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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991568/the-role-of-intragestational-ghrelin-on-postnatal-development-and-reproductive-programming-in-mice
#1
Pedro Javier Torres, Eugenia Mercedes Luque, Marina Flavia Ponzio, Verónica Cantarelli, Marcela Diez, Silvia Figueroa, Laura Maria Vincenti, Valeria Paola Carlini, Ana Carolina Martini
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intragestational role of ghrelin in offspring development and reproductive programming in a mouse model of ghrelin imbalance during pregnancy. Female mice were injected with ghrelin (supraphysiological levels: 4 nmol/animal/day), antagonist (endogenous ghrelin inhibition with (D-Lys3)GHRP-6, 6 nmol/animal/day) or vehicle (control=normal ghrelin levels) throughout the pregnancy. Parameters evaluated in litters were growth, physical, neurobiological, and sexual development and, at adulthood, reproductive function...
July 10, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973439/evaluation-of-growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-2-for-diagnosis-of-thyrotropin-producing-pituitary-adenomas
#2
Kazunori Kageyama, Satoru Sakihara, Wataru Kameda, Aya Sugiyama, Shinobu Takayasu, Ken Terui, Makoto Daimon
Thyrotropin (TSH)-producing adenomas are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism and are a type of functional pituitary adenoma. The diagnosis of TSH-producing adenoma is a challenging problem in clinical endocrinology. Since growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) fails to induce TSH secretion in normal subjects, the effect of GHRP-2 on TSH levels was therefore examined in patients with TSH-producing adenomas. A total of 5 patients (4 women and 1 man) referred to our departments for further evaluation of pituitary hormones were followed-up using the GHRP-2, TSH-releasing hormone (TRH), octreotide, and bromocriptine tests to examine and evaluate TSH secretory dynamics in TSH-producing adenomas...
July 5, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914799/enhancement-of-ghrelin-signaling-system-by-rikkunshi-to-attenuates-teriparatide-induced-pica-in-rats
#3
Kouichi Yamamoto, Yukihiro Isogai, Takayuki Ishida, Keisuke Hagihara
Teriparatide is clinically used for the treatment of osteoporosis; however, nausea is often observed in patients. Its insufficient control affects the ability to continue teriparatide therapy. Rikkunshi-To (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, improves the gastrointestinal function via activation of the ghrelin-signaling system. We investigated the therapeutic effects of RKT on teriparatide-induced nausea in rats and the involvement of ghrelin in these effects. We previously reported that ovariectomized rats showed pica (kaolin ingestion), a behavior that can be used to assess nausea in rats, after the subcutaneous administration of teriparatide; thus, the behavior was used as an index of nausea...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883404/the-cd36-ppar%C3%AE-pathway-in-metabolic-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Loïze Maréchal, Maximilien Laviolette, Amélie Rodrigue-Way, Baly Sow, Michèle Brochu, Véronique Caron, André Tremblay
Uncovering the biological role of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has greatly advanced our knowledge of the transcriptional control of glucose and energy metabolism. As such, pharmacological activation of PPARγ has emerged as an efficient approach for treating metabolic disorders with the current use of thiazolidinediones to improve insulin resistance in diabetic patients. The recent identification of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) as potent inducers of PPARγ through activation of the scavenger receptor CD36 has defined a novel alternative to regulate essential aspects of lipid and energy metabolism...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864719/analysis-of-new-growth-promoting-black-market-products
#5
Oliver Krug, Andreas Thomas, Helle Malerød-Fjeld, Yvette Dehnes, Tim Laussmann, Ingo Feldmann, Albert Sickmann, Mario Thevis
Detecting agents allegedly or evidently promoting growth such as human growth hormone (GH) or growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) in doping controls has represented a pressing issue for sports drug testing laboratories. While GH is a recombinant protein with a molecular weight of 22 kDa, the GHRPs are short (3-6 amino acids long) peptides with GH releasing properties. The endogenously produced GH (22 kDa isoform) consists of 191 amino acids and has a monoisotopic molecular mass of 22,124 Da. Within this study, a slightly modified form of GH was discovered consisting of 192 amino acids carrying an additional alanine at the N-terminus, leading to a monoisotopic mass of 22,195 Da...
May 19, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590554/lateral-septum-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-affects-food-intake-and-motivation-for-sucrose-reinforcement
#6
Sarah J Terrill, Kaylee D Wall, Nelson D Medina, Calyn B Maske, Diana L Williams
The hormone ghrelin promotes eating and is widely considered to be a hunger signal. Ghrelin receptors, growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs), are found in a number of specific regions throughout the brain, including the lateral septum (LS), an area not traditionally associated with the control of feeding. Here we investigated whether GHSRs in the LS play a role in the control of food intake. We examined the feeding effects of ghrelin and the GHSR antagonists ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and JMV 2959), at doses subthreshold for effect when delivered to the lateral ventricle...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526750/the-ghrelin-paradox-in-the-control-of-equine-chondrocyte-function-the-good-and-the-bad
#7
Serena Ceriotti, Anna Lange Consiglio, Lavinia Casati, Fausto Cremonesi, Valeria Sibilia, Francesco Ferrucci
Increasing evidence suggests a role for ghrelin in the control of articular inflammatory diseases like osteoarthritis (OA). In the present study we examined the ability of ghrelin to counteract LPS-induced necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and the involvement of GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)1a in the protective action of ghrelin. The effects of ghrelin (10-7 -10-11  mol/L) on equine primary cultured chondrocytes viability and necrosis in basal conditions and under LPS treatment (100 ng/ml) were detected by using both acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and annexin-5/propidium iodide staining...
