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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109184/comparative-cardiovascular-risks-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-with-other-2-nd-and-3-rd-line-antidiabetic-drugs-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Jin-Shang Wu
AIMS: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) are suggested as 2(nd) and 3(rd) add-on antidiabetic treatment for type 2 diabetes. Previous studies only assessed cardiovascular effects of DPP4i as 2(nd) line treatment, included sulfonylurea as only one comparator, and yielded inconclusive results on the risk of heart failure. This study therefore evaluated comparative cardiovascular risks of DPP4i with other 2(nd) and 3(rd) line antidiabetic drugs. METHODS: Based on a large nation-wide diabetic cohort, 113,051 patients with type 2 diabetes newly on metformin-based dual or triple therapy were identified in 2009-2011 and followed until death or 2013...
January 21, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108995/relationships-between-exercise-smoking-habit-and-mortality-in-more-than-100-000-adults
#2
Gary O'Donovan, Mark Hamer, Emmanuel Stamatakis
Exercise is associated with reduced risks of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality; however, the benefits in smokers and ex-smokers are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between exercise, smoking habit and mortality. Self-reported exercise and smoking, and all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality were assessed in 106,341 adults in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey. There were 9149 deaths from all causes, 2839 from CVD, and 2634 from cancer during 999,948 person-years of follow-up...
January 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108794/maldi-tof-short-incubation-identification-from-blood-cultures-is-associated-with-reduced-length-of-hospitalization-and-a-decrease-in-bacteremia-associated-mortality
#3
J A Delport, A Strikwerda, A Armstrong, D Schaus, M John
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of MALDI-ToF identification and rapid short incubation MALDI-Tof identification protocol on patient care compared to conventional identification. By using a retrospective review we assessed the impact of a rapid Bruker MALDI-Tof identification protocol. Overall there was a 16.76-hour reduction in time to identification of the pathogen after the introduction of MALDI-TOF identification in 2013 (P<0.0001) and a further 15-hour reduction (P<9.37 E-05) after implementation of the short incubation MALDI-TOF identification protocol in 2014...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108789/-surgical-indications-and-complications-management-in-vestibular-schwannoma
#4
S Rosahl, D Eßer
BACKGROUND: Recent surgical treatment concepts for patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) require an interdisciplinary approach as well as recognition and mastering of complications. OBJECTIVE: This paper provides an overview of indications, as well as possible options for function preservation and management of complications in the surgical resection of these tumors. METHODS: Up-to-date treatment concepts and surgical indications were differentiated according to size and extent of tumors...
January 20, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108546/automatic-health-record-review-to-help-prioritize-gravely-ill-social-security-disability-applicants
#5
Kenneth Abbott, Yen-Yi Ho, Jennifer Erickson
OBJECTIVE: Every year, thousands of patients die waiting for disability benefits from the Social Security Administration. Some qualify for expedited service under the Compassionate Allowance (CAL) initiative, but CAL software focuses exclusively on information from a single form field. This paper describes the development of a supplemental process for identifying some overlooked but gravely ill applicants, through automatic annotation of health records accompanying new claims. We explore improved prioritization instead of fully autonomous claims approval...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107561/beta-blockers-for-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Hazel A Bradley, Jimmy Volmink, Bongani M Mayosi, Lionel H Opie
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107397/efficacy-and-safety-of-everolimus-for-maintenance-immunosuppression-of-kidney-transplantation-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
Jinyu Liu, Dong Liu, Juan Li, Lan Zhu, Chengliang Zhang, Kai Lei, Qiling Xu, Ruxu You
BACKGROUND: Conversion to everolimus is often used in kidney transplantation to overcome calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity but there is conflicting evidence for this approach. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the benefits and harm from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving the conversion from CNI to everolimus after kidney transplantation. METHODS: Databases were searched up to March 2016. Two reviewers independently assessed trials for eligibility and quality, and extracted data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107340/association-of-diabetes-related-complications-with-heart-rate-variability-among-a-diabetic-population-in-the-uae
#8
Ahsan H Khandoker, Haitham M Al-Angari, Kinda Khalaf, Sungmun Lee, Wael Almahmeed, Habiba S Al Safar, Herbert F Jelinek
Microvascular, macrovascular and neurological complications are the key causes of morbidity and mortality among type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of cardiac autonomic function of diabetic patients in relation to three types of diabetes-related complications. ECG recordings were collected and analyzed from 169 T2DM patients in supine position who were diagnosed with nephropathy (n = 55), peripheral neuropathy (n = 64) and retinopathy (n = 106) at two hospitals in the UAE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107026/impact-of-mobile-intensive-care-unit-use-on-total-ischemic-time-and-clinical-outcomes-in-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-patients-real-world-data-from-the-acute-coronary-syndrome-israeli-survey
#9
Edward Koifman, Roy Beigel, Zaza Iakobishvili, Nir Shlomo, Yitschak Biton, Avi Sabbag, Elad Asher, Shaul Atar, Shmuel Gottlieb, Ronny Alcalai, Doron Zahger, Amit Segev, Ilan Goldenberg, Rafael Strugo, Shlomi Matetzky
BACKGROUND: Ischemic time has prognostic importance in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients. Mobile intensive care unit use can reduce components of total ischemic time by appropriate triage of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients. METHODS: Data from the Acute Coronary Survey in Israel registry 2000-2010 were analyzed to evaluate factors associated with mobile intensive care unit use and its impact on total ischemic time and patient outcomes. RESULTS: The study comprised 5474 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients enrolled in the Acute Coronary Survey in Israel registry, of whom 46% ( n=2538) arrived via mobile intensive care units...
