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Substance use prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223045/investigation-of-antioxidant-ability-of-grape-seeds-extract-to-prevent-oxidatively-induced-dna-damage-by-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Önder Aybastıer, Sam Dawbaa, Cevdet Demir
Phenolic compounds have been studied elaborately for their efficacy to improve health and to protect against a wide variety of diseases. Herein this study, different analysis methods were implemented to evaluate the antioxidant properties of catechin and cyanidin using their standard substances and as they found in the grape seeds extracts. Total phenol contents were 107.39±8.94mg GAE/g dw of grape seeds for grape seed extract (GSE) and 218.32±10.66mg GAE/g dw of grape seeds for acid-hydrolyzed grape seed extract (AcGSE)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215130/use-of-anticoagulant-rodenticides-in-outdoor-urban-areas-considerations-and-proposals-for-the-protection-of-public-health-and-non-target-species
#2
M Dutto, D Di Domenico, M Rubbiani
Rodent control operations represent an important tool for the prevention and management of infestations, in outdoor environments, by synanthropic rodents (Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus), which are a source of economic and environmental damage with significant sanitary implications. Although the use of anticoagulants is safer to humans and pets compared to the use of acute poisoning substances, an intrinsic hazard of the active ingredients exists, i.e. the possible poisoning of non-target organisms (e.g., children, pets and wildlife) following exposure...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214616/a-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-methylsulfonylmethane-versus-placebo-to-prevent-knee-pain-in-military-initial-entry-trainees
#3
David J Tennent, Christina M Hylden, Benjamin K Kocher, James K Aden, Anthony E Johnson
BACKGROUND: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a naturally occurring sulfur containing substance that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Previous studies using MSM as an oral supplement to improve pain in those patients with knee osteoarthritis have shown superiority compared to placebo. However, these studies are not translatable to active individuals performing high impact activities and have not evaluated MSM as a preventative measure. METHODS: A total of 180 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 40 years were enrolled...
October 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212821/trabeculectomy-bleb-needling-and-antimetabolite-administration-practices-in-the-uk-a-glaucoma-specialist-national-survey
#4
Karl Mercieca, Brett Drury, Archana Bhargava, Cecilia Fenerty
AIMS: To evaluate, describe and quantify the diversity in postoperative antimetabolite administration and bleb needling practices among glaucoma specialists performing trabeculectomy surgery within the UK and Ireland. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to all consultant glaucoma specialists who are on the United Kingdom and Eire Glaucoma Society (UKEGS) contact list. Participants were asked specific questions about their current practices for post-trabeculectomy antimetabolite administration followed by questions directly related to bleb needling procedures...
December 6, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212564/nurturant-involved-parenting-and-adolescent-substance-use-examining-an-internalizing-pathway-through-adolescent-social-anxiety-symptoms-and-substance-refusal-efficacy
#5
Bridget B Weymouth, Gregory M Fosco, Mark E Feinberg
Research has clearly established the important role of parents in preventing substance use among early adolescents. Much of this work has focused on deviance (e.g., antisocial behavior, delinquency, and oppositional behavior) as a central pathway linking parenting behaviors and early adolescent substance use. This study proposed an alternative pathway; using a four-wave longitudinal design, we examined whether nurturant-involved parenting (Fall sixth grade) was inversely associated with adolescent drunkenness, marijuana use, and cigarette use (eighth grade) through social anxiety symptoms (Spring sixth grade) and subsequent decreases in substance refusal efficacy (seventh grade)...
December 7, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211513/facilitators-and-barriers-to-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-willingness-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-who-use-geosocial-networking-applications-in-california
#6
Ian W Holloway, Diane Tan, Jennifer L Gildner, Sean C Beougher, Craig Pulsipher, Jorge A Montoya, Aaron Plant, Arleen Leibowitz
While correlates of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake have been explored among older men who have sex with men (MSM), less is known about the facilitators and barriers that encourage uptake among younger MSM (YMSM). This study explores the association between willingness to take PrEP and demographic characteristics, sexual risk, and substance use, and attitudinal factors among YMSM in California who use geosocial networking applications (GSN apps). Based on survey data from YMSM recruited through GSN apps (n = 687), PrEP willingness was positively associated with Hispanic ethnicity [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1...
December 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209752/-addiction-as-an-attachment-disorder
#7
REVIEW
H F Unterrainer, M Hiebler-Ragger, L Rogen, H P Kapfhammer
BACKGROUND: There is no commonly accepted model for describing the development and treatment of substance use disorders (SUD); however, over several decades the attachment theory has represented an important basis for the clinical handling of SUD. This study gives a systematic review of empirical studies regarding the relationship between SUD and disorders of attachment behavior. OBJECTIVE: Is there a positive relationship between disorders of attachment behavior and the presence of SUD? METHOD: Various databases (PsychInfo, Web of Science, PubMed) were systematically searched in order to pinpoint relevant studies in books and articles published in English or German...
