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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092722/synthetic-and-natural-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar-agonists-as-candidates-for-the-therapy-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Chek Kun Tan, Yan Zhuang, Walter Wahli
Introduction Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are the molecular targets of hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizing drugs and implicated in a multitude of processes that fine-tune the functions of all organs in vertebrates. As transcription factors they sense endogenous and exogenous lipid signaling molecules and convert these signals into intricate gene responses that impact health and disease. The PPARs act as modulators of cellular, organ, and systemic processes, such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, making them valuable for understanding body homeostasis influenced by nutrition and exercise...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091833/the-gap-between-indicated-and-prescribed-stroke-prevention-therapies-in-a-high-risk-geriatric-population
#2
Mohammed Shurrab, Eugene Crystal, Denis O'Donnell, Hrishikesh Navare, Paula Neves, Rasha Khatib, Ilan Lashevsky, David Newman
PURPOSE: The use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in the elderly population with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated in long-term care (LTC) facilities is inconsistent. We examined the magnitude and sources of the gap between indicated and prescribed OAC in the elderly population with AF. METHODS: We retrospectively scanned the electronic medical record (EMR) and pharmacy data of 25 LTC facilities in Ontario, Canada. The diagnosis of AF was drawn from EMR. Different attributable risk factors for possible failure to prescribe OAC were examined...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091429/chronic-kidney-disease-in-chinese-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
F Pei, Z Zhou, Y Li, Y Ren, X Yang, G Liu, Q Xia, Z Hu, L Zhang, M Zhao, H Wang
INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD), there is ongoing uncertainty regarding the prevalence of CKD in postmenopausal women. This study was designed to investigate both CKD prevalence and related risk factors in a cohort of postmenopausal Chinese women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of female Chinese participants, including a total of 47,204 subjects, among whom were 8573 self-reported postmenopausal women...
February 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090569/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-kinase-activity-maintains-acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia-and-is-required-for-organ-regeneration-in-pancreatitis
#4
Christopher J Halbrook, Hui-Ju Wen, Jeanine M Ruggeri, Kenneth K Takeuchi, Yaqing Zhang, Marina Pasca di Magliano, Howard C Crawford
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the exocrine pancreas has been extensively studied in the context of pancreatic cancer, where its potential as a therapeutic target is limited by acquired drug resistance. However, its role in pancreatitis is less understood. We investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-initiated MAPK signaling in pancreatitis to determine the potential for MEK inhibition in treating pancreatitis patients...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090109/substance-use-attitudes-behaviors-education-and-prevention-in-colleges-of-pharmacy-in-the-united-states
#5
REVIEW
Samah F Al-Shatnawi, Matthew Perri, Henry N Young, Merrill Norton
This review describes and summarizes student pharmacists' substance use behavior in the United States. Current literature indicates that there are problems with alcohol and other drug use among student pharmacists. Although researchers have found variations in the type and rate of reported substance use, significant proportions of student pharmacists were identified as being at high risk for substance use disorders (SUDs). Findings from this review suggest that pharmacy schools should encourage and stimulate more research in order to implement effective screening and early intervention programs in an effort to address this important student health issue...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090040/outcomes-of-brugada-syndrome-patients-with-coronary-artery-vasospasm
#6
Shingo Kujime, Harumizu Sakurada, Naoki Saito, Yoshinari Enomoto, Naoshi Ito, Keijiro Nakamura, Seiji Fukamizu, Tamotsu Tejima, Yuzuru Yambe, Mitsuhiro Nishizaki, Mahito Noro, Masayasu Hiraoka, Kaoru Sugi
Objective To evaluate the outcomes of patients with concomitant Brugada syndrome and coronary artery vasospasm. Methods Patients diagnosed with Brugada syndrome with an implantable cardiac defibrillator were retrospectively investigated, and the coexistence of vasospasm was evaluated. The clinical features and outcomes were evaluated, especially in patients with coexistent vasospasm. A provocation test using acetylcholine was performed in patients confirmed to have no organic stenosis on percutaneous coronary angiography to confirm the presence of vasospasm...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089921/penehyclidine-hydrochloride-prevents-anoxia-reoxygenation-injury-and-induces-h9c2-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-via-a-mitochondrial-pathway
#7
Zhaoqi Wang, Duomao Lin, Liang Zhang, Wenjun Liu, Hongbao Tan, Jun Ma
Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) is an anticholinergic drug that has been widely used in the clinic for years, evaluating for anesthetic premedication, anti-muscarinic, or improving microcirculation. However, very little is known about its protective effects against anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury in myocardiocytes. The aim of our study was to investigate the protective effects of PHC pretreatment on A/R injury, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. To investigate apoptosis, we used the cell viability assay, Annexin-V/PI assay, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activity measurements...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089914/arachidonic-acid-with-taurine-enhances-pulmonary-absorption-of-macromolecules-without-any-serious-histopathological-damages
#8
Masateru Miyake, Takanori Minami, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Chie Emoto, Tadashi Mukai, Hajime Toguchi
