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Structure variation

James R Smith, Jaboury Ghazoul, David F R P Burslem, Akira Itoh, Eyen Khoo, Soon Leong Lee, Colin R Maycock, Satoshi Nanami, Kevin Kit Siong Ng, Chris J Kettle
Documenting the scale and intensity of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS), and the processes that shape it, is relevant to the sustainable management of genetic resources in timber tree species, particularly where logging or fragmentation might disrupt gene flow. In this study we assessed patterns of FSGS in three species of Dipterocarpaceae (Parashorea tomentella, Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia) across four different tropical rain forests in Malaysia using nuclear microsatellite markers. Topographic heterogeneity varied across the sites...
2018: PloS One
Rita Turnaturi, Carmela Parenti, Orazio Prezzavento, Agostino Marrazzo, Paschalina Pallaki, Zafiroula Georgoussi, Emanuele Amata, Lorella Pasquinucci
The opioid pharmacological profile of cis -(-)- N -normetazocine derivatives is deeply affected by the nature of their N -substituents. Here, our efforts were focused on the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel derivatives of the lead LP1, a multitarget opioid analgesic compound featuring an N -phenylpropanamido substituent. LP1 derivatives 5a - d and 6a - d were characterized by flexible groups at the N -substituent that allow them to reposition themselves relative to cis -(-)- N -normetazocine nucleus, thus producing different pharmacological profiles at the mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors (MOR, DOR and KOR) in in vitro and in vivo assays...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ayaka Sato, Yuya Ikeda, Koichi Yamaguchi, Varun Vohra
Facile detection and the identification of hazardous organic solvents are essential for ensuring global safety and avoiding harm to the environment caused by industrial wastes. Here, we present a simple method for the fabrication of silver-coated monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticle photonic structures that are embedded into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. These hybrid materials exhibit a strong green iridescence with a reflectance peak at 550 nm that originates from the close-packed arrangement of the nanoparticles...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Joyce Pham, Gordon J Miller
Using density functional theory, the crystal structure variation of AAuAl (A = Ca, Sc, and Ti) from orthorhombic Co2 Si-type to distorted hexagonal Fe2 P-type and then Ni2 In-type structures is shown to correlate with their electronic structures and valence electron counts, sizes of the active metals A, and site preferences for Au and Al atoms, which are arranged to maximize Au-Al nearest neighbor contacts. An evaluation of chemical pressure imposed by the varying A metals using total energy vs volume calculations indicates that larger unit cell volumes favor the orthorhombic structure, whereas smaller volumes favor the hexagonal structures...
March 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Michelle M Meyer
The rRNA is the largest and most abundant RNA in bacterial and archaeal cells. It is also one of the best-characterized RNAs in terms of its structural motifs and sequence variation. Production of ribosome components including >50 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) consumes significant cellular resources. Thus, RNA cis -regulatory structures that interact with r-proteins to repress further r-protein synthesis play an important role in maintaining appropriate stoichiometry between r-proteins and rRNA. Classically, such mRNA structures were thought to directly mimic the rRNA...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Sophie Meuret, Toon Coenen, Steffi Woo, Yong-Ho Ra, Zetian Mi, Albert Polman
Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging spectroscopy provides two-dimensional optical excitation images of photonic nanostructures with deep-subwavelength spatial resolution. So far, CL imaging was unable to provide a direct measurement of the excitation and emission probabilities of photonic nanostructures in a spatially resolved manner. Here, we demonstrate that by mapping the cathodoluminescence autocorrelation function g(2) together with the CL spectral distribution the excitation and emission rates can be disentangled at every excitation position...
March 16, 2018: Nano Letters
B Velmurugan, P Senthilkumaar, S Karthikeyan
The use of pesticides in agriculture can make their way into the earth and wash into the amphibian system causing ecological stress. This study aims to understand the changes occurring in gill tissues as a result of fenvalerate exposure using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The intensity ratio of the selected bands I1545 /I1657, I2924 /I2853 , and I1045 /I1545 measures changes in proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Curve-fitting analysis was performed in the selected band region to analyze the quantitative changes of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Physics
Joseph Ashley Kirkly, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser, John F Elder, David L Bechler
This study examines the microgeographic structure of the Alapahoochee watershed, part of the Suwannee River basin, south-central GA, USA, and relates it to variations in liver metal concentrations and genetic structure of the Florida cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti. One objective was to determine if liver metal concentrations in A. piscivorus differ between Grand Bay and Mud creeks, which form the watershed's upper portion. Grand Bay Creek is relatively pristine, whereas Mud Creek is polluted with various metals...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Zoë W Hawks, Natasha Marrus, Anne L Glowinski, John N Constantino
Previous research has suggested that behavioral comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception in autism. The present study aimed to trace the respective origins of autistic and general psychopathologic traits-and their association-to infancy. Measurements of autistic traits and early liability for general psychopathology were assessed in 314 twins at 18 months, ascertained from the general population using birth records. 222 twins were re-evaluated at 36 months. Standardized ratings of variation in social communication at 18 months were highly heritable and strongly predicted autistic trait scores at 36 months...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Lorenzo Baronti, Hampus Karlsson, Maja Marušič, Katja Petzold
RNA is becoming more important as an increasing number of functions, both regulatory and enzymatic, are being discovered on a daily basis. As the RNA boom has just begun, most techniques are still in development and changes occur frequently. To understand RNA functions, revealing the structure of RNA is of utmost importance, which requires sample preparation. We review the latest methods to produce and purify a variation of RNA molecules for different purposes with the main focus on structural biology and biophysics...
