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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437059/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-bipolar-disorder
#1
Sarah D Holder
Bipolar disorder is a severe chronic mental illness that affects a large number of individuals. This disorder is separated into two major types, bipolar I disorder, with mania and typically recurrent depression, and bipolar II disorder, with recurrent major depression and hypomania. Patients with bipolar disorder spend the majority of time experiencing depression, and this typically is the presenting symptom. Because outcomes are improved with earlier diagnosis and treatment, physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for bipolar disorder...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436377/analysis-of-therapeutic-effectiveness-of-selected-types-of-collagen-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-degenerative-joint-disease
#2
Wiesław Tomaszewski, Anna Paradowska
Loss of collagen is a natural development accompanying aging of the body. It may be additionally accelerated by various conditions, including osteoarthritis (OA). Within the last two decades numerous and diverse studies have been conducted worldwide with the aim of identifying substances containing collagen, producing therapeutic preparations of expected effectiveness in the prevention and therapy of OA that would be safe to use and developing methods of delivering the final product into the body. The authors reviewed and analysed the latest available literature by selecting papers presenting the findings of studies conducted in line with the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)...
January 26, 2017: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435769/gambling-behavior-among-macau-college-and-university-students
#3
Sut Mei Kam, Irene Lai Kuen Wong, Ernest Moon Tong So, David Kin Cheong Un, Chris Hon Wa Chan
This survey investigated gambling behavior among Chinese students studying in Macau colleges and universities. It also aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling, affect states and sensation seeking propensity. A convenience sample of 999 students (370 men, 629 women) filled a self-administered questionnaire consisted of the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) (Ferris and Wynne in The Canadian problem gambling index: User manual. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Toronto 2001a), the 8-item Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS-8) (Hoyle et al...
2017: Asian journal of gambling issues and public health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434545/opportunities-and-obstacles-in-translating-evidence-to-policy-in-occupational-asthma
#4
Susan M Tarlo, Ahmed A Arif, George L Delclos, Paul Henneberger, Jenil Patel
PURPOSE: Occupational asthma (OA), a common respiratory disorder in Western countries, is caused by exposures at the workplace. It is part of a broader definition of work-related asthma (WRA) that also includes pre-existing asthma aggravated by substances present in the workplace environment, and it is potentially preventable. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate preventive measures for occupational asthma by case studies. METHODS: In three case studies we discuss preventive measures that have been associated with reductions in incidence of occupational asthma from natural rubber latex and from diisocyanates as supported by published literature...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434054/patterns-of-gambling-activities-and-gambling-problems-among-italian-high-school-students-results-from-a-latent-class-analysis
#5
Nicola De Luigi, Dino Gibertoni, Emanuela Randon, Antonello E Scorcu
This study aims to provide an estimate of the prevalence of gambling among Italian adolescents and a description of their patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) using a latent class analysis on 13 different types of games. A nationwide sample of 10,959 Italian high school students was recruited in 2013. We assessed problem gambling using the South Oaks Gambling Screen: Revisited for Adolescent (SOGS-RA) scale. Approximately half (50.6%) of students reported gambling at least once in the previous year; 5.0% of them were problem gamblers and 9...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433895/evaluating-network-level-predictors-of-behavior-change-among-injection-networks-enrolled-in-the-hptn-037-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Laramie R Smith, Steffanie A Strathdee, David Metzger, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Little is known about ways network-level factors that may influence the adoption of combination prevention behaviors among injection networks, or how network-oriented interventions might moderate this behavior change process. METHODS: A total of 232 unique injection risk networks in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized to a peer educator network-oriented intervention or standard of care control arm. Network-level aggregates reflecting the injection networks' baseline substance use dynamics, social interactions, and the networks exposure to gender- and structural-related vulnerabilities were calculated and used to predict changes in the proportion of network members adopting safer injection practices at 6-month follow-up...
April 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433816/l-carnitine-prevents-memory-impairment-induced-by-chronic-rem-sleep-deprivation
#7
Karem H Alzoubi, Abeer M Rababah, Amani Owaisi, Omar F Khabour
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively impacts memory, which was related to oxidative stress induced damage. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound, synthesized endogenously in mammalian species and known to possess antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of L-carnitine on learning and memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep (REM-sleep) deprivation was investigated. REM-sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform model (8hrs/day, for 6 weeks). Simultaneously, L-carnitine was administered (300mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 weeks...
April 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433615/digital-technology-for-treating-and-preventing-mental-disorders-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
John A Naslund, Kelly A Aschbrenner, Ricardo Araya, Lisa A Marsch, Jürgen Unützer, Vikram Patel, Stephen J Bartels
Few individuals living with mental disorders around the globe have access to mental health care, yet most have access to a mobile phone. Digital technology holds promise for improving access to, and quality of, mental health care. We reviewed evidence on the use of mobile, online, and other remote technologies for treatment and prevention of mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries. Of the 49 studies identified, most were preliminary evaluations of feasibility and acceptability. The findings were promising, showing the potential effectiveness of online, text-messaging, and telephone support interventions...
April 19, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432938/the-role-of-distress-intolerance-in-the-relationship-between-childhood-sexual-abuse-and-problematic-alcohol-use-among-latin-american-msm
#9
Katie Wang, Jaclyn M White Hughto, Katie B Biello, Conall O'Cleirigh, Kenneth H Mayer, Joshua G Rosenberger, David S Novak, Matthew J Mimiaga
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and its well-documented association with substance use in adulthood, little research has examined the psychological mechanisms underlying this association. The current study utilized a large, multinational sample of MSM in Latin America to examine the role of distress intolerance (i.e., decreased capacity to withstand negative psychological states) in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use...