December 5, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206984/rational-urine-drug-monitoring-in-patients-receiving-opioids-for-chronic-pain-consensus-recommendations
#8
Charles E Argoff, Daniel P Alford, Jeffrey Fudin, Jeremy A Adler, Matthew J Bair, Richard C Dart, Roy Gandolfi, Bill H McCarberg, Steven P Stanos, Jeffrey A Gudin, Rosemary C Polomano, Lynn R Webster
Objective: To develop consensus recommendations on urine drug monitoring (UDM) in patients with chronic pain who are prescribed opioids. Methods: An interdisciplinary group of clinicians with expertise in pain, substance use disorders, and primary care conducted virtual meetings to review relevant literature and existing guidelines and share their clinical experience in UDM before reaching consensus recommendations. Results: Definitive (e...
December 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204728/variation-in-outpatient-emergency-department-utilization-in-texas-medicaid-a-state-level-framework-for-finding-superutilizers
#9
Chris Delcher, Chengliang Yang, Sanjay Ranka, Joseph Adrian Tyndall, Bruce Vogel, Elizabeth Shenkman
BACKGROUND: Very frequent outpatient emergency department (ED) use-so called "superutilization"-at the state level is not well-studied. To address this gap, we examined frequent ED utilization in the largest state Medicaid population to date. METHODS: Using Texas Medicaid (the third largest in the USA) claims data, we examined the variability in expenditures, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and persistence across seven levels of ED utilization/year (i.e., 1, 2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-9, 10-14, and ≥ 15 visits)...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204725/-sex-will-make-your-fingers-grow-thin-and-then-you-die-the-interplay-of-culture-myths-and-taboos-on-african-immigrant-mothers-perceptions-of-reproductive-health-education-with-their-daughters-aged-10-14-years
#10
Kafuli Agbemenu, Margaret Hannan, Julius Kitutu, Martha Ann Terry, Willa Doswell
This paper examines the convergence of culture, myths, and taboos surrounding reproductive health issues African immigrant women, living in the United States, learned during childhood in their countries of origin. We also discuss how mothers' perceptions of reproductive health education (RHE) influenced the education of their own daughters aged 10-14 years. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Data were collected via interviews and demographic survey. The sample size was 20 African immigrant mothers living in a mid-sized city in the U...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203736/the-exchange-of-monoamines-during-the-experimental-neurosis-on-the-background-of-using-of-amide-2-hydroxy-n-naphthalen-1-yl-2-2-oxo-2-dihydroindol-3-ylidene
#11
Ruslan V Lutsenko, Elena V Vlasova, Elina G Kolot, Victoria M Gladka, Antonina G Sidorenko
INTRODUCTION: Incessant increase in the frequency and distribution of anxiety disorders stipulates searching, research and study of the mechanism of action of new substances for their correction, including the group of 2-oxoindolin-3-glyoxylic acid derivatives. THE AIM: To research the effect of N-(1-naphthyl) amide-2-oxoindolin-3-glyoxylic acid on monoaminergic system of subjected to experimental neurosis of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were performed on male Wistar rats, who have weight 180-220g and were researching the effect of 2-hydro-N-naphthalen-1-yl-2-(2-oxy-1,2-dihydroindol-3-ylidene)-acetamide (compound 18) at a dose (12 mg/kg), by intragastric drug injection of subjected to experimental neurosis rats, during 30 days (1 time in three days), for monoamines content (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) in the blood, their decay products (homovanillic acid, vanillylmandelic acid and 5-oxyindolacetic acid) in the urine and the ratio of end products of the reaction to their predecessors...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199906/racial-ethnic-differences-in-prevalence-and-correlates-of-blunt-smoking-among-adolescents
#12
LaTrice Montgomery, Dale Mantey
Blunt use is pervasive among adolescents. The study uses cross-sectional data from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to examine sociodemographic, health, and other substance use correlates of current and lifetime blunt use among 12,036 African American, White, and Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Findings revealed that 5.3% of African American, 4.3% of Hispanic/Latino, and 3.8% of White adolescents reported past-30-day blunt use. Age and substance use other than marijuana were consistent correlates of current and lifetime blunt use across all racial/ethnic groups...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199476/sexual-violence-victimization-among-youth-presenting-to-an-urban-emergency-department-the-role-of-violence-exposure-in-predicting-risk
#13
Andria B Eisman, Quyen M Ngo, Yasamin Y Kusunoki, Erin E Bonar, Marc A Zimmerman PhD, Rebecca M Cunningham Md, Maureen A Walton PhD Mph
Sexual violence (SV) is a widespread public health problem among adolescents and emerging adults with significant short- and long-term consequences. Young people living in urban, disadvantaged communities with high rates of violence may be especially at risk for SV victimization. Understanding interconnections between different forms of violence is critical to reducing SV risk among youth. Participants were youth ( N = 599) ages 14 to 24 years ( M = 20.05, SD = 2.42) presenting to an urban emergency department with a Level 1 trauma designation as part of a prospective cohort study and followed-up for 24 months...
