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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437856/microstructure-variations-in-the-soft-hard-tissue-junction-of-the-human-anterior-cruciate-ligament
#1
Lei Zhao, Peter V Lee, David C Ackland, Neil D Broom, Ashvin Thambyah
The role of the sub-bundles in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been defined, such that the anterior-medial bundle directly resists anterior tibial translation while the posterior lateral bundle is involved in rotational stability. With regards to this biomechanical function, much of the previous work on bundle-specific morphology has been carried out on the macro-scale, with much less attention given to the micro-to-ultrastructural scalar levels. This is especially true of the enthesis and its microstructure, a biomechanically significant region that has been largely neglected in the published literature dealing with ACL sub-bundle anatomy...
April 24, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437646/combined-effects-of-climate-restoration-measures-and-slope-position-in-change-in-soil-chemical-properties-and-nutrient-loss-across-lands-affected-by-the-wenchuan-earthquake-in-china
#2
Yongming Lin, Haojun Deng, Kun Du, Loretta Rafay, Guang-Shuai Zhang, Jian Li, Can Chen, Chengzhen Wu, Han Lin, Wei Yu, Hailan Fan, Yonggang Ge
The MS 8.0Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008 caused huge damage to land cover in the northwest of China's Sichuan province. In order to determine the nutrient loss and short term characteristics of change in soil chemical properties, we established an experiment with three treatments ('undestroyed', 'destroyed and treated', and 'destroyed and untreated'), two climate types (semi-arid hot climate and subtropical monsoon climate), and three slope positions (upslope, mid-slope, and bottom-slope) in 2011. Ten soil properties-including pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium-were measured in surface soil samples in December 2014...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437453/three-dominant-awnless-genes-in-common-wheat-fine-mapping-interaction-and-contribution-to-diversity-in-awn-shape-and-length
#3
Motohiro Yoshioka, Julio C M Iehisa, Ryoko Ohno, Tatsuro Kimura, Hiroyuki Enoki, Satoru Nishimura, Shuhei Nasuda, Shigeo Takumi
The awn is a long needle-like structure formed at the tip of the lemma in the florets of some grass species. It plays a role in seed dispersal and protection against animals, and can contribute to the photosynthetic activity of spikes. Three main dominant inhibitors of awn development (Hd, B1 and B2) are known in hexaploid wheat, but the causal genes have not been cloned yet and a genetic association with awn length diversity has been found only for the B1 allele. To analyze the prevalence of these three awning inhibitors, we attempted to predict the genotypes of 189 hexaploid wheat varieties collected worldwide using markers tightly linked to these loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437446/solid-state-characterization-and-theoretical-study-of-non-linear-optical-properties-of-a-fluoro-n-acylhydrazide-derivative
#4
Rosemberg F N Rodrigues, Leonardo R Almeida, Florisberto G Dos Santos, Paulo S Carvalho, Wanderson C de Souza, Kleber S Moreira, Gilberto L B de Aquino, Clodoaldo Valverde, Hamilton B Napolitano, Basílio Baseia
In this work we determine the linear and non-linear optical properties of a Fluoro-N-Acylhydrazide derivative (FBHZ), using a combined supermolecule approach and an iterative scheme of electrostatic polarization, where the atoms of neighbouring molecules are represented by point charges. Our results for non-linear optics (NLO) are comparable to those found experimentally, suggesting that FBHZ constitutes an attractive object for future studies and for use as an interesting material for third-order NLO applications...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437224/structure-process-and-culture-of-intensive-care-units-treating-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-survey-of-centers-participating-in-the-american-college-of-surgeons-trauma-quality-improvement-program
#5
Aziz S Alali, Victroia McCredie, Todd G Mainprize, David Gomez, Avery B Nathens
Outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) differs substantially between hospitals. Explaining this variation begins with understanding the differences in structures and processes of care, particularly at intensive care units (ICUs) where acute TBI care takes place. We invited trauma medical directors (TMDs) from 187 centers participating in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program to complete a survey. The survey domains included ICU model, type, availability of specialized units, staff, training programs, standard protocols and order sets, approach to withdrawal of life support, and perceived level of neurosurgeons' engagement in the ICU management of TBI...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437109/structure-of-the-fundamental-lipopeptide-surfactin-at-the-air-water-interface-investigated-by-sum-frequency-generation-spectroscopy
#6
Sami Alhassan Goussous, Michael Thomas Lee Casford, Annabel C Murphy, George Salmond, Finian J Leeper, Paul B Davies
The lipopeptide surfactin produced by certain strains of Bacillus subtilis is a powerful bio-surfactant possessing potentially useful antimicrobial properties. In order to better understand its surface behaviour, we have used surface sensitive Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy in the C-H and C=O stretching regions to determine its structure at the air/water interface. Using surfactin with the leucine groups of the peptide ring perdeuterated we have shown that the majority of the SFG signals arise from the 4 leucine residues...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436987/genomic-consequences-of-aberrant-dna-repair-mechanisms-stratify-ovarian-cancer-histotypes
#7
Yi Kan Wang, Ali Bashashati, Michael S Anglesio, Dawn R Cochrane, Diljot S Grewal, Gavin Ha, Andrew McPherson, Hugo M Horlings, Janine Senz, Leah M Prentice, Anthony N Karnezis, Daniel Lai, Mohamed R Aniba, Allen W Zhang, Karey Shumansky, Celia Siu, Adrian Wan, Melissa K McConechy, Hector Li-Chang, Alicia Tone, Diane Provencher, Manon de Ladurantaye, Hubert Fleury, Aikou Okamoto, Satoshi Yanagida, Nozomu Yanaihara, Misato Saito, Andrew J Mungall, Richard Moore, Marco A Marra, C Blake Gilks, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Jessica N McAlpine, Samuel Aparicio, David G Huntsman, Sohrab P Shah
We studied the whole-genome point mutation and structural variation patterns of 133 tumors (59 high-grade serous (HGSC), 35 clear cell (CCOC), 29 endometrioid (ENOC), and 10 adult granulosa cell (GCT)) as a substrate for class discovery in ovarian cancer. Ab initio clustering of integrated point mutation and structural variation signatures identified seven subgroups both between and within histotypes. Prevalence of foldback inversions identified a prognostically significant HGSC group associated with inferior survival...
