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Substance use prevention

Lana Rabinovich, Viktoryia Kazlouskaya
Topical sunscreens are the mainstay for protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. With skin cancer rates on the rise and great interest in reversing or preventing the effects of photoaging, new molecules with potential to defend against UV damage have received a great deal of attention. Specifically, there is a growing interest in herbal substances that offer protection against the damaging effects of UV rays. Herbal substances may work as adsorbents of the UV rays and antioxidants and potentially have few side effects...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Isabel Martínez-Hernández, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Donají Chi-Castañeda, Libia Vega, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate Central Nervous System, is involved in almost every aspect of brain physiology, and its signaling properties are severely affected in most neurodegenerative diseases. This neurotransmitter has to be efficiently removed from the synaptic cleft in order to prevent an over-stimulation of glutamate receptors that leads to neuronal death. Specific sodium-dependent membrane transporters, highly enriched in glial cells, elicit the clearance of glutamate...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Raeana E Newberry, Derek J Dean, Madison D Sayyah, Vijay A Mittal
BACKGROUND: Exercise has increasingly been proposed as a healthful intervention prior to and after the onset of psychosis. There is some evidence to suggest that youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis are less physically active and report more barriers to engaging in exercise; however, there has been relatively limited empirical work documenting this phenomenon, and to date, relationships between physical activity, barriers, and clinical phenomenology have been unclear. METHODS: CHR (N = 51) and healthy control (N = 37) participants completed a structured clinical interview assessing attenuated psychotic symptoms and substance use, and an exercise survey that assessed current exercise practices, perceived physical fitness, and barriers related to engaging in exercise...
June 13, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Erika M Collazo-Vargas, Brian Dodge, Debby Herbenick, Lucia Guerra-Reyes, Rasul Mowatt, Ilia M Otero-Cruz, Carlos Rodríguez-Díaz
OBJECTIVE: People who inject drugs (PWID) face numerous gender-specific health risks, which increase their susceptibility to adverse outcomes, including violence. There is a need for research on female PWID to capture their unique experiences and understand behavioral and gender-based differences. This study aimed to understand which drug use and sexual behaviors are the most prevalent among female PWID accessing health services in Puerto Rico and to gather preliminary information on those individuals' experiences of sexual violence...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Philip J Schneider, Craig A Pedersen, Douglas J Scheckelhoff
PURPOSE: The results of the 2017 ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings are described. METHODS: Pharmacy directors at 4,828 general and children's medical- surgical hospitals in the United States were surveyed using a mixed-mode method of contact by mail and e-mail. Survey completion was online, using Qualtrics (Qualtrics, Provo, UT). IMS Health supplied data on hospital characteristics; the survey sample was drawn from the IMS hospital database (IMS Health, Yardley, PA)...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Kimberly B Werner, Renee M Cunningham-Williams, Whitney Sewell, Arpana Agrawal, Vivia V McCutcheon, Mary Waldron, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure has been linked to risky sexual behavior (RSB), but few studies have examined the impact of distinct trauma types on RSB in one model or how the association with trauma and RSB may differ across race. PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to examine the contribution of trauma exposure types to RSB-substance-related RSB and partner-related RSB identified through factor analysis-in young Black and White adult women. METHODS: We investigated the associations of multiple trauma types and RSB factor scores in participants from a general population sample of young adult female twins (n = 2,948)...
June 11, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Colette Ramsey, Edel Ennis, Siobhan O'Neill
OBJECTIVE: Despite their widespread use, there is limited evidence on whether crisis lines are effective, how to identify callers at risk or the best ways of supporting callers to prevent suicide. This study compared the features of callers and call patterns in service users who had died by suicide with those who were currently alive from 2008 to 2011. METHODS: Using information contained on Contact's (Northern Ireland's "Lifeline" service) Client Information Management System (CIMS), 118 deaths by suicide from 2008 to 2011 were compared with a matched control group (matched on age, gender, and main presenting issue on first contact) who had not died by suicide...
June 14, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Jessica Green, Francis J Gilchrist, Will Carroll
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, life-limiting, genetically inherited disease. It affects multiple organs, particularly the respiratory system. However, gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) are also important and well-recognised complications in CF. They share similar symptoms e.g. bloating, abdominal pain, but are distinct conditions. Constipation occurs when there is gradual faecal impaction of the colon, but DIOS occurs when there is an accumulation of faeces and sticky mucus, forming a mass in the distal part of the small intestine...
