle displacement and energy distribution of Love waves were analyzed. Using the variations of the energy repartition, the sensitivity coefficients of Love wave sensors were calculated. To achieve a higher sensitivity coefficient, a thin gold layer was added as the second waveguide on top of the silicon dioxide (SiO₂) waveguide-based, 36 degree-rotated, Y-cut, X-propagating lithium tantalate (36° YX LiTaO₃) Love wave sensor...
March 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327466/regional-deep-hyperthermia-impact-of-observer-variability-in-ct-based-manual-tissue-segmentation-on-a-simulated-temperature-distribution
#16
Bassim Aklan, Josefin Hartmann, Diana Zink, Hadi Siavooshhaghighi, Ricarda Merten, Florian Putz, Oliver Ott, Rainer Fietkau, Christoph Bert
The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of inter- and intra-observer segmentation variation of tumor and organs at risk on the simulated temperature coverage of the target. CT scans of six patients with tumors in the pelvic region acquired for radiotherapy treatment planning were used for the hyperthermia treatment planning. To study the effect of inter-observer variation, three observers manually segmented in the CT images of each patient the following structures: fat, muscle, bone and bladder...
March 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326860/latvian-family-physicians-experience-diagnosing-depression-in-somatically-presenting-depression-patients-a-qualitative-study
#17
Maija S Leff, Jeļena Vrubļevska, Agita Lūse, Elmārs Rancāns
BACKGROUND: Depression continues to be under-diagnosed in primary care settings. One factor that influences physicians' likelihood of diagnosing depression is patients' presentation style. Patients who initially present with somatic symptoms are diagnosed at a lower rate and with greater delay than patients who present with psychosocial complaints. OBJECTIVES: To identify the barriers preventing depression diagnosis in somatically presenting patients in an Eastern European primary care setting...
December 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326044/geographical-variations-in-the-interaction-of-relative-age-effects-in-youth-and-adult-elite-soccer
#18
Christina Steingröver, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker, Werner F Helsen, Jörg Schorer
Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes' birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players' age position within the age band with regard to players' birth year and birth month...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326028/inter-trial-correlations-in-predictive-saccade-endpoints-fractal-scaling-reflects-differential-control-along-task-relevant-and-orthogonal-directions
#19
Pamela Federighi, Aaron L Wong, Mark Shelhamer
Saccades exhibit variation in performance from one trial to the next, even when paced at a constant rate by targets at two fixed locations. We previously showed that amplitude fluctuations in consecutive predictive saccades have fractal structure: the spectrum of the sequence of consecutive amplitudes has a power-law (f(-α)) form, indicative of inter-trial correlations that reflect the storage of prior performance information to guide the planning of subsequent movements. More gradual decay of these inter-trial correlations coincides with a larger magnitude of spectral slope α, and indicates stronger information storage over longer times...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325977/salix-transect-of-europe-structured-genetic-variation-and-isolation-by-distance-in-the-nettle-psyllid-trioza-urticae-psylloidea-hemiptera-from-greece-to-arctic-norway
#20
Rungtip Wonglersak, Quentin Cronk, Diana Percy
BACKGROUND: The common nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is co-associated with willows (Salix spp.) in riparian habitats across Europe. We sampled the widespread nettle psyllid, Trioza urticae (Linné, 1758), from Urtica in willow habitats on a megatransect of Europe from the Aegean to the Arctic Ocean. The aim of this study was to use an unusually widespread insect to assess the influence of geographic distances and natural geographic barriers on patterns of genetic variation and haplotype distribution...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
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