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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623445/laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-resolves-low-ghrp-2-stimulated-growth-hormone-levels-in-obese-patients
#1
Emi Ohara, Hirotake Tokuyama, Takumi Kitamoto, Aya Kitahara, Aiko Hayashi, Hideki Hayashi, Minoru Takemoto, Koutaro Yokote
Because growth hormone (GH) secretion is reportedly decreased in obese patients, we examined not only the factors associated with the decreased GH secretion but also GH response to the GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2-load test before and after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LSG). The study comprised 28 individuals aged 19-65 years [mean body mass index (BMI), 39.4 ± 9.4 kg/m(2)]. In the univariate analysis, GH secretion peaks correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.59, p = 0.001), visceral adipose tissue (r = -0...
August 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598597/azapeptide-synthesis-methods-for-expanding-side-chain-diversity-for-biomedical-applications
#2
Ramesh Chingle, Caroline Proulx, William D Lubell
Mimicry of bioactive conformations is critical for peptide-based medicinal chemistry because such peptidomimetics may augment stability, enhance affinity, and increase specificity. Azapeptides are peptidomimetics in which the α-carbon(s) of one or more amino acid residues are substituted by nitrogen. The resulting semicarbazide analogues have been shown to reinforce β-turn conformation through the combination of lone pair-lone pair repulsion of the adjacent hydrazine nitrogen and urea planarity. Substitution of a semicarbazide for an amino amide residue in a peptide may retain biological activity and add benefits such as improved metabolic stability...
June 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513740/l-ornithine-stimulates-growth-hormone-release-in-a-manner-dependent-on-the-ghrelin-system
#3
Yee Yin Ho, Junya Nakato, Takafumi Mizushige, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Mamoru Tanida, Saori Akiduki, Kousaku Ohinata
We found that intraduodenal administration of l-ornithine (l-Orn) stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion in Wistar rats, and then investigated its mechanism. GH-releasing activity after intraduodenal administration of l-Orn was blocked by [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6, an antagonist of the ghrelin receptor; however, l-Orn (100 μM) has no affinity for the ghrelin receptor, suggesting that the GH-releasing activity of l-Orn is mediated via ghrelin release and activation of the ghrelin receptor. Intraduodenally administered l-Orn increased ghrelin mRNA expression in the duodenum but not in the stomach or hypothalamus...
May 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506816/ghrelin-suppresses-cholecystokinin-cck-peptide-yy-pyy-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-in-the-intestine-and-attenuates-the-anorectic-effects-of-cck-pyy-and-glp-1-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#4
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ana Isabel Valenciano, María Jesús Delgado, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469491/synthetic-growth-hormone-releasing-peptides-ghrps-a-historical-appraisal-of-the-evidences-supporting-their-cytoprotective-effects
#5
REVIEW
Jorge Berlanga-Acosta, Angel Abreu-Cruz, Diana García-Del Barco Herrera, Yssel Mendoza-Marí, Arielis Rodríguez-Ulloa, Ariana García-Ojalvo, Viviana Falcón-Cama, Francisco Hernández-Bernal, Qu Beichen, Gerardo Guillén-Nieto
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) constitute a group of small synthetic peptides that stimulate the growth hormone secretion and the downstream axis activity. Mounting evidences since the early 1980s delineated unexpected pharmacological cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties for the GHRPs. However, despite intense basic pharmacological research, alternatives to prevent cell and tissue demise before lethal insults have remained as an empty niche in the clinical armamentarium...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462451/complexity-of-stomach-brain-interaction-induced-by-molecular-hydrogen-in-parkinson-s-disease-model-mice
#6
Yusuke Yoshii, Taikai Inoue, Yuya Uemura, Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yada, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Mami Noda
Molecular hydrogen (H2), as a new medical gas, has protective effects in neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous report, the neuroprotective effect of drinking water with saturated H2 (H2 water) in PD mice might be due to stomach-brain interaction via release of gastric hormone, ghrelin. In the present study, we assessed the effect of H2-induced ghrelin more precisely. To confirm the contribution of ghrelin in H2 water-drinking PD model mice, ghrelin-knock out (KO) mice were used...
May 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359338/development-of-the-good-health-research-practice-course-ensuring-quality-across-all-health-research-in-humans
#7
Patricia Henley, Varalakshmi Elango, Olaf Horstick, Riris Andono Ahmad, Christine Maure, Pascal Launois, Corinne Merle, Jamila Nabieva, Yodi Mahendradhata
Quality and ethics need to be embedded into all areas of research with human participants. Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines are international ethical and scientific quality standards for designing, conducting, recording and reporting trials involving human participants. Compliance with GCP is expected to provide public assurance that the rights, safety and wellbeing of participants are protected and that the clinical research data are credible. However, whilst GCP guidelines, particularly their principles, are recommended across all research types, it is difficult for non-clinical trial research to fit in with the exacting requirements of GCP...
