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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025214/abuse-of-immediate-release-opioids-and-current-approaches-to-reduce-misuse-abuse-and-diversion
#1
Srinivas R Nalamachu, Binit Shah
Deaths from opioid overdoses have increased dramatically over the past few years. Given that immediate-release (IR) opioids account for most of the US market share, and that abusers generally prefer IR opioids over extended-release (ER) opioids, it is not surprising that rates of abuse are higher for IR than ER opioids. IR opioids are widely prescribed, often without consideration for risks of abuse, misuse, and diversion. Prescription opioid abuse and misuse often begins through oral administration and progresses into non-oral routes (e...
July 19, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024944/small-molecule-disruption-of-g-protein-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-subunit-signaling-reprograms-human-macrophage-phenotype-and-prevents-autoimmune-myocarditis-in-rats
#2
Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Anamika Bajpai, Shu Meng, Somasundaram Arumugam, Remya Sreedhar, Vijayasree V Giridharan, Ashrith Guha, Arvind Bhimaraj, Keith A Youker, Suresh S Palaniyandi, Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Fadia Kamal, Kara L Spiller, Kenichi Watanabe, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan
The purpose of this study was to determine whether blocking of G protein βγ (Gβγ) signaling halts heart failure (HF) progression by macrophage phenotype manipulation. Cardiac Gβγ signaling plays a crucial role in HF pathogenesis. Previous data suggested that inhibiting Gβγ signaling reprograms T helper cell 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines, suggesting that Gβγ might be a useful drug target for treating HF. We investigated the efficacy of a small molecule Gβγ inhibitor, gallein, in a clinically relevant, experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model of HF as well as in human macrophage phenotypes in vitro...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024631/evaluation-of-medical-prescriptions-and-off-label-use-on-board-ships-to-improve-healthcare-quality
#3
G Nittari, G Pallotta, I Pirillo, G Ricci, F Amenta
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the appropriateness of drug therapies prescribed for a particular category of patients: the seafarers. We investigated an important problem of this area: the off-label use of drugs, which resulted to be a consequence of major shortcomings in the on-board pharmacies of ships. The off-label use of drugs is allowed, but can lead to some not negligible ethical and health problems, compromising the quality of provided healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis was performed on electronic health records of patients onboard ships without physicians, and assisted by the CIRM from 2011 to 2015...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024415/facilitating-cells-role-in-inducing-transplantation-tolerance
#4
Anita Yogendra Chhabra, Suzanne T Ildstad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the role and mechanisms by which facilitating cells promote stem cell engraftment and induce tolerance in HLA-disparate kidney transplant recipients. RECENT FINDING: Facilitating cells in both mice and human are heterogeneous, consisting of several subpopulations. They have been shown to enhance stem cell engraftment in allogeneic recipients. They also increase hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) clonogenicity, enhance migration and homing of stem cells via secretion of cytokines/chemokines/growth factors, prevent apoptosis of stem cells and induce regulatory cells...
July 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024023/blood-pressure-lowering-treatment-for-preventing-recurrent-stroke-major-vascular-events-and-dementia-in-patients-with-a-history-of-stroke-or-transient-ischaemic-attack
#5
REVIEW
Thomas P Zonneveld, Edo Richard, Mervyn DI Vergouwen, Paul J Nederkoorn, Rob de Haan, Yvo Bwem Roos, Nyika D Kruyt
BACKGROUND: Stroke is an important cause of death and disability worldwide. Since high blood pressure is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence, drugs that lower blood pressure might play an important role in secondary stroke prevention. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether blood pressure-lowering drugs (BPLDs) started at least 48 hours after the index event are effective for the prevention of recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and dementia in people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)...
July 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023590/drug-triggered-self-assembly-of-linear-polymer-into-nanoparticles-for-simultaneous-delivery-of-hydrophobic-and-hydrophilic-drugs-in-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Sandeep Palvai, Libi Anandi, Sujit Sarkar, Meera Augustus, Sudip Roy, Mayurika Lahiri, Sudipta Basu
Breast cancer is the most devastating disease among females globally. Conventional chemotherapeutic regimen relies on the use of highly cytotoxic drugs as monotherapy and combination therapy leading to severe side effects to the patients as collateral damage. Moreover, combining hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs create erratic biodistribution and suboptimal medicinal outcome. Hence, packaging multiple drugs of diverse mechanisms of action and biodistribution for safe delivery into tumor tissues with optimal dosages is indispensable for next-generation breast cancer therapy...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023153/seroprevalence-of-toxocara-in-children-from-urban-and-rural-areas-of-ilam-province-west-iran
#7
Sahar Shokouhi, Jahangir Abdi
Objectives: The present study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxocara in children ≤ 10 years old, from rural and urban areas of Ilam. Methods: Serum samples from 383 children ≤ 10 years old, were selected randomly from rural and urban areas of Ilam province and surveyed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: The total rate of infection with Toxocara was 22% (31% with a history of contact with dogs and cats, and 14% without a history of contact)...
