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Drug use prevention

Gianni Testino, Silvia Leone, Sharmila Fagoonee, Rinaldo Pellicano
Alcohol consumption is one of the main risks to public health. Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) cause 80% of hepatotoxic deaths, and approximately 50% of cirrhosis is alcoholrelated. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for ethanol is 2.6 g/day, deduced from morbidity and mortality rates due to liver fibrosis. The relative risk of cirrhosis increases significantly for doses above 60 g/day for men and 20 g/day for women over a period of around 10 years. Twenty to 40% of steatosis cases will evolve into steatohepatitis / steatofibrosis, and 8 to 20% will evolve directly into liver cirrhosis...
September 13, 2018: Minerva Medica
Hila Yariv, David Dvir
INTRODUCTION: The importance of correcting medication errors at hospital admission is paramount for promoting error-free delivery and continuity of care. Recently stakeholders have paid considerable attention to patient safety in acute-care hospitals but less is known about discrepancies and medication errors during patients` admission in other health care settings, such as post-acute care providers. An increased understanding of errors that occur in rehabilitation hospitals, would better equip stakeholders in taking actions to improve the safety of patient care in this unique setting...
September 2018: Harefuah
Joo Wan Kim, You-Suk Lee, Du Jin Seol, Il Je Cho, Sae Kwang Ku, Jae-Suk Choi, Hae-Jeung Lee
Blue honeysuckle (BH, Lonicera caerulea) is used as a traditional medicine in Russia, Japan and China, but is not commonly considered as an edible berry in Europe, USA or Korea. BH has been revealed to decrease serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol (triglyceride or TG) levels through the activation of AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK), thus it is expected to be a health functional food and pharmaceutical agent for the prevention of non‑alcoholic liver damage, in addition to effects as a suppressor of hyperlipidemia and as an anti‑obesity agent...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ricardo Imbroisi Filho, Daniel T G Gonzaga, Thaina M Demaria, Joao G B Leandro, Dora C S Costa, Vitor F Ferreira, Mauro Sola-Penna, Fernando de C da Silva, Patricia Zancan
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide, despite the many different drugs available to treat the disease. This high mortality rate is largely due to the complexity of the disease, which results from several genetic and epigenetic changes. Therefore, researchers are constantly searching for novel drugs that can target different and multiple aspects of cancer. RESULTS: After a screening, we selected one novel molecule, out of ninety-four triazole derivatives, that strongly affects viability and proliferation of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, with minimal effects on non-cancer cells...
September 16, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Alexander S Perlmutter, Myrela Bauman, Shivani Mantha, Luis E Segura, Lilian Ghandour, Silvia S Martins
Purpose of review: This paper reviews the most recent epidemiological evidence on adolescent NMPD use. Particular attention is given to prevention, assessment and diagnosis of disorder, and treatment. Recent findings: While international in scope, global evidence is only available for NMPD use, morbidity and mortality estimates. Prevention strategies, assessment and treatment are U.S.-centric. The literature on prevention strategies lacks high-quality evidence. Assessment, diagnosis and treatment of NMPD use disorder have more robust evidence bases...
June 2018: Current Addiction Reports
Po-Chang Shih, Yiwen Yang, Gary N Parkinson, Andrew Wilderspin, Geoffrey Wells
Anti-cancer drug discovery efforts to directly inhibit the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) have been active for over a decade following the discovery that 70% of cancers exhibit elevated STAT3 activity. The majority of research has focused on attenuating STAT3 activity through preventing homo-dimerization by targeting the SH2 or transcriptional activation domains. Such dimerization inhibitors have not yet reached the market. However, an alternative strategy focussed on preventing STAT3 DNA-binding through targeting the DNA-binding domain (DBD) offers new drug design opportunities...
August 24, 2018: Oncotarget
Gregg S Gonsalves, Forrest W Crawford
BACKGROUND: In November, 2014, a cluster of HIV infections was detected among people who inject drugs in Scott County, IN, USA, with 215 HIV infections eventually attributed to the outbreak. This study examines whether earlier implementation of a public health response could have reduced the scale of the outbreak. METHODS: In this modelling study, we derived weekly case data from the HIV outbreak in Scott County, IN, and on the uptake of HIV testing, treatment, and prevention services from publicly available reports from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and researchers from Indiana...
September 13, 2018: Lancet HIV
Y Y Shen, L Y Ye, Y Q Zhang, L J Song, Q Zhao, Y P Luo, Y Zhang
Objective: To analyze risk factors and drug resistance of community-onset methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) infection through the investigation of patients infected with CO-MRSA. Methods: The clinical data of 97 cases infected with community-onset staphylococcus aureus (COSA) was collected in this hospital from July 2016 to June 2017. Epidemiological survey method and the variables were determined according to expert consultation, literature and practical work experience. Results: Among 97 patients infected with COSA, the diagnosis rate of CO-MRSA was 21...