March 31, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338019/ghrelin-facilitates-glut2-sglt1-and-sglt2-mediated-intestinal-glucose-transport-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#8
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Naresh Ramesh, María Jesús Delgado, Ana Isabel Valenciano, Suraj Unniappan
Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321024/the-growth-hormone-secretagogue-hexarelin-protects-rat-cardiomyocytes-from-in-vivo-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-interleukin-1-signaling-pathway
#9
Jiannan Huang, Yi Li, Juan Zhang, Yusheng Liu, Qinghua Lu
Hexarelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide, has been proven to possess cardioprotective actions through its binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1a and the non-GHSR receptor CD36. However, its effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been fully clarified in vivo. We aimed to determine whether hexarelin treatment could protect cardiomyocytes from I/R injury and to examine the underlying mechanisms. In vivo hearts of male SD rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia by left coronary artery ligation followed by reperfusion...
April 6, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245976/ghrelin-alleviates-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-induced-by-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-in-rodents
#10
Hui-Jie Huang, Xiao-Cang Zhu, Qiu-Qin Han, Ya-Lin Wang, Na Yue, Jing Wang, Rui Yu, Bing Li, Gen-Cheng Wu, Qiong Liu, Jin Yu
As a regulator of food intake, ghrelin also plays a key role in mood disorders. Previous studies reported that acute ghrelin administration defends against depressive symptoms of chronic stress. However, the effects of long-term ghrelin on rodents under chronic stress hasn't been revealed. In this study, we found chronic peripheral administration of ghrelin (5nmol/kg/day for 2 weeks, i.p.) could alleviate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swimming test (FST), and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed by the open field test (OFT) and the elevated plus maze test (EPM)...
February 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223717/scale-up-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-a-novel-mutated-chimeric-tissue-plasminogen-activator-mt-pa-in-rats
#11
Mozhgan Raigani, Mohammad-Reza Rouini, Ali-Akbar Golabchifar, Esmat Mirabzadeh, Behrouz Vaziri, Farzaneh Barkhordari, Fatemeh Davami, Fereidoun Mahboudi
Because of high mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases, various fibrinolytic agents with diverse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties have been developed. A novel mutated chimeric tissue plasminogen activator (mt-PA) was developed by the removal of first three domains of t-PA, insertion of GHRP sequence and mutation towards resistance to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Mt-PA protein was expressed in Expi293F cells. The expression level of mt-PA was found to be 5000 IU/mL. Following purification, the pharmacokinetic properties of mt-PA were evaluated in three doses in rats...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214691/dlitiazem-inhibits-the-oxidative-stress-induced-by-angiotensin-ii-through-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-type-1a-in-human-umbilicus-vein-endothelial-cells
#12
Lingyun Zhou, Meng Yang, Shanru Zuo, Xiaofeng Guan, Jianglin Wang, Qingjie Chen, Xiaocong Zuo, Sujie Jia, Ren Guo
Diltiazem has been used for post-transplant hypertension, but the mechanism underlying its protective effect of endothelial cells against angiotensin II (Ang II) - induced impairment remains unclear. Human umbilicus vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and divided into seven groups: control, Ang II (10(-6)M), diltiazem (10(-6)M), [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6(25μM), diltiazem (10(-6)M)+Ang II (10(-6)M), losartan (10(-6)M)+Ang II (10(-6)M), [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (25μM) + Dil(10(-6)M)+Ang II (10(-6)M) groups. Nitric oxide (NO) production, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, protein and mRNA expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and p47 phox subunit of NADPH were evaluated...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090719/diversity-oriented-synthesis-of-cyclic-azapeptides-by-a-3-macrocyclization-provides-high-affinity-cd36-modulating-peptidomimetics
#13
Jinqiang Zhang, Mukandila Mulumba, Huy Ong, William D Lubell
Macrocyclization has enabled the use of peptides in drug discovery creating a need for methods to synthesize diverse peptide macrocycles. Azapeptides have advanced to clinically used drugs, however, few cyclic azapeptides have been studied. A multiple component "A(3) -macrocyclization" strategy is described for the preparation of diverse cyclic azapeptides and is demonstrated by the synthesis of 15 growth hormone releasing hormone-6 (GHRP-6) analogs. Certain cyclic aza-GHRP-6 analogs exhibited unprecedented affinity for the CD36 receptor, and capacity to modulate Toll-like receptor agonist-induced overproduction of nitric oxide, and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages...