April 24, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436871/a-systematic-approach-for-cross-source-point-cloud-registration-by-preserving-macro-and-micro-structures
#8
Xiaoshui Huang, Jian Zhang, Lixin Fan, Qiang Wu, Chun Yuan
We propose a systematic approach for registering cross-source point clouds that come from different kinds of sensors. This task is especially challenging due to the presence of significant missing data, large variations in point density, scale difference, large proportion of noise and outliers. The robustness of the method is attributed to the extraction of macro and micro structures. Macro structure is the overall structure that maintains similar geometric layout in cross-source point clouds. Micro structure is the element (e...
April 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436838/electromechanical-coupling-factor-of-breast-tissue-as-a-biomarker-for-breast-cancer
#9
Kihan Park, Wenjin Chen, Marina Chekmareva, David Foran, Jaydev Desai
GOAL: This research aims to validate a new biomarker of breast cancer by introducing electromechanical coupling factor of breast tissue samples as a possible additional indicator of breast cancer. Since collagen fibril exhibits a structural organization that gives rise to a piezoelectric effect, the difference in collagen density between normal and cancerous tissue can be captured by identifying the corresponding electromechanical coupling factor. METHODS: The design of a portable diagnostic tool and a microelectromechanical systems(MEMS)- based biochip, which is integrated with a piezoresistive sensing layer for measuring the reaction force as well as a microheater for temperature control, is introduced...
April 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436477/identification-of-risk-factors-in-epidemiologic-study-based-on-roc-curve-and-network
#10
Jiao Jin, Shixin Zhou, Qiujin Xu, Jinbing An
This article proposes a new non-parametric approach for identification of risk factors and their correlations in epidemiologic study, in which investigation data may have high variations because of individual differences or correlated risk factors. First, based on classification information of high or low disease incidence, we estimate Receptor Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of each risk factor. Then, through the difference between ROC curve of each factor and diagonal, we evaluate and screen for the important risk factors...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436475/a-salient-effect-of-density-on-the-dynamics-of-nonaqueous-electrolytes
#11
Sungho Han
The mobility and solvation of lithium ions in electrolytes are crucial for the performance and safety of lithium ion batteries. It has been known that a single type of solvent cannot satisfy the requirements of both mobility and solvation simultaneously for electrolytes. Therefore, complex solvent mixtures have been used to optimize both properties. Here we present the effects of density on the dynamics and solvation of organic liquid electrolytes via extensive molecular dynamics simulations. Our study finds that a small variation in density can induce a significant effect on the mobility of electrolytes but does not influence the solvation structure of a lithium ion...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435774/revelation-of-interfacial-energetics-in-organic-multiheterojunctions
#12
Christian Kästner, Koen Vandewal, Daniel Ayuk Mbi Egbe, Harald Hoppe
Efficient charge generation via exciton dissociation in organic bulk heterojunctions necessitates donor-acceptor interfaces, e.g., between a conjugated polymer and a fullerene derivative. Furthermore, aggregation and corresponding structural order of polymer and fullerene domains result in energetic relaxations of molecular energy levels toward smaller energy gaps as compared to the situation for amorphous phases existing in homogeneously intermixed polymer:fullerene blends. Here it is shown that these molecular energy level shifts are reflected in interfacial charge transfer (CT) transitions and depending on the existence of disordered or ordered interfacial domains...
