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Yan Zhao, Xinli Zhang, Jiezhong Chen, Chao Lin, Renfu Shao, Chunxia Yan, Chen Chen
Mitochondrial functions are crucial for pancreatic β-cell survival and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Hexarelin (Hex) is a synthetic small peptide ghrelin analogue, which has been shown to protect cardiomyocytes from the ischemia-reperfusion process. In this study, we used in vitro and in vivo models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced β-cell damage to study the protective effect of Hex and the associated mechanisms. We found that STZ produced a cytotoxic effect in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MIN6 cells (a mouse β-cell line)...
2016: PloS One
P Ferro, G Krotov, I Zvereva, G Rodchenkov, J Segura
Growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs) could be widely used by cheating athletes because they produce growth hormone (GH) secretion, so may generate an ergogenic effect in the body. Knowledge of the essential amino acids needed in GHRP structure for interaction with the target biological receptor GHSR1a, the absorption through different administration routes, and the maintenance of pharmacological activity of potential biotransformation products may help in the fight against their abuse in sport. Several GHRPs and truncated analogues with the common core Ala-Trp-(D-Phe)-Lys have been studied with a radio-competitive assay for the GHSR1a receptor against the radioactive natural ligand ghrelin...
January 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Andreas Thomas, Christian Görgens, Sven Guddat, Detlef Thieme, Frank Dellanna, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
The analysis of low-molecular-mass peptides in doping controls has become a mandatory aspect in sports drug testing and, thus, the number of samples that has to be tested for these analytes has been steadily increasing. Several peptides <2 kDa with performance-enhancing properties are covered by the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency including Desmopressin, LH-RH, Buserelin, Triptorelin, Leuprolide, GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-3, GHRP-4, GHRP-5,GHRP-6, Alexamorelin, Ipamorelin, Hexarelin, ARA-290, AOD-9604, TB-500 and Anamorelin...
January 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Ekaterina Semenistaya, Irina Zvereva, Andreas Thomas, Mario Thevis, Grigory Krotov, Grigory Rodchenkov
Growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs) stimulate secretion of endogenous growth hormone and are listed on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. To develop an effective method for GHRPs anti-doping control we have investigated metabolites of GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-6, Hexarelin, and Ipamorelin in urine after nasal administration. Each compound was administrated to one volunteer. Samples were collected for 2 days after administration, processed by solid-phase extraction on weak cation exchange cartridges and analyzed by means of nano-liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry...
October 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
Rasha Mofeed Habeeb Mosa, Zhen Zhang, Renfu Shao, Chao Deng, Jiezhong Chen, Chen Chen
Ghrelin and its synthetic analog hexarelin are specific ligands of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor. GHS have strong growth hormone-releasing effect and other neuroendocrine activities such as stimulatory effects on prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. Recently, several studies have reported other beneficial functions of GHS that are independent of GH. Ghrelin and hexarelin, for examples, have been shown to exert GH-independent cardiovascular activity. Hexarelin has been reported to regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) in macrophages and adipocytes...
June 2015: Endocrine
Simone Esposito, Koen Deventer, Lore Geldof, Peter Van Eenoo
Peptide hormones represent an emerging class of potential doping agents. Detection of their misuse is difficult due to their short half-life in plasma and rapid elimination. Therefore, investigating their metabolism can improve detectability. Unfortunately, pharmacokinetic studies with human volunteers are often not allowed because of ethical constraints, and therefore alternative models are needed. This study was performed in order to evaluate in vitro models (human liver microsomes and S9 fraction) for the prediction of the metabolism of peptidic doping agents and to compare them with the established models...
January 2015: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Yuanjie Mao, Takeshi Tokudome, Ichiro Kishimoto
Hexarelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide, can bind to and activate the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in the brain similar to its natural analog ghrelin. However, the peripheral distribution of GHSR in the heart and blood vessels suggests that hexarelin might have direct cardiovascular actions beyond growth hormone release and neuroendocrine effects. Furthermore, the non-GHSR CD36 had been demonstrated to be a specific cardiac receptor for hexarelin and to mediate its cardioprotective effects...