May 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300858/evidence-supporting-a-role-for-constitutive-ghrelin-receptor-signaling-in-fasting-induced-hyperphagia-in-male-mice
#8
Gimena Fernandez, Agustina Cabral, María F Andreoli, Alexandra Labarthe, Céline M'Kadmi, Jorge G Ramos, Jacky Marie, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jacques Epelbaum, Virginie Tolle, Mario Perello
Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic peptide hormone that acts through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the hypothalamus. In vitro studies have shown that GHSR displays a high constitutive activity, whose physiological relevance is uncertain. As GHSR gene expression in the hypothalamus is known to increase in fasting conditions, we tested the hypothesis that constitutive GHSR activity at the hypothalamic level drives the fasting-induced hyperphagia...
February 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137815/local-injection-of-d-lys-3-ghrp-6-in-the-rat-amygdala-dentate-gyrus-or-ventral-tegmental-area-impairs-memory-consolidation
#9
Siamak Beheshti, Neda Aslani
It is well known that the hormone ghrelin affects learning and memory in different experimental models of learning. Though, the effect of antagonism of ghrelin receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) in various regions of the brain and on different stages of learning has not been examined. In this study the effect of injection of a GHS-R1a selective antagonist (d-Lys-3-GHRP-6) into the basolateral amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area was examined on memory consolidation in the passive avoidance task. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-280g were used...
February 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028172/influences-of-histidine-1-and-azaphenylalanine-4-on-the-affinity-anti-inflammatory-and-antiangiogenic-activities-of-azapeptide-cluster-of-differentiation-36-receptor-modulators
#10
Kelvine Chignen Possi, Mukandila Mulumba, Samy Omri, Yesica Garcia-Ramos, Houda Tahiri, Sylvain Chemtob, Huy Ong, William D Lubell
Azapeptide analogues of growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) exhibit promising affinity, selectivity, and modulator activity on the cluster of differentiation 36 receptor (CD36). For example, [A1 , azaF4 ]- and [azaY4 ]-GHRP-6 (1a and 2b) were previously shown to bind selectively to CD36 and exhibited respectively significant antiangiogenic and slight angiogenic activities in a microvascular sprouting assay using choroid explants. The influences of the 1- and 4-position residues on the affinity, anti-inflammatory, and antiangiogenic activity of these azapeptides have now been studied in detail by the synthesis and analysis of a set of 25 analogues featuring Ala1 or His1 and a variety of aromatic side chains at the aza-amino acid residue in the 4-position...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993142/ghrelin-upregulates-the-phosphorylation-of-the-glun2b-subunit-of-the-nmda-receptor-by-activating-ghsr1a-and-fyn-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#11
Liza Berrout, Masako Isokawa
Ghrelin and its receptor GHSR1a have been shown to exert numerous physiological functions in the brain, in addition to the well-established orexigenic role in the hypothalamus. Earlier work indicated that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of the GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and enhanced synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. In the present study, we report that the exogenous application of ghrelin increased GluN2B phosphorylation. This increase was independent of GluN2B subunit activity or NMDAR channel activity...
January 1, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985965/ghrelin-projection-from-the-lateral-hypothalamus-area-to-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-and-its-regulation-of-gastric-motility-in-cisplatin-treated-rats
#12
Yanling Gong, Yang Liu, Yaoyao Guo, Manqing Su, Yifan Zhong, Luo Xu, Feifei Guo, Shengli Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate ghrelin projection from the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and its regulation of gastric motility in cisplatin-treated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, the protein and mRNA expression of ghrelin and its receptor GHSR-1a were measured by Western blot and PCR, respectively. The ghrelin fiber projections arising from the LHA and projecting to the DVC were investigated by retrograde tracing combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining...
September 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941172/characterization-of-in-vitro-generated-metabolites-of-selected-peptides-2-kda-prohibited-in-sports
#13
Andreas Thomas, Andre Knoop, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
With an increasing number of prohibited substances in doping controls, knowledge about their metabolism is crucial for efficient analysis. While for low molecular mass molecules, standard protocols for in vitro metabolism experiments are well established, the situation with peptidic drugs has been shown to be substantially more heterogeneous and complex. Two principle strategies aiming at simulating the metabolism of lower molecular mass peptides in vitro are presented within this study. The prohibited peptides ARA-290, GHRP-3, and Peforelin, with a to-date unknown metabolism, were chosen as model compounds for these experiments and metabolism after incubation with different blood specimens (EDTA-, heparin-, citrate-plasma, and serum) and exposure to recombinant amidase were investigated...