December 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198242/effect-of-oral-progesterone-and-caffeine-at-the-end-of-gestation-on-farrowing-duration-and-piglet-growth-and-survival
#14
W H E J van Wettere, P Toplis, H M Miller
The profitability of pig production is constrained by high incidences of peri-parturient and pre-weaning piglet mortality. Supplementing sows with either progesterone or caffeine during the last week of gestation can reduce stillbirths and improve piglet performance. However, the consequences of combining these two substances has not been investigated. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of oral supplementation of sows with progesterone (regumate) and caffeine at the end of gestation on the timing and progression of farrowing, as well as piglet survival and growth to weaning...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198240/aligning-the-icd-11-classification-of-disorders-due-to-substance-use-with-global-service-needs
#15
V Poznyak, G M Reed, M E Medina-Mora
The use of psychoactive, potentially dependence-producing substances is highly prevalent around the world, and contributes substantially to global disease burden. There is a major gap between the need for treatment for substance use disorders. Changes proposed for the classification of substance use disorders in the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, based on a public health approach, have important implications for the conceptualisation, structure and availability of services...
December 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198186/screening-in-trauma-for-opioid-misuse-prevention-stomp-study-protocol-for-the-development-of-an-opioid-risk-screening-tool-for-victims-of-injury
#16
Randall Brown, Brienna Deyo, Chelsea Riley, Andrew Quanbeck, Joseph E Glass, Rebecca Turpin, Scott Hetzel, Christopher Nicholas, Maireni Cruz, Suresh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Opioid addiction and overdose are epidemic in the U.S. Victims of traumatic injury are at greater than average risk for opioid misuse and related complications. Potential risk screens and preventive interventions in this clinical population remain under-investigated. The current project seeks to develop and pilot the implementation of a screening tool for opioid risk at American College of Surgeons (ACS) Level I and Level II trauma centers. METHODS: The project began with an online survey, which was sent to Wisconsin trauma center medical directors and trauma coordinators for the purpose of gathering information on current substance use screening practices...
December 4, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197115/effect-of-hazardous-alcohol-use-during-pregnancy-on-growth-outcomes-at-birth-findings-from-a-south-african-cohort-study
#17
Bronwyn Myers, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Raymond T Nhapi, Lesley Workman, Whitney Barnett, Nadia Hoffman, Sheri Koopowitz, Heather J Zar, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have noted associations between hazardous alcohol use during pregnancy and infant growth outcomes, but many have not controlled for potential psychosocial confounders. To assess the unique contribution of hazardous alcohol use, we examined its effect on infant growth outcomes while controlling for maternal psychosocial stressors and hazardous tobacco and drug use in a cohort of 986 pregnant South African women enrolled into the Drakenstein Child Health Study between 2012 and 2015...
December 2, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196015/antimicrobial-peptide-ampnt-6-from-bacillus-subtilis-inhibits-biofilm-formation-by-shewanella-putrefaciens-and-disrupts-its-preformed-biofilms-on-both-abiotic-and-shrimp-shell-surfaces
#18
Qi Deng, Yuehua Pu, Lijun Sun, Yaling Wang, Yang Liu, Rundong Wang, Jianmeng Liao, Defeng Xu, Ying Liu, Riying Ye, Zhijia Fang, Ravi Gooneratne
Shewanella putrefaciens biofilm formation is of great concern for the shrimp industry because it adheres easily to food and food-contact surfaces and is a source of persistent and unseen contamination that causes shrimp spoilage and economic losses to the shrimp industry. Different concentrations of an antimicrobial lipopeptide, the fermentation product of Bacillus subtilis, AMPNT-6, were tested for the ability to reduce adhesion and disrupt S. putrefaciens preformed biofilms on two different contact surfaces (shrimp shell, stainless steel sheet)...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195988/recent-advances-in-microencapsulation-of-natural-sources-of-antimicrobial-compounds-used-in-food-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Javier Castro-Rosas, Carlos Raimundo Ferreira-Grosso, Carlos Alberto Gómez-Aldapa, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, María Luisa Rodríguez-Marín, Fabiola Araceli Guzmán-Ortiz, Reyna Nallely Falfan-Cortes
Food safety and microbiological quality are major priorities in the food industry. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural antimicrobials in food products. An ongoing challenge with natural antimicrobials is their degradation during food storage and/or processing, which reduces their antimicrobial activity. This creates the necessity for treatments that maintain their stability and/or activity when applied to food. Microencapsulation of natural antimicrobial compounds is a promising alternative once this technique consists of producing microparticles, which protect the encapsulated active substances...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195595/factors-associated-with-victimization-in-dual-diagnosis-patients
#20
Marleen M de Waal, Carolien Christ, Jack J M Dekker, Martijn J Kikkert, Nick M Lommerse, Wim van den Brink, Anna E Goudriaan
BACKGROUND: Patients with a substance use disorder and co-occurring mental disorder are prone to victimization. There is a lack of research identifying variables related to violent and property victimization in this high risk group. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with violent and property victimization in male and female dual diagnosis patients in order to identify targets for prevention. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, victimization and demographic, clinical and psychological characteristics were assessed in 243 treatment-seeking patients with dual diagnosis...
January 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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