August 28, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Allison M Dering-Anderson, Alex J Adams
The transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to humans through tick bites results in Lyme disease. Appropriate therapy for Lyme disease is antibacterial drugs, most often doxycycline. Patients often approach community pharmacists for self-care assistance with the symptoms of Lyme disease: fever, headache, fatigue and skin rash. Pharmacists with the patient history are trained and capable of appropriately dispensing doxycycline to treat these patients and prevent the spread of infection to the joints, nerves or heart...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Phillip L Marotta, Louisa Gilbert, Assel Terlikbayeva, Elwin Wu, Nabila El-Bassel
BACKGROUND: The criminalization of drug use leads to high rates of drug crime convictions for engaging in injection drug use behaviors, introducing barriers to HIV prevention and drug treatment for PWID. Females (FWID) face unique vulnerabilities to HIV compared to males (MWID) in Kazakhstan. This study examined sex differences in associations between HIV/HCV infection, HIV knowledge, injection drug risk behaviors, and conviction for a drug crime in a sample of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Almaty, Kazakhstan...
September 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Xiyuan Ba, Jiali Wang, Shiyang Zhou, Xinxin Luo, Yun Peng, Shimin Yang, Yue Hao, Guangyi Jin
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain is a major limiting factor affecting cancer patients. No effective treatment is currently available. Cinobufacini, an aqueous extract from toad skin, is a widely used anti-cancer drug in China. Clinical evidence has demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of cinobufacini in combination with chemotherapy to promote the therapeutic efficacy while alleviating side effects, especially cancer-related pain symptoms. In this study, the effects of cinobufacini were investigated in a rat model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathic pain (PIPNP) to better understand and expand its clinical application...
September 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chloé Reymond, Nina Jaffré, Nicolas Taudon, Mathilde Menneteau, Hervé Chaussard, Josiane Denis, Cédric Castellarin, Franck Dhote, Frédéric Dorandeu
Organophosphorus nerve agents still represent a serious risk to human health. In the French armed forces, the current emergency treatment against OP intoxications is a fully licensed wet-dry dual-chambered autoinjector (Ineurope ®), that contains pralidoxime methylsulfate (2-PAM) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE), atropine sulfate (AS) and avizafone chlorhydrate (AVZ). While this treatment is effective against several of the known nerve agents, it shows little efficacy against the Russian VX (VR), one of the most toxic compounds...
September 12, 2018: Toxicology
Mahmoud Mostafa, Eman Alaaeldin, Usama Farghaly Aly, Hatem A Sarhan
Thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa oil has been found to have a promising topical anti-inflammatory activity; however, exaggerated heat and photo-sensitivity and lipophilicity prevent the best use of this promising product. The present work aimed to formulate an ideal thymoquinone liposomal system for topical delivery. Different liposomal systems were developed using thin film hydration method by applying different cholesterol molar concentrations, different total lipid molar concentrations, and different drug-to-lipid ratios...
September 14, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Rupesh Raina, Vinod Krishnappa
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis has been used increasingly in clinical practice for the treatment of renal diseases with nephrotic syndrome (NS), specifically focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Persistent hyperlipidemia for prolonged periods is nephrotoxic and leads to chronic progressive glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury. Effective management of hyperlipidemia with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or LDL apheresis in drug-resistant NS patients may prevent the progression of renal disease and, in some patients, resolution of NS symptoms...
September 14, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Andreza B Sonego, Douglas S Prado, Gabriel T Vale, Julia E Sepulveda-Diaz, Thiago M Cunha, Carlos R Tirapelli, Elaine A Del Bel, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Francisco S Guimarães
The chronic use of drugs that reduce the dopaminergic neurotransmission can cause a hyperkinetic movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia (TD). The pathophysiology of this disorder is not entirely understood but could involve oxidative and neuroinflammatory mechanisms. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in Cannabis sativa plant, could be a possible therapeutic alternative for TD. This phytocannabinoid shows antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic properties and decreases the acute motor effects of classical antipsychotics...
September 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Xu-Na Wang, Kui-Yang Wang, Xue-Song Zhang, Chao Yang, Xue-Ying Li
Breast cancer is reported a very complex disease along with heterogeneous morphological characteristics and unrelated clinical behavior, and is a leading cancer among female. Nevertheless, chemo-resistance is frequently observed. Adriamycin (ADM) is a always employed drug to treat clinical breast cancer. However, strong resistance to ADM limited its clinical efficacy. Deregulation of HDAC6 activity is linked to various diseases including cancer resulting in accumulating interest for developing HDAC6 inhibitors...