November 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930716/antinociceptive-effect-of-ghrelin-in-a-rat-model-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-involves-trpv1-opioid-systems
#14
Yuqing Mao, Zhengyang Li, Kan Chen, Huafang Yu, Shaoren Zhang, Miao Jiang, Yuanhua Ma, Chunli Liang, Hongyan Liu, Huanqing Li, Qian Hua, Hao Zhou, Yonghong Sun, Xiaoming Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), defined as recurrent abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits, seriously affects quality of life and ability to work. Ghrelin is a brain-gut hormone, which has been reported to show antinociceptive effects in peripheral pain. We investigated the effect of ghrelin on visceral hypersensitivity and pain in a rat model of IBS. METHODS: Maternal deprivation (MD) was used to provide a stress-induced model of IBS in Wistar rats...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903914/long-term-treatment-with-the-ghrelin-receptor-antagonist-d-lys3-ghrp-6-does-not-improve-glucose-homeostasis-in-nonobese-diabetic-mkr-mice
#15
Rasha Mosa, Lili Huang, Hongzhuo Li, Michael Grist, Derek LeRoith, Chen Chen
Long-term treatment with the ghrelin receptor antagonist [d-Lys3]-GHRP-6 does not improve glucose homeostasis in nonobese diabetic MKR mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 314: R71-R83, 2018. First published September 13, 2017; doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00157.2017 .-Ghrelin secretion has been associated with increased caloric intake and adiposity. The expressions of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in the pancreas has raised the interest about the role of ghrelin in glucose homeostasis. Most of the studies showed that ghrelin promoted hyperglycemia and inhibited insulin secretion...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893476/growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-enhanced-antibody-titers-against-subunit-antigens-in-mice-balb-c-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-and-african-catfish-clarias-gariepinus
#16
Rebeca Martínez, Liz Hernández, Lázaro Gil, Yamila Carpio, Antonio Morales, Fidel Herrera, Alina Rodríguez-Mallón, Yeny Leal, Aracelys Blanco, Mario Pablo Estrada
Modern subunit vaccines have excellent safety profiles and improved tolerability, but do not elicit strong immune responses without the addition of adjuvants. Developing a safe and affective adjuvant remains a challenge for peptide-based vaccine design. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is one of the earliest-developed, synthetic, peptidyl growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonists. These compounds mimic the effect of the endogenous ligand, ghrelin. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of GHRP-6 to enhance the humoral immune response against co-injected antigens in mice, tilapia and African catfish...
October 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887173/adsorption-effects-of-the-doping-relevant-peptides-insulin-lispro-synachten-tb-500-and-ghrp-5
#17
Péter Judák, Peter Van Eenoo, Koen Deventer
The tendency of peptides to adsorb to surfaces can raise a concern in variety of analytical fields where the qualitative/quantitative measurement of low concentration analytes (ng/mL-pg/mL) is required. To demonstrate the importance of using the optimal glassware/plasticware, four doping relevant model peptides (GHRP 5, TB-500, Insulin Lispro, Synachten) were chosen and their recovery from various surfaces were evaluated. Our experiments showed that choosing expensive consumables with low-bind characteristics is not beneficial in all cases...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871578/secondary-adrenal-insufficiency-following-nivolumab-therapy-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
Toshiro Seki, Atsushi Yasuda, Masayuki Oki, Natsumi Kitajima, Atsushi Takagi, Nobuyuki Nakajima, Akira Miyajima, Masafumi Fukagawa
Currently, nivolumab (an anti-programmed cell death-1 receptor monoclonal antibody) is available for many types of advanced cancers in Japan. However, there have been few detailed case reports about endocrine-related adverse events of this therapy. Here, we report a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who presented with secondary adrenal insufficiency following nivolumab therapy. Endocrinological assessment by rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) tests revealed that the patient's disorder was a secondary adrenal insufficiency due to pituitary dysfunction...
September 20, 2017: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830317/growth-hormone-secretagogue-treatment-in-hypogonadal-men-raises-serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-levels
#19
John T Sigalos, Alexander W Pastuszak, Andrew Allison, Samuel J Ohlander, Amin Herati, Mark C Lindgren, Larry I Lipshultz
Realizing the reported misuse of human growth hormone (GH), investigation of a safe alternative mechanism for increasing endogenous GH is needed. Several GH secretagogues are available, including GH-releasing peptides (GHRPs) GHRP-2 and GHRP-6, and the GH-releasing hormone analog, sermorelin (SERM). Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) serves as a surrogate marker for GH. Here, the effect of GHRP/SERM therapy on IGF-1 levels is evaluated. A retrospective review of medical records was performed for 105 men on testosterone (T) therapy seeking increases in lean body mass and fat loss who were prescribed 100 mcg of GHRP-6, GHRP-2, and SERM three times daily...
November 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751159/ghrelin-ameliorates-acute-lung-injury-induced-by-oleic-acid-via-inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#20
Xiuli Tian, Zhijun Liu, Ting Yu, Haitao Yang, Linlin Feng
AIMS: Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediates the protective effect of ghrelin on ALI. MAIN METHODS: We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis...
March 1, 2018: Life Sciences
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