June 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Youn Kyoung Kim, Moses Okumu, Eusebius Small, Silviya Pavlova Nikolova, Cecilia Mengo
Background and objectives Research has shown an increased prevalence of substance use among adolescents in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Peer affiliation, bullying, and psychological stress are significantly associated with substance use. This study empirically tested theoretical frameworks linking peer affiliation, bullying victimization, loneliness and substance use (specifically tobacco or alcohol use) among adolescents. Materials and methods Data were obtained from the 2009 Malawi Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) with a representative sample of 2359 students aged 13-17 years in Malawi, Sub-Saharan Africa...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Rungsiya Wonguppa, Manop Kanato
Introduction: Analyzing the situation and risk factors associated with using new psychoactive substances (NPS) is essential for preventing and controlling health consequences. This study explored the prevalence and associated factors of NPS use in the Thai population. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in participants (N = 30,411, mean age = 42.4 ± 13.4 years, range = 15-64 years, 50.3% women) from urban and rural areas of Thailand. The participants were chosen using multistage sampling for large populations...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Anita G Rao, Priscilla H Chan, Heather A Prentice, Elizabeth W Paxton, Ronald A Navarro, Mark T Dillon, Anshuman Singh
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic remains a serious issue in the United States with significant impact to the medical and socioeconomic welfare of communities. We sought to determine baseline opioid use in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty (SA) and identify patient characteristics, comorbidities, and surgical risk factors associated with postoperative opioid use. METHODS: A Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry identified the number of dispensed opioid medication prescriptions (Rxs) in the first postoperative year in patients who underwent elective primary SA from 2008 to 2014...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Karine Paula Reichert, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Jessie Martins Gutierres, Luana Paula Pelinson, Naiara Stefanello, Diéssica Padilha Dalenogare, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Thauan Faccin Lopes, Vera Maria Morsch
SCOPE: Beneficial effects produced by polyphenolic compounds are used in the treatment of various diseases, including diabetes. Thus it is relevant to investigate the protective effect of Lingonberry extract (LB) on the activities of nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), and adenosine deaminase (ADA), the density of A1, A2A, and P2 × 7 receptors, production of reactive species (RS), and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the cerebral cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Sihong Liu, Assaf Oshri, Erinn B Duprey
OBJECTIVE: The relationships between depressive symptoms and alcohol use among maltreated youth have been well documented. However, the direction of these associations remains unclear. Two prevalent but contrasting perspectives on these associations-the self-medication and impaired-functioning hypotheses-have each received extensive support. The present study aims to test these hypotheses and to reconcile these theoretical and empirical inconsistencies by advancing a third integrative conceptualization, the bidirectional hypothesis, which considers developmental timing in the transactional associations between maltreated youth's depressive symptoms and alcohol use over time...
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Samantha Schiavon, Kathleen Hodgin, Aaron Sellers, Margaret Word, James W Galbraith, John Dantzler, Karen L Cropsey
INTRODUCTION: Drug overdoses are the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. It is imperative to explore predictors of opioid overdose in order to facilitate targeted treatment and prevention efforts. The present study was conducted as an exploratory examination of the factors associated with having a past opioid overdose. METHODS: Participants (N = 244) from substance treatment facilities, inpatient services following ER admittance, or involved within the drug court system and who reported opioid use in the past 6 months were recruited in this study...
May 30, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Riccardo Torosantucci, Britta Furtmann, Bettina Elshorst, Stefania Pfeiffer-Marek, Tanja Hartleb, Nikolaus Andres, Till Bussemer
Preservatives are excipients essentially needed in pharmaceutical multi-dose formulations to prevent microbial growth. Among available substances, phenol is widely used for parenterals, however, it is known to interact with non-ionic surfactants like polysorbate and potentially with the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Although the need for combinations of surfactants and preservatives is growing, to date possible molecular interactions which can eventually weaken the stability and antimicrobial activity of the formulation are not yet well understood and properly investigated...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rossana Rosa, Curtis J Donskey, L Silvia Munoz-Price
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colonization resistance refers to the innate defense provided by the indigenous microbiota against colonization by pathogenic organisms. We aim to describe how this line of defense is deployed against Clostridium difficile and what the implications are for interventions directed by Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. RECENT FINDINGS: The indigenous microbiota provides colonization resistance through depletion of nutrients, prevention of access to adherence sites within the gut mucosa, production of inhibitory substances, and stimulation of the host's immune system...
June 7, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Jerreed D Ivanich, Alicia C Mousseau, Melissa Walls, Les Whitbeck, Nancy Rumbaugh Whitesell
Indigenous communities often face disproportionate challenges across a variety of health domains, and effective prevention strategies are sorely needed. Unfortunately, evidence is scant regarding what approaches are effective for these communities. A common approach is to take an evidence-based practice or program with documented effectiveness in other populations and implement it with Indigenous populations. While a science of intervention adaptation is emerging, there remains little guidance on processes for adaptation that strategically leverage both existing scientific evidence and Indigenous prevention strategies...
June 6, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Mohammed Ajebli, Mohamed Eddouks
BACKGROUND: Plant tannins are polyphenolic substances with various molecular weights and a variable complexity. Due to the beneficial effects for controlling chronic disorders particularly diabetes mellitus, this class of secondary metabolites has gained more interest in recent years. OBJECTIVE: We aimed trough this review to collect, analyze and discuss all available information related to the antidiabetic effect of isolated tannins (including both condensed and hydrolysable varieties) and tannin-rich plants as well as the possible mechanisms of action involved in this antidiabetic activity...
June 5, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Yuki Muraoka, Yuto Iida, Hanako O Ikeda, Sachiko Iwai, Masayuki Hata, Takeshi Iwata, Mao Nakayama, Nobuhiro Shimozawa, Yuko Katakai, Akira Kakizuka, Nagahisa Yoshimura, Akitaka Tsujikawa
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among elderly people. The appearance of drusen is a clinical manifestation and a harbinger of both exudative and atrophic AMD. Recently, antibody-based medicines have been used to treat the exudative type. However, they do not restore good vision in patients. Moreover, no effective treatment is available for atrophic AMD. We have created small chemicals (Kyoto University Substances; KUSs) that act as ATP regulators inside cells. In the present study, we examined the in vivo efficacy of KUS121 in C-C chemokine receptor type 2-deficient mice, a mouse model of AMD...
May 2018: Heliyon
Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Michael S Businelle, Darla Kendzor, Michele Staton, Carol S North, Michael Swartz
BACKGROUND: There is a significant revolving door of incarceration among homeless adults. Homeless adults who receive professional coordination of individualized care (ie, case management) during the period following their release from jail experience fewer mental health and substance use problems, are more likely to obtain stable housing, and are less likely to be reincarcerated. This is because case managers work to meet the various needs of their clients by helping them to overcome barriers to needed services (eg, food, clothing, housing, job training, substance abuse and mental health treatment, medical care, medication, social support, proof of identification, and legal aid)...
June 5, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
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