March 15, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Bernd Zimmer, Hiba Sino
PURPOSE: The objective of this investigation was to develop equations to describe the geometric relations among "targeted incisor inclinations" (tU1, tL1) accommodating different cephalometric norms (Ricketts, Bergen, etc.) with the "expected inclinations" (eU1, eL1), as they can be generated by bracket torque values according to Andrews, Roth, Ricketts, and MBT. METHODS: In its key parts, the present study is a theoretical work in which structural relationships are described using standard mathematical and geometric methodologies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
Neshat Golikhajeh, Bahram Naseri, Jabraeil Razmjou, Reza Hosseini, Marzieh Asadi Aghbolaghi
In order to understand the population genetic diversity and structure of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a serious pest of sugar beet in Iran and the world, we genotyped 133 individuals from seven regions in Iran using four microsatellite loci. Significant difference was seen between the observed and expected heterozygosity in all loci. A lower observed heterozygosity than expected heterozygosity indicated a low heterozygosity in these populations. The value of F showed a high genetic differentiation, so that the mean of Fst was 0...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yun-Yan Zhang, En Shi, Zhao-Ping Yang, Qi-Fang Geng, Ying-Xiong Qiu, Zhong-Sheng Wang
Parrotia subaequalis is an endangered palaeoendemic tree from disjunct montane sites in eastern China. Due to the lack of effective genomic resources, the genetic diversity and population structure of this endangered species are not clearly understood. In this study, we conducted paired-end shotgun sequencing (2 × 125 bp) of genomic DNA for two individuals of P. subaequalis on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Based on the resulting sequences, we have successfully assembled the complete chloroplast genome of P...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Colin P McNally, Alexander Eng, Cecilia Noecker, William C Gagne-Maynard, Elhanan Borenstein
The abundance of both taxonomic groups and gene categories in microbiome samples can now be easily assayed via various sequencing technologies, and visualized using a variety of software tools. However, the assemblage of taxa in the microbiome and its gene content are clearly linked, and tools for visualizing the relationship between these two facets of microbiome composition and for facilitating exploratory analysis of their co-variation are lacking. Here we introduce BURRITO , a web tool for interactive visualization of microbiome multi-omic data with paired taxonomic and functional information...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jeroen Frank, Sebastian Lücker, Rolf H A M Vossen, Mike S M Jetten, Richard J Hall, Huub J M Op den Camp, Seyed Yahya Anvar
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are a group of strictly anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. They are capable of oxidizing ammonium to nitrogen gas using nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, thereby facilitating the release of fixed nitrogen into the atmosphere. The anammox process is thought to exert a profound impact on the global nitrogen cycle and has been harnessed as an environment-friendly method for nitrogen removal from wastewater. In this study, we present the first closed genome sequence of an anammox bacterium, Kuenenia stuttgartiensis MBR1...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bo Zhang, Quanwei Yu, Guoqi Yan, Hubo Zhu, Xiang Yang Xu, Liang Zhu
To understand the seasonal variation of the activated sludge (AS) bacterial community and identify core microbes in different wastewater processing systems, seasonal AS samples were taken from every biological treatment unit within 4 full-scale wastewater treatment plants. These plants adopted A2/O, A/O and oxidation ditch processes and were active in the treatment of different types and sources of wastewater, some domestic and others industrial. The bacterial community composition was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing technology...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
H A Alhazmi
Transferrin is iron (III)-binding protein that transports Fe (III) ion to cells in different parts of the body. At saturation level 70% of transferrin remains free from iron (apo-transferrin), suggesting a broader scope of binding capabilities with non-iron (III) metal ions. Our previous work demonstrated that transferrin can effectively coordinate with noble metal ions. Hence to improve our understanding of the in-vitro metal-interaction behavior of the protein and how it correlates with its functions invivo, the interactions between apo-transferrin and medicinally important noble metals, Au (I), Au (III), Os (III), Pt (IV), Ir (III) and Ru (III) were investigated in the mobility shift mode of affinity capillary electrophoresis...
March 5, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Shinichi Miura
In this paper, the ground state of para-hydrogen clusters for size regime N ≤ 40 has been studied by our variational path integral molecular dynamics method. Long molecular dynamics calculations have been performed to accurately evaluate ground state properties. The chemical potential of the hydrogen molecule is found to have a zigzag size dependence, indicating the magic number stability for the clusters of the size N = 13, 26, 29, 34, and 39. One-body density of the hydrogen molecule is demonstrated to have a structured profile, not a melted one...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jacobus H Visser, Nigel C Bennett, Bettine Jansen van Vuuren
The subterranean niche harbours animals with extreme adaptations. These adaptations decrease the vagility of taxa and, along with other behavioural adaptations, often result in isolated populations characterized by small effective population sizes, high inbreeding, population bottlenecks, genetic drift and consequently, high spatial genetic structure. Although information is available for some species, estimates of genetic diversity and whether this variation is spatially structured, is lacking for the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis)...
2018: PloS One
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