September 2014: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Hiroyuki Kaiya, Norifumi Konno, Kenji Kangawa, Minoru Uchiyama, Mikiya Miyazato
We identified two ghrelin receptor isoforms, the ghrelin receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a) and its alternative splice form (GHS-R1b) for West African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. Lungfish GHS-R1a and 1b comprised 361 and 281 amino acids, respectively. Lungfish GHS-R1a showed the highest identity to coelacanth GHS-R1a (80.4%). The highest expression of GHS-R1a mRNAs was seen in the brain, liver, ovary, heart, intestine, and gills. GHS-R1b mRNAs were also detected in the same tissues with GHS-R1a, but their expression level was 1/20 that of GHS-R1a...
December 1, 2014: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Genovefa D Kolovou, Vana Kolovou, Sophie Mavrogeni
Ageing and longevity is unquestioningly complex. Several thoughts and mechanisms of ageing such as pathways involved in oxidative stress, lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage and repair, growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF), and environmental exposure have been proposed. Also, some theories of ageing were introduced. To date, the most promising leads for longevity are caloric restriction, particularly target of rapamycin (TOR), sirtuins, hexarelin and hormetic responses...
2014: BioMed Research International
Yuanjie Mao, Takeshi Tokudome, Ichiro Kishimoto, Kentaro Otani, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
Both hexarelin and its natural analog ghrelin exert comparable cardioprotective activities. A single dose of ghrelin administered at the very acute phase after experimental myocardial infarction positively affects cardiac function in chronic heart failure. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether a single dose of oral hexarelin has the same effect in the chronic disease phase. Myocardial infarction or sham operation was generated by left coronary artery ligation in male C57BL/6J mice, which subsequently received one dose of hexarelin or vehicle treatment by oral gavage 30 min after operation...
June 2014: Peptides
Mark Timms, Nikki Hall, Vita Levina, John Vine, Rohan Steel
The growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs) hexarelin, ipamorelin, alexamorelin, GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-4, GHRP-5, and GHRP-6 are all synthetic met-enkephalin analogues that include unnatural D-amino acids. They were designed specifically for their ability to stimulate growth hormone release and may serve as performance enhancing drugs. To regulate the use of these peptides within the horse racing industry and by human athletes, a method is presented for the extraction, derivatization, and detection of GHRPs from equine and human urine...
October 2014: Drug Testing and Analysis
Amélie Rodrigue-Way, Véronique Caron, Stéphanie Bilodeau, Sarah Keil, Meryl Hassan, Emile Lévy, Grant A Mitchell, André Tremblay
The scavenger receptor CD36 plays a central role in lipid metabolism by promoting macrophage cholesterol efflux with the potential to reduce atherosclerotic lesions. However, the effect of CD36 on de novo cholesterol synthesis is not known. Here, we describe the cellular mechanism by which CD36 activation induces cholesterol depletion in HepG2 cells. Using the CD36 ligand hexarelin, we found a rapid phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase Ser-872 in treated cells, resulting in inactivation of the rate-limiting enzyme in sterol synthesis...
April 2014: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yuanjie Mao, Takeshi Tokudome, Ichiro Kishimoto, Kentaro Otani, Hiroshi Hosoda, Chiaki Nagai, Naoto Minamino, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
Both ghrelin and the synthetic analog hexarelin are reported to possess cardioprotective actions that are mainly exerted through different receptors. However, their effects on acute myocardial infarction have not been compared in vivo. This study aimed to clarify whether hexarelin treatment can compensate for ghrelin deficiency in ghrelin-knockout mice and to compare the effects of hexarelin (400 nmol/kg/d, sc) and equimolar ghrelin treatment after myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction was produced by left coronary artery ligation in male ghrelin-knockout mice, which then received ghrelin, hexarelin, or vehicle treatment for 2 weeks...