Therapeutic peptides and protein are being used in several indications; however, their poor permeability still remains to be solved. This study focused on the pulmonary route of macromolecules. First, the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) as an absorption enhancer on drug serum concentration, after intratracheal administration, were investigated in rats. Second, the safety of AA was assessed in rats in an acute toxicity study for 7 days. AA enhanced the exposure of both interferon-α (IFN-α) and fluorescein isothiocyanate 4000 (FD-4)...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089842/curbing-tumorigenesis-and-malignant-progression-through-the-pharmacological-control-of-the-wound-healing-process
#9
REVIEW
Melania Dovizio, Angela Sacco, Paola Patrignani
The prevention of cancer development and its progression is an urgent unmet medical need. Novel knowledge on the biology of cancer has evidenced that genetic changes occurring within cancer cells contribute, but are not sufficient, for tumor promotion and progression. The results of clinical studies and experimental animal models have suggested pursuing new avenues for the prevention of cancer development in the early stages, by using drugs that modulate platelet responses and those interfering with the synthesis and action of the mediators of inflammation...
January 12, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089792/pharmacological-inhibition-of-pkc%C3%AE-counteracts-muscle-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#10
V Marrocco, P Fiore, A Benedetti, S Pisu, E Rizzuto, A Musarò, L Madaro, B Lozanoska-Ochser, M Bouché
: Inflammation plays a considerable role in the progression of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle disease caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. We previously showed that genetic ablation of Protein Kinase C θ (PKCθ) in mdx, the mouse model of DMD, improves muscle healing and regeneration, preventing massive inflammation. To establish whether pharmacological targeting of PKCθ in DMD can be proposed as a therapeutic option, in this study we treated young mdx mice with the PKCθ inhibitor Compound 20 (C20)...
January 7, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088890/nanoparticles-as-a-carrier-system-for-drug-delivery-across-blood-brain-barrier
#11
Alika Sarkar, Ismat Fatima, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Usman Sayeed, M Kalim A Khan, Salman Akhtar, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Alvina Farooqui, Mohammad Haris Siddiqui
Brain, the center of the nervous system and an integral part the body, is protected by two anatomical and biochemical dynamic barriers- Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) and Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier (BCSFB). Blood-Brain Barrier is a highly complex multi-cellular organized structure that protects the brain from harmful substances and invading organisms from the bloodstream and thus protecting it from diseases and injuries. However, it also significantly precludes the delivery of drug to the brain, thus, preventing treatment of a number of neurological disorders...
January 13, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088741/prevalence-and-correlates-of-fentanyl-contaminated-heroin-exposure-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#12
Alexandria Macmadu, Jennifer J Carroll, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: The rate of overdose deaths caused by fentanyl-contaminated heroin (FCH) use is increasing rapidly in the United States. We examined risk factors for exposure to FCH and experiences with FCH use among young adult non-medical prescription opioids (NMPO) users. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which enrolled young adults aged 18 to 29 reporting prior 30day NMPO use between January 2015 and February 2016...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088740/associations-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-student-teacher-relationships-and-non-medical-use-of-prescription-medications-among-adolescents
#13
Myriam Forster, Amy L Gower, Iris W Borowsky, Barbara J McMorris
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and nonmedical use of prescription medication (NMUPM) in population-based samples of adolescents, and even fewer have examined whether promotive factors might buffer these effects. The present study assesses the direct effects of ACE and positive student-teacher relationships on NUMPD and whether positive student-teacher relationships moderate this association. DESIGN: Data were from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (MSS), an in-school survey administered every three years to students throughout Minnesota...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088739/the-effects-of-rurality-on-substance-use-disorder-diagnosis-a-multiple-groups-latent-class-analysis
#14
Billy Brooks, Matthew McBee, Robert Pack, Arsham Alamian
BACKGROUND: Rates of accidental overdose mortality from substance use disorder (SUD) have risen dramatically in the United States since 1990. Between 1999 and 2004 alone rates increased 62% nationwide, with rural overdose mortality increasing at a rate 3 times that seen in urban populations. Cultural differences between rural and urban populations (e.g., educational attainment, unemployment rates, social characteristics, etc.) affect the nature of SUD, leading to disparate risk of overdose across these communities...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088167/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-to-assess-the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-a-novel-dual-action-oral-topical-formulation-against-upper-respiratory-infections
#15
Pranab K Mukherjee, Frank Esper, Ken Buchheit, Karen Arters, Ina Adkins, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Robert A Salata
BACKGROUND: Current prevention options for upper respiratory infections (URIs) are not optimal. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ARMS-I™ (currently marketed as Halo™) in the prevention of URIs. METHODS: ARMS-I is patented novel formulation for the prevention and treatment of influenza, comprising a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent (cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) and components (glycerin and xanthan gum) that form a barrier on the host mucosa, thus preventing viral contact and invasion...