January 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106904/planned-early-delivery-versus-expectant-management-for-hypertensive-disorders-from-34-weeks-gestation-to-term
#10
REVIEW
Catherine Cluver, Natalia Novikova, Corine M Koopmans, Helen M West
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are significant contributors to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These disorders include well-controlled chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension (pregnancy-induced hypertension) and mild pre-eclampsia. The definitive treatment for these disorders is planned early delivery and the alternative is to manage the pregnancy expectantly if severe uncontrolled hypertension is not present, with close maternal and fetal monitoring...
January 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106621/mortality-risk-reductions-from-substituting-screen-time-by-discretionary-activities
#11
Katrien Wijndaele, Stephen J Sharp, Nicholas J Wareham, Søren Brage
PURPOSE: Leisure-screen-time, including TV viewing, is associated with increased mortality risk. We estimated the all-cause mortality risk reductions associated with substituting leisure-screen-time with different discretionary physical activity types, and the change in mortality incidence associated with different substitution scenarios. METHODS: 423,659 UK Biobank participants, without stroke, myocardial infarction or cancer history, were followed for 7.6 (1.4) (median (IQR)) years...
January 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106618/right-internal-mammary-artery-use-in-140-robotic-totally-endoscopic-coronary-bypass-cases-toward-multiarterial-grafting
#12
Husam H Balkhy, Sandeep Nathan, Susan E Arnsdorf, Dorothy J Krienbring
OBJECTIVE: Benefits of adding a second arterial graft in coronary bypass are well documented. In patients requiring mulitvessel grafting robotic totally endoscopic coronary bypass (TECAB) has allowed for routine harvesting and use of the right internal mammary artery (RIMA). We retrospectively reviewed the technical considerations and target choice in 140 cases of beating heart TECAB where a RIMA graft was used. METHODS: In 2008, we introduced beating heart TECAB with anastomotic connectors into our practice, first with single IMA and then with bilateral internal mammary artery...
January 19, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106149/blood-pressure-reduction-in-diabetes-lessons-from-accord-sprint-and-empa-reg-outcome
#13
REVIEW
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Antonios A Lazaridis, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, Luis M Ruilope
In patients with diabetes mellitus, the presence of hypertension substantially increases the risk of cardiovascular events, and reductions in blood pressure (BP) can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Following evidence from trials randomizing patients to diastolic BP levels, previous guidelines recommended an office BP target of <130/80 mmHg in individuals with diabetes mellitus. However, the evidence for this systolic BP (SBP) target was derived from observational studies. When the results of the ACCORD-BP study showed that those individuals with diabetes mellitus and a target BP of <120 mmHg had a cardiovascular risk that is similar to those with <140 mmHg, all guidelines returned to a recommended SBP of <140 mmHg...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104669/sex-specific-outcomes-with-addition-of-defibrillation-to-resynchronisation-therapy-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#14
Sérgio Barra, Rui Providência, Rudolf Duehmke, Serge Boveda, Eloi Marijon, Christian Reitan, Rasmus Borgquist, Didier Klug, Pascal Defaye, Nicolas Sadoul, Jean-Claude Deharo, Iannish Sadien, Kiran Patel, Khang-Li Looi, David Begley, Anthony W Chow, Jean-Yves Le Heuzey, Sharad Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: Among primary prevention patients with heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT), the impact of additional implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) treatment on outcomes and its interaction with sex remains uncertain. We aim to assess whether the addition of the ICD functionality to CRT devices offers a more pronounced survival benefit in men compared with women, as previous research has suggested. METHODS: Observational multicentre cohort study of 5307 consecutive patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy and no history of sustained ventricular arrhythmias having CRT implantation with (cardiac resynchronisation therapy defibrillator (CRT-D), n=4037) or without (cardiac resynchronisation therapy pacemaker (CRT-P), n=1270) defibrillator functionality...