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435658/sex-differences-in-insular-cortex-gyri-responses-to-a-brief-static-handgrip-challenge
#13
Paul M Macey, Nicholas S Rieken, Jennifer A Ogren, Katherine E Macey, Rajesh Kumar, Ronald M Harper
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease varies between sexes, suggesting male-female autonomic control differences. Insular gyri help coordinate autonomic regulation and show a sex-dependent response to a sympathetic challenge. METHODS: We examined sex-related insular gyral responses to a short static handgrip exercise challenge eliciting parasympathetic withdrawal with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four 16-s challenges (80% maximum strength) in 23 healthy females (age; mean ± std 50 ± 8 years) and 40 males (46 ± 9 years)...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435185/influence-of-rb-cs-cation-exchange-on-inorganic-sn-halide-perovskites-from-chemical-structure-to-physical-properties
#14
Young-Kwang Jung, Ji-Hwan Lee, Aron Walsh, Aloysius Soon
CsSnI3 is a potential lead-free inorganic perovskite for solar energy applications due to its nontoxicity and attractive optoelectronic properties. Despite these advantages, photovoltaic cells using CsSnI3 have not been successful to date, in part due to low stability. We demonstrate how gradual substitution of Rb for Cs influences the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties on the basis of first-principles density functional theory calculations. By examining the effect of the Rb:Cs ratio, we reveal a correlation between octahedral distortion and band gap, including spin-orbit coupling...
April 11, 2017: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434717/relative-genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-variations-in-human-retinal-electrical-responses-quantified-in-a-twin-study
#15
Taha Bhatti, Ambreen Tariq, Ting Shen, Katie M Williams, Christopher J Hammond, Omar A Mahroo
PURPOSE: To estimate heritability of parameters of human retinal electrophysiology and to explore which parameters change with age. DESIGN: Prospective, classic twin study. PARTICIPANTS: Adult monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs recruited from the TwinsUK cohort. METHODS: Electroretinogram responses were recorded using conductive fiber electrodes in response to stimuli incorporating standards set by the International Society for the Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision...
April 20, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434188/drivers-of-community-assembly-in-tropical-forest-restoration-sites-role-of-local-environment-landscape-and-space
#16
Lívia D Audino, Stephen J Murphy, Ludimila Zambaldi, Julio Louzada, Liza S Comita
There is increasing recognition that community assembly theory can offer valuable insights for ecological restoration. We studied community assembly processes following tropical forest restoration efforts, using dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) as a focal taxon to investigate taxonomic and functional patterns of biodiversity recovery. We evaluated the relative importance of the local environment (i.e., canopy cover, understory cover, tree basal area, and soil texture), landscape context (i.e., habitat patch proximity and availability and percentage of surrounding area classified as natural forest or Eucalyptus spp...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433912/achieving-partial-denitrification-through-control-of-biofilm-structure-during-biofilm-growth-in-denitrifying-biofilter
#17
Bin Cui, Xiuhong Liu, Qing Yang, Jianmin Li, Xueyang Zhou, Yongzhen Peng
Partial denitrification was one of most effective ways to provide nitrite for annamox; whereas very limited research has been done to achieve nitrite accumulation in biofilm system. In this study, partial denitrification was studied in a lab-scale denitrifying biofilter (DNBF). The results showed biofilm structure variations caused the differences between nitrate specific reduction rate (NaSRR) and nitrite specific reduction rate (NiSRR), which led to nitrite accumulation in different degree at different biofilm formation phases...
April 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433828/poly-cyclodextrin-cryogels-with-aligned-porous-structure-for-removal-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-from-water
#18
Fuat Topuz, Tamer Uyar
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are sugar-based cyclic oligosaccharides, which form inclusion complexes with small guest molecules through their hydrophobic cavity. Here we successfully synthesized highly porous poly-cyclodextrin (poly-CD) cryogels, which were produced under cryogenic conditions by the cross-linking of amine-functional CDs with PEG-based diepoxide cross-linker. The poly-CD cryogels showed aligned porous network structures owing to the directional freezing of the matrix, of which the pore size and architecture exposed variations depending on the composition of the reactants...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433534/effect-of-surface-energy-of-solid-surfaces-on-the-micro-and-macroscopic-properties-of-adsorbed-bsa-and-lysozyme
#19
Indu Sharma, Sudip K Pattanayek
The surface energy, a macroscopic property, depends on the chemical functionality and micro- and macroscopic roughness of the surface. The adsorption of two widely used proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme on surfaces of four different chemical functionalities were done to find out the interrelation between macroscopic and microscopic properties. We have observed the secondary structure of protein after its adsorption. In addition, we observed the variation of surface energy of proteins due to variation in adsorption time, change in protein concentration and effect of a mixture of proteins...
April 1, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433346/biomechanical-flow-amplification-arising-from-the-variable-deformation-of-the-subglottic-mucosa
#20
Eric Goodyer, Frank Müller, Markus Hess, Karthikeyan Kandan, Farukh Farukh
OBJECTIVE: This study mapped the variation in tissue elasticity of the subglottic mucosa, applied these data to provide initial models of the likely deformation of the mucosa during the myoelastic cycle, and hypothesized as to the impact on the process of phonation. STUDY DESIGN: Six donor human larynges were dissected along the sagittal plane to expose the vocal folds and subglottic mucosa. A linear skin rheometer was used to apply a controlled shear force, and the resultant displacement was measured...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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