January 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042022/ghrelin-modulates-gene-and-protein-expression-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-intestine-and-hepatopancreas-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-via-the-ghs-r1a-possible-roles-of-plc-pkc-and-ac-pka-intracellular-signaling-pathways
#14
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Aída Sánchez-Bretaño, María Jesús Delgado, Ana Isabel Valenciano, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, is involved in the regulation of gastric functions in mammals. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin modulates digestive enzymes in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Immunofluorescence microscopy found colocalization of ghrelin, GHS-R1a and the digestive enzymes sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase A, trypsin and lipoprotein lipase in intestinal and hepatopancreatic cells. In vitro ghrelin treatment in intestinal and hepatopancreas explant culture led to a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of most of the digestive enzymes tested...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894854/decreased-level-of-endogenous-ghrelin-is-involved-in-the-progression-of-lung-injury-induced-by-oleic-acid
#15
Zhijun Liu, Ting Yu, Haitao Yang, Xiuli Tian, Linlin Feng
AIMS: Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate the role of endogenous ghrelin in the pathogenesis of ALI. MAIN METHODS: We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression of ghrelin was measured by quantitative real-time PCR...
November 25, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665924/neuroprotective-effect-of-epidermal-growth-factor-plus-growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-resembles-hypothermia-in-experimental-stroke
#16
N Subirós, H Pérez-Saad, L Aldana, C L Gibson, W S Borgnakke, D Garcia-Del-Barco
BACKGROUND: Combined therapy with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) in stroke models has accumulated evidence of neuroprotective effects from several studies, but needs further support before clinical translation. Comparing EGF + GHRP-6 to hypothermia, a gold neuroprotection standard, may contribute to this purpose. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare the neuroprotective effects of a combined therapy based on EGF + GHRP-6 with hypothermia in animal models of (a) global ischemia representing myocardial infarction and (b) focal brain ischemia representing ischemic stroke...
November 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631466/use-of-ultraviolet-photodissociation-coupled-with-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-to-determine-structure-and-sequence-from-drift-time-selected-peptides-and-proteins
#17
Alina Theisen, Bin Yan, Jeffery M Brown, Michael Morris, Bruno Bellina, Perdita E Barran
We demonstrate the capabilities of a laser-coupled ion mobility mass spectrometer for analysis of peptide sequence and structure showing ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) spectra of mass and mobility selected ions. A Synapt G2-S mass spectrometer has been modified to allow photointeraction of ions post the mobility cell. For this work, we have employed a single wavelength laser, which irradiates at 266 nm. We present the unique capabilities of this instrument and demonstrate several key features. Irradiation of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), growth hormone releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6), and TrpCage (sequence NLYIQWLKDGGPSSGRPPPS) yields extensive b- and y-type fragmentation as well as a- and c-type ions...
October 3, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552171/effect-of-xiangbin-granules-on-post-operative-gastrointestinal-function-and-brain-gut-peptides-after-transabdominal-gynecological-surgery
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Si-Liang Wen, Xian Feng, Zhi-Qiang Chen, Jing Xiao, Wei-Xuan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a prospective clinical randomized single-blind placebo-controlled trial (ChiCTR-TRC-14004156) to observe the effect of XiangBin granules on the recovery of gastrointestinal function and levels of brain-gut peptide motilin (MTL); vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP); growth hormone releasing peptide-ghrelin, GHRP-ghrelin, and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), after transabdominal gynecological surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Patients undergoing gynecologic abdominal surgery were randomly divided in a 2:1 ratio (according to the data of pre-trial which was a small sample randomized trial in gynecology inpatient) into two groups: the larger treatment group taking XiangBin granules, and the smaller placebo group taking Chinese herbal placebo...
October 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548147/growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-2-attenuation-of-protein-kinase-c-induced-inflammation-in-human-ovarian-granulosa-cells
#19
Yi-Ning Chao, David Sun, Yen-Chun Peng, Yuh-Lin Wu
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two important inflammatory mediators in ovulation. Ghrelin may modulate inflammatory signaling via growth hormone secretagogue receptors. We investigated the role of ghrelin in KGN human ovarian granulosa cells using protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (PDD) and synthetic ghrelin analog growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2). GHRP-2 attenuated PDD-induced expression of protein and mRNA, the promoter activity of COX-2 and IL-8 genes, and the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) and IL-8...
August 19, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523747/ginkgoghrelins-unique-acylated-flavonoid-diglycosides-in-folium-ginkgo-stimulate-growth-hormone-secretion-via-activation-of-the-ghrelin-receptor
#20
Sheng-Kuo Hsieh, Tse-Yu Chung, Yue-Chiun Li, Yuan-Hao Lo, Nan-Hei Lin, Ping-Chung Kuo, Wen-Ying Chen, Jason T C Tzen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Folium Ginkgo, the dried leaf of Ginkgo biloba L. is a traditional Chinese medicine listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China with several therapeutic effects, including prevention of aging. It is used as herbal medicine for the treatment of several aging-related diseases. The therapeutic effects of Folium Ginkgo on aging-related diseases are suspected to be similar to the anti-aging effects of growth hormone release induced by ghrelin...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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