January 19, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104622/renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-for-patients-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease-without-heart-failure-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#15
Sripal Bangalore, Robert Fakheri, Simon Wandel, Bora Toklu, Jasmin Wandel, Franz H Messerli
OBJECTIVE:  To critically evaluate the efficacy of renin angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) in patients with coronary artery disease without heart failure, compared with active controls or placebo. DESIGN:  Meta-analysis of randomized trials. DATA SOURCES:  PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases until 1 May 2016. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:  Randomized trials of RASi versus placebo or active controls in patients with stable coronary artery disease without heart failure (defined as left ventricular ejection fraction ≥40% or without clinical heart failure)...
January 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104521/endoscopic-versus-microscopic-transsphenoidal-surgery-in-the-treatment-of-pituitary-adenoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Aijun Li, Weisheng Liu, Peicheng Cao, Yuehua Zheng, Zhenfu Bu, Tao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the efficacy and safety of endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma. This study aimed to assess the benefits and shortcomings of these surgical methods in patients with pituitary adenoma. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched, as well as proceedings of major meetings. Eligible studies with retrospective or prospective design that evaluated endoscopic versus microscopic methods in patients with pituitary adenoma were included...
January 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104428/long-term-clinical-outcomes-and-predictors-for-survivors-of-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#17
Mony Shuvy, Laurie J Morrison, Maria Koh, Feng Qiu, Jason E Buick, Paul Dorian, Damon C Scales, Jack V Tu, P Richard Verbeek, Harindra C Wijeysundera, Dennis T Ko
AIMS: Improvement in resuscitation efforts has translated to an increasing number of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our objectives were to assess the long-term outcomes and predictors of mortality for patients who survived OHCA. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study linking the Toronto RescuNET cardiac arrest database with administrative databases in Ontario, Canada. We included patients with non-traumatic OHCA from December 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014...
January 16, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104387/impact-of-echinocandin-on-prognosis-of-proven-invasive-candidiasis-in-icu-a-post-hoc-causal-inference-model-using-the-amarcand2-study
#18
Sébastien Bailly, Olivier Leroy, Elie Azoulay, Philippe Montravers, Jean-Michel Constantin, Hervé Dupont, Didier Guillemot, Olivier Lortholary, Jean-Paul Mira, Pierre-François Perrigault, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Jean-François Timsit
OBJECTIVE: guidelines recommend first-line systemic antifungal treatment (SAT) with echinocandins in invasive candidiasis (IC), especially in critically ill patients. This study aimed at assessing the impact of echinocandins compared to azoles as initial SAT on the 28-day prognosis in adult ICU patients. METHODS: From the prospective multicenter AmarCAND2 cohort (835 patients), we selected those with documented IC and treated with echinocandins (ECH) or azoles (AZO)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104375/estimate-of-opportunistic-prostate-specific-antigen-testing-in-the-finnish-randomized-study-of-screening-for-prostate-cancer
#19
Tuomas P Kilpeläinen, Dimitri Pogodin-Hannolainen, Kimmo Kemppainen, Kirsi Talala, Jani Raitanen, Kimmo Taari, Paula Kujala, Teuvo L J Tammela, Anssi Auvinen
PURPOSE: Screening for prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial even if the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has shown a 21% relative reduction in PCa mortality. The Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer is the largest component of the ERSPC and showed statistically non-significant 16% mortality benefit in a separate analysis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of contamination in the control arm (CA) of the Finnish trial...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104314/breast-prostate-and-thyroid-cancer-screening-tests-and-overdiagnosis
#20
Minsoo Jung
The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment)...
December 20, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
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