October 2013: Endocrinology
Antonella Liantonio, Gianluca Gramegna, Giuseppe Carbonara, Valeriana Teresa Sblendorio, Sabata Pierno, Bodvaël Fraysse, Viviana Giannuzzi, Laura Rizzi, Antonio Torsello, Diana Conte Camerino
The orexigenic and anabolic effects induced by ghrelin and the synthetic GH secretagogues (GHSs) are thought to positively contribute to therapeutic approaches and the adjunct treatment of a number of diseases associated with muscle wasting such as cachexia and sarcopenia. However, many questions about the potential utility and safety of GHSs in both therapy and skeletal muscle function remain unanswered. By using fura-2 cytofluorimetric technique, we determined the acute effects of ghrelin, as well as of peptidyl and nonpeptidyl synthetic GHSs on calcium homeostasis, a critical biomarker of muscle function, in isolated tendon-to-tendon male rat skeletal muscle fibers...
October 2013: Endocrinology
Wai Him Kwok, Emmie N M Ho, Ming Yip Lau, Gary N W Leung, April S Y Wong, Terence S M Wan
In recent years, there has been an ongoing focus for both human and equine doping control laboratories on developing detection methods to control the misuse of peptide therapeutics. Immunoaffinity purification is a common extraction method to isolate peptides from biological matrices and obtain sufficient detectability in subsequent instrumental analysis. However, monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies for immunoaffinity purification may not be commercially available, and even if available, such antibodies are usually very costly...
March 2013: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Zhongxiao Wan, Sarthak Matravadia, Graham P Holloway, David C Wright
Fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 has been extensively studied for its role in facilitating fatty acid uptake. Recent findings have also demonstrated that this protein regulates adipocyte lipolysis and may modulate fatty acid reesterification. As FAT/CD36 has been shown to control the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes, we reasoned that this protein might also control the expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid reesterification. In adipose tissue from FAT/CD36 knockout (KO) mice, we found that glycerol and fatty acid release were reduced and this was associated with reductions in adipose triglyceride lipase...
March 1, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Andreas Thomas, Philippe Delahaut, Oliver Krug, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
New, potentially performance enhancing compounds have frequently been introduced to licit and illicit markets and rapidly distributed via worldwide operating Internet platforms. Developing fast analytical strategies to follow these new trends is one the most challenging issues for modern doping control analysis. Even if reference compounds for the active drugs are readily obtained, their unknown metabolism complicates effective testing strategies. Recently, a new class of small C-terminally amidated peptides comprising four to seven amino acid residues received considerable attention of sports drug testing authorities due to their ability to stimulate growth hormone release from the pituitary...
December 4, 2012: Analytical Chemistry
Yi Ma, Lin Zhang, Bradley S Launikonis, Chen Chen
Ischemic heart diseases often induce cardiac arrhythmia with irregular cardiac action potential (AP). This study aims to demonstrate that GH secretagogues (GHS) ghrelin and its synthetic analog hexarelin can preserve the electrophysiological properties of cardiomyocytes experiencing ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Isolated hearts from adult male mice underwent 20 min global ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion using a Langendorff apparatus. Ghrelin (10 nM) or hexarelin (1 nM) was administered in the perfusion solution either 10 min before or after ischemia, termed pre- or posttreatments...
November 2012: Endocrinology
Andreas Thomas, Katja Walpurgis, Oliver Krug, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
In the present study, a screening assay was developed comprising 11 prohibited peptides (<1.5 kDa) that are sufficiently purified from urine using weak cation exchange with subsequent determination of all substances by means of nanoUHPLC separation coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. These peptides included Gonadorelin (LH-RH), Desmopressin and 9 growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, Hexarelin, Alexamorelin, Ipamorelin and a GHRP-2 metabolite); however, the procedure is expandable to further target analytes or metabolites...
October 12, 2012: Journal of Chromatography. A
Xiangbin Xu, Fan Ding, Jinjiang Pang, Xue Gao, Rong-Kun Xu, Wei Hao, Ji-Min Cao, Chen Chen
Cardiac fibrosis is a hallmark of heart disease and plays a vital role in cardiac remodeling during heart diseases, including hypertensive heart disease. Hexarelin is one of a series of synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) possessing a variety of cardiovascular effects via action on GHS receptors (GHS-Rs). However, the role of hexarelin in cardiac fibrosis in vivo has not yet been investigated. In the present study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with hexarelin alone or in combination with a GHS-R antagonist for 5 wk from an age of 16 wk...
September 15, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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