January 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088084/correlates-of-anti-hepatitis-c-positivity-and-use-of-harm-reduction-services-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-two-cities-in-croatia
#16
Senad Handanagic, Sandra Sevic, Jelena Barbaric, Zoran Dominkovic, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Josip Begovac, Ivana Bozicevic
BACKGROUND: We assessed correlates of anti-hepatitis C (anti-HCV) positivity and utilization of needle and syringe exchange programs (NSEP) and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in two Croatian cities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven (RDS) sampling among PWID in Rijeka (N=255) and Split (N=399). We used RDS-weighted population estimates and multivariable logistic regression to explore correlates of anti-HCV positivity and NSEP and OAT utilization...
December 7, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087617/in-vitro-activity-of-the-antiasthmatic-drug-zafirlukast-against-the-oral-pathogens-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-streptococcus-mutans
#17
Evelien Gerits, Isolde Van der Massen, Katleen Vandamme, Kaat De Cremer, Katrijn De Brucker, Karin Thevissen, Bruno P A Cammue, Serge Beullens, Maarten Fauvart, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
Oral infections are among the most common diseases worldwide. Many protocols for the prevention and treatment of oral infections have been described, yet no golden standard has been developed so far. The antiseptic chlorhexidine and antibiotics are often used in these treatment procedures. However, long-term use of chlorhexidine can lead to side effects and extensive use of antibiotics can promote the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which in turn can compromise the effectiveness of the treatment...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087488/cathepsin-k-targeted-sub-micron-particles-for-regenerative-repair-of-vascular-elastic-matrix
#18
Brenton Jennewine, Jonathan Fox, Anand Ramamurthi
: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) involve slow dilation and weakening of the aortic wall due to breakdown of structural matrix components, such as elastic fibers by chronically overexpressed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), primarily, MMPs-2 and -9. Auto-regenerative repair of disrupted elastic fibers by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the AAA site is intrinsically poor and together with chronic proteolysis prevents restoration of elastin homeostasis, necessary to enable AAA growth arrest or regression to a healthy state...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087399/advances-with-using-crispr-cas-mediated-gene-editing-to-treat-infections-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus
#19
REVIEW
Buhle Moyo, Kristie Bloom, Tristan Scott, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic infections with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) account for the majority of cases of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies for the infections have limitations and improved efficacy is necessary to prevent complications in carriers of the viruses. In the case of HBV persistence, the replication intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is particularly problematic. Licensed therapies have little effect on cccDNA and HBV replication relapses following treatment withdrawal...
January 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087207/continuous-medication-monitoring-comm-a-foundational-model-to-support-the-clinical-work-of-community-pharmacists
#20
Amber M Goedken, Christine M Butler, Randal P McDonough, Michael J Deninger, William R Doucette
BACKGROUND: Under the Continuous Medication Monitoring (CoMM) approach, community pharmacists prevent, identify, resolve, and document drug therapy problems during the dispensing process. OBJECTIVE: To describe the patients receiving CoMM interventions and the pattern of delivery of CoMM interventions. METHODS: Pharmacy dispensing and clinical records were reviewed for patients filling at least one prescription and receiving at least one continuous medication monitoring intervention at a community pharmacy from April 2014 through March 2015...
January 2, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
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