June 2018: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022956/cannabis-a-significant-risk-factor-for-violent-behavior-in-the-early-phase-psychosis-two-patterns-of-interaction-of-factors-increase-the-risk-of-violent-behavior-cannabis-use-disorder-and-impulsivity-cannabis-use-disorder-lack-of-insight-and-treatment-adherence
#8
Valerie Moulin, Philipp Baumann, Mehdi Gholamrezaee, Luis Alameda, Julie Palix, Jacques Gasser, Philippe Conus
Background: Previous literature suggests that prevalence of cannabis use in the early phase of psychosis is high, and that early psychosis patients are at high-risk for violent behavior. However, the link between cannabis use and violent behavior in early psychosis patients is unclear. We carried out a study on a sample of early psychosis patients, in order to explore the impact of cannabis use on the risk of violent behavior (VB), while taking into account (1) potential confounding factors and, (2) interactions with other dynamic risk factors of VB...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022810/self-nanomicellizing-solid-dispersion-of-edaravone-part-ii-in-vivo-assessment-of-efficacy-against-behavior-deficits-and-safety-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#9
Ankit Parikh, Krishna Kathawala, Jintao Li, Chi Chen, Zhengnan Shan, Xia Cao, Yan-Jiang Wang, Sanjay Garg, Xin-Fu Zhou
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that lacks any disease-modifying drug for the prevention and treatment. Edaravone (EDR), an approved free radical scavenger, has proven to have potential against AD by targeting multiple key pathologies including amyloid-beta (Aβ), tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. To enable its oral use, novel edaravone formulation (NEF) was previously developed. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate safety and efficacy of NEF by using in vitro/in vivo disease model...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022529/intracoronary-focal-nitroglycerin-injection-through-drilled-balloon-is-very-effective-in-the-resolution-of-coronary-spasm-versus-into-proximal-coronary-artery-a-prospective-randomized-comparison-study
#10
Yakup Balaban, Ahmet Kaya, Mustafa H Satilmisoglu, Muhammet B Balaban
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of NTG administration via catheter and local NTG infusion through a perforated balloon in order to prevent coronary spasm from developing during percutaneous intervention. METHOD: The study began with 1:1 randomization into two groups of a total of 1688 patients scheduled for PCT. A total of 91 patients in the proximal group who developed lesions received 500 mcg NTG through a catheter, while 85 patients in the local group with lesions developed during the procedure received 500 mcg local NTG through a perforated balloon...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021470/adolescent-female-school-dropouts-who-use-drugs-and-engage-in-risky-sex-effects-of-a-brief-pilot-intervention-in-cape-town-south-africa
#11
Tara Carney, Felicia A Browne, Bronwyn Myers, Tracy L Kline, Brittni Howard, Wendee M Wechsberg
Female adolescents from socioeconomically underserved communities in Cape Town, South Africa, who have dropped out of school, use substances, and engage in risky sex behaviour are at risk of HIV. Tailored gender-focused HIV behavioural interventions for this key population are needed to mitigate these risk factors. A pilot trial of a woman-focused risk-reduction intervention for adolescents was conducted (N = 100), with a one-month follow-up appointment. Participants in the intervention group attended two group workshops...
July 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021339/tanshinones-from-salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge-revert-chemotherapy-induced-neuropathic-pain-and-reduce-glioblastoma-cells-malignancy
#12
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Marialuisa Piccolo, Francesco Maione, Maria Grazia Ferraro, Carlo Irace, Vincenzo De Feo, Carla Ghelardini, Nicola Mascolo
Medicinal plants and herbal extracts from traditional Chinese medicine are used increasingly commonly worldwide for their benefits to health and quality of life as dietary supplements or as ingredients in functional foods. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (a natural strong remedy for the treatment of a variety of conditions) is traditionally used for centuries in Asian countries as antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agent. In this context, several evidences support the hypothesis that some tanshinones (in particular tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone) extracted from the roots (Danshen) of Salvia miltiorrhiza exert neuroprotective and analgesic activities...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021162/hdaci-delivery-reprograms-tumor-infiltrating-myeloid-cells-to-eliminate-antigen-loss-variants
#13
Andrew Nguyen, Louisa Ho, Samuel T Workenhe, Lan Chen, Jonathan Samson, Scott R Walsh, Jonathan Pol, Jonathan L Bramson, Yonghong Wan
Immune recognition of tumor-expressed antigens by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells is the foundation of adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) and has been shown to elicit significant tumor regression. However, therapy-induced selective pressure can sculpt the antigenicity of tumors, resulting in outgrowth of variants that lose the target antigen. We demonstrate that tumor relapse from ACT and subsequent oncolytic viral vaccination can be prevented using class I HDACi, MS-275. Drug delivery subverted the phenotype of tumor-infiltrating CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G- myeloid cells, favoring NOS2/ROS secretion and pro-inflammatory genes characteristic of M1 polarization...