September 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Wantong Zhang, Baochen Zhu, Weiyi Cao, Rui Li, Shuge Wang, Rui Gao
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a common cardiovascular disease accounting for 10-20% mortality by heart disease worldwide. The gold standard treatment to manage CHD is aspirin, which may prevent myocardial infarction and sudden death; however, long-term use of aspirin may increase its side effects. Currently, more and more clinicians are exploring different approaches to use the right combination of medicine to enhance the efficacy and reduce side effects. Salvianolate can significantly inhibit the aggregation and activation of platelets in patients with CHD; however, its optimum combination with western medicine is not established or supported by clinical trial results...
September 14, 2018: Trials
Salvatore Savino, Annamaria Toscano, Rosa Purgatorio, Emanuela Profilo, Antonio Laghezza, Paolo Tortorella, Mariacristina Angelelli, Saverio Cellamarea, Rosa Scala, Domenico Tricarico, Carlo Marya Thomas Marobbio, Filippo Perna, Paola Vitale, Mariangela Agamennone, Vincenzo Dimiccoli, Anna Tolomeo, Antonio Scilimati
Bisphosphonates such as zoledronic, alendronic and risedronic acids are a class of drugs clinically used to prevent bone density loss and osteoporosis. Novel P-C-P bisphosphonates were synthesized for targeting human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (hFPPS) and human geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (hGGPPS), key enzymes of the mevalonate pathway, and capable of anti-proliferative action on a number of cell lines (PC3, MG63, MC3T3, RAW 264.7, J774A.1, bone marrow cells and their co-colture with PC3) involved in bone homeostasis, bone formation and death...
August 18, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Eric S Nussbaum, Kevin Kallmes, Jodi Lowary, Leslie A Nussbaum
OBJECTIVE Undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV in patients present risks of transmission of bloodborne infections to surgeons intraoperatively. Presurgical screening has been suggested as a protocol to protect surgical staff from these pathogens. The authors sought to determine the incidence of HCV and HIV infection in elective craniotomy patients and analyze the cost-effectiveness of universal and risk factor-specific screening for protection of the surgical staff. METHODS All patients undergoing elective craniotomy between July 2009 and July 2016 at the National Brain Aneurysm Center who did not refuse screening were included in this study...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Nafees Ahmad, Shama D Ahuja, Onno W Akkerman, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar, Laura F Anderson, Parvaneh Baghaei, Didi Bang, Pennan M Barry, Mayara L Bastos, Digamber Behera, Andrea Benedetti, Gregory P Bisson, Martin J Boeree, Maryline Bonnet, Sarah K Brode, James C M Brust, Ying Cai, Eric Caumes, J Peter Cegielski, Rosella Centis, Pei-Chun Chan, Edward D Chan, Kwok-Chiu Chang, Macarthur Charles, Andra Cirule, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Lia D'Ambrosio, Gerard de Vries, Keertan Dheda, Aliasgar Esmail, Jennifer Flood, Gregory J Fox, Mathilde Fréchet-Jachym, Geisa Fregona, Regina Gayoso, Medea Gegia, Maria Tarcela Gler, Sue Gu, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Timothy H Holtz, Jennifer Hughes, Petros Isaakidis, Leah Jarlsberg, Russell R Kempker, Salmaan Keshavjee, Faiz Ahmad Khan, Maia Kipiani, Serena P Koenig, Won-Jung Koh, Afranio Kritski, Liga Kuksa, Charlotte L Kvasnovsky, Nakwon Kwak, Zhiyi Lan, Christoph Lange, Rafael Laniado-Laborín, Myungsun Lee, Vaira Leimane, Chi-Chiu Leung, Eric Chung-Ching Leung, Pei Zhi Li, Phil Lowenthal, Ethel L Maciel, Suzanne M Marks, Sundari Mase, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Giovanni B Migliori, Vladimir Milanov, Ann C Miller, Carole D Mitnick, Chawangwa Modongo, Erika Mohr, Ignacio Monedero, Payam Nahid, Norbert Ndjeka, Max R O'Donnell, Nesri Padayatchi, Domingo Palmero, Jean William Pape, Laura J Podewils, Ian Reynolds, Vija Riekstina, Jérôme Robert, Maria Rodriguez, Barbara Seaworth, Kwonjune J Seung, Kathryn Schnippel, Tae Sun Shim, Rupak Singla, Sarah E Smith, Giovanni Sotgiu, Ganzaya Sukhbaatar, Payam Tabarsi, Simon Tiberi, Anete Trajman, Lisa Trieu, Zarir F Udwadia, Tjip S van der Werf, Nicolas Veziris, Piret Viiklepp, Stalz Charles Vilbrun, Kathleen Walsh, Janice Westenhouse, Wing-Wai Yew, Jae-Joon Yim, Nicola M Zetola, Matteo Zignol, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis remain poor. We aimed to estimate the association of treatment success and death with the use of individual drugs, and the optimal number and duration of treatment with those drugs in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: In this individual patient data meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify potentially eligible observational and experimental studies published between Jan 1, 2009, and April 30, 2016...
September 8, 2018: Lancet
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