July 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020783/structure-function-analysis-of-immune-checkpoint-receptors-to-guide-emerging-anticancer-immunotherapy
#14
Rita Ac Uacute Rcio, Anna Scomparin, Joao Conniot, Jorge A R Salvador, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Helena F Florindo, Rita Cardoso Guedes
The modulation of immune checkpoint receptors has been one of the most successful, exciting and explored approaches for cancer immunotherapy. Currently several immune checkpoint modulators, mainly monoclonal antibodies, are showing remarkable results. However, the failure to show a response in most patients and the induction of severe immune-related adverse effects are the major drawbacks. Novel approaches concerning the development of immune modulatory small molecules have emerged as an alternative. Nevertheless, the lack of structural information about immune checkpoint receptors has hindered the rational design of those small-molecule modulators, by preventing the use of methodologies such as computer-aided drug design...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020573/-new-indications-for-existing-drugs-repurposing-in-psychiatry-and-addiction-medicine
#15
Jurriaan F M Strous, Wim van den Brink
Repurposing is the discovery - whether or not by accident - of a new use for an existing product, for example, a new indication for a drug. In the past, several psychotropic drugs have received their place in the treatment arsenal via this route. Both in psychiatry and addiction medicine, there is an important need for new treatments with new working mechanisms. Potential new uses in both psychiatry and addiction medicine of several drugs that have already been registered for other indications are currently under study...
May 2, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020339/studies-evaluating-of-health-interventions-at-schools-an-integrative-literature-review
#16
Eliabe Rodrigues de Medeiros, Danielle Gonçalves da Cruz Rebouças, Alany Carla de Sousa Paiva, Camila Priscila Abdias do Nascimento, Sandy Yasmine Bezerra E Silva, Erika Simone Galvão Pinto
OBJECTIVE: to identify and analyze the available evidence on the strategies used in the studies evaluating health interventions at school. METHOD: this is an integrative review searching in LILACS, CINAHL, CUIDEN, ScienceDirect, and PubMed. From the pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, there were 121 articles chosen to compose the sample. RESULTS: english studies (97.5%), with a quantitative approach (80.2%), related to the interventions carried out in the Region of the Americas (54...
July 16, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020239/association-of-general-and-central-adiposity-with-blood-pressure-among-chinese-adults-results-from-the-china-national-stroke-prevention-project
#17
Wenning Fu, Shiyi Cao, Bing Liu, Haibin Li, Fujian Song, Yong Gan, Wenzhen Li, Longde Wang, Sampson Opoku, Shijiao Yan, Wei Yue, Feng Yan, Chao Wang, Hui Li, Qiaoyan Liu, Xiaojun Wang, Zhihong Wang, Zuxun Lu
BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association concluded that waist circumference was a better predictor of blood pressure risk than BMI in Asians. However, data are inconsistent and information in Chinese, the largest global population group, is limited. METHODS: Data was obtained from the Chinese National Stroke Prevention Project Survey of a nationally representative sample of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. A total of 135 825 individuals not taking any antihypertensive drugs were included in this study...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020209/single-versus-multiple-suicide-attempts-a-prospective-examination-of-psychiatric-factors-and-wish-to-die-wish-to-live-index-among-military-and-civilian-psychiatrically-admitted-patients
#18
Kristen M Kochanski, Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Gregory K Brown, Aaron T Beck, Kanchana U Perera, Laura Novak, Jessica M LaCroix, Rene M Lento, Marjan Ghahramanlou-Holloway
Individuals with multiple suicide attempts have a greater risk for eventual suicide death. We investigated clinical differences in participants with single versus multiple suicide attempts. Individuals with multiple attempts were more likely to have severe depressive symptoms, drug use disorder, and a higher wish to die. Borderline personality disorder traits and drug use disorder were significant predictors of multiple attempts when adjusting for other psychiatric disorders. Participants with multiple attempts sustained higher suicidal ideation-worst and wish to die/wish to live-worst scores during the 3-month assessment period...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020101/reducing-the-incidence-of-substance-use-disorders-in-anesthesiology-residents-13-years-of-comprehensive-urine-drug-screening
#19
Michael G Fitzsimons, Keith Baker, Rajeev Malhotra, Andrew Gottlieb, Edward Lowenstein, Warren M Zapol
WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: The incidence of substance use disorders in the United States among residents in anesthesiology is between 1% and 2%. A recent study reported that the incidence of substance use disorders in U.S. anesthesiology residents has been increasing. There are no reports of effective methods to prevent substance use disorder in residents. A comprehensive drug testing program including a random component may reduce the incidence of substance use disorders...
July 17, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019917/plasmodium-falciparum-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase-a-drug-target-against-malaria
#20
Lucas Vb Hoelz, Felipe A Calil, Maria C Nonato, Luiz Cs Pinheiro, Nubia Boechat
Malaria remains one of the most lethal infectious diseases worldwide, and the most severe form is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. In recent decades, the major challenge to treatment of this disease has been the ability of the protozoan parasite to develop resistance to the drugs that are currently in use. Among P. falciparum enzymes, P. falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase has been identified as an important target in drug discovery. Interference with the activity of this enzyme inhibits de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and consequently prevents malarial infection...
July 18, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
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