April 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429582/obesity-and-addiction-can-a-complication-of-surgery-help-us-understand-the-connection
#10
REVIEW
V Ivezaj, L E Stoeckel, N M Avena, S C Benoit, A Conason, J F Davis, A N Gearhardt, R Goldman, J E Mitchell, C N Ochner, K K Saules, K J Steffen, E Stice, S Sogg
Obesity is a multifactorial, chronic disease that has proven difficult to treat. An increased understanding of aetiological mechanisms is critical to the development of more effective obesity prevention and treatment strategies. A growing body of empirical evidence has demonstrated parallels between obesity, overeating and substance abuse, including shared behavioural, psychological and neurophysiological factors implicated in the excessive intake of both food and substances of abuse. Several different lines of research have recently emerged that hold the potential to shed light on the connection between obesity, food reward and addiction, with studies examining changes in alcohol use/misuse after weight loss surgery providing a particularly interesting perspective on these interrelationships...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429476/periodontal-disease-and-the-special-needs-patient
#11
REVIEW
Louise F Brown, Pauline J Ford, Anne L Symons
Individuals with special needs are at more risk of dental disease, including periodontal diseases, and have a greater prevalence and incidence of periodontal diseases than the rest of the population. Genetic or medical conditions, and/or the use of prescription medication or recreational substances, may further increase the risk for susceptibility to periodontal disease. The success of preventing or controlling periodontal diseases amongst this group of patients has not been established. Even those individuals who access regular and comprehensive dental care appear to develop periodontal diseases as they age, and this development occurs at a rate comparable to the natural history of the disease...
June 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429378/expanding-access-to-naloxone-for-family-members-the-massachusetts-experience
#12
Sarah M Bagley, Leah S Forman, Sarah Ruiz, Kevin Cranston, Alexander Y Walley
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The Massachusetts Department of Public Health Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution Program provides overdose education and naloxone rescue kits to people at risk for overdose and bystanders, including family members. Using Massachusetts Department of Public Health data, the aims are to: (i) describe characteristics of family members who receive naloxone; (ii) identify where family members obtain naloxone; and (iii) describe characteristics of rescues by family members...
April 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429158/food-insecurity-substance-use-and-sexual-transmission-risk-behavior-among-people-living-with-hiv-a-daily-level-analysis
#13
Jennifer A Pellowski, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Seth C Kalichman
People living with HIV in poverty have limited tangible and mental resources coupled with competing demands for these resources. Competing demands require individuals to make choices that may be beneficial to them in the short term but not in the long term. Past research has shown that food insecurity is related to sexual risk behaviors among people living with HIV. Individuals who are food insecure may sell sex in order to obtain food or lack of food may lead to a depletion of mental resources to negotiate safe sex...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427955/preventing-alcohol-and-tobacco-exposed-pregnancies-choices-plus-in-primary-care
#14
Mary M Velasquez, Kirk L von Sternberg, R Louise Floyd, Danielle Parrish, Alicia Kowalchuk, Nanette S Stephens, Britta Ostermeyer, Charles Green, J Paul Seale, Patricia Dolan Mullen
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol and tobacco use are common among U.S. women, yet if used during pregnancy these substances present significant preventable risks to prenatal and perinatal health. Because use of alcohol and tobacco often continue into the first trimester and beyond, especially among women with unintended pregnancies, effective evidence-based approaches are needed to decrease these risk behaviors. This study was designed to test the efficacy of CHOICES Plus, a preconception intervention for reducing the risk of alcohol- and tobacco-exposed pregnancies (AEPs and TEPs)...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427114/h-lifestyle-use-of-drugs-by-healthy-people-for-enhancing-cognition-creativity-motivation-and-pleasure
#15
REVIEW
L-S Camilla d'Angelo, George Savulich, Barbara J Sahakian
Today there is continued, and in some cases growing, availability of psychoactive substances, including treatments for mental health disorders such as cognitive enhancers, which can enhance or restore brain function, but also 'recreational' drugs such as novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The use of psychoactive drugs has both benefits and risks: whilst new drugs to treat cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders could have great benefits for many patient groups, the increasing ease of accessibility to recreational NPS and the increasing lifestyle use of cognitive enhancers by healthy people means that the effective management of psychoactive substances will be an issue of increasing importance...
April 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426361/sociodemographic-and-substance-use-disorder-determinants-of-hiv-sexual-risk-behavior-in-men-and-women-in-outpatient-drug-treatment-in-the-nida-national-drug-abuse-treatment-clinical-trials-network
#16
Jeremy D Kidd, Susan Tross, Martina Pavlicova, Mei-Chen Hu, Aimee N C Campbell, Edward V Nunes
BACKGROUND: Sexual risk behavior is now the primary vector of HIV transmission among substance users in the United States with gender as a crucial moderator of risk behavior. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in factors (age, race/ethnicity, education) that predict main-partner unprotected sexual occasions (USO) using the unique platform of two parallel NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network gender-specific safer sex intervention trials...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424107/early-maturation-and-substance-use-across-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-a-longitudinal-study-of-finnish-twins
#17
Jeanne E Savage, Richard J Rose, Lea Pulkkinen, Karri Silventoinen, Tellervo Korhonen, Jaakko Kaprio, Nathan Gillespie, Danielle M Dick
Early maturation, indexed by pubertal development (PD), has been associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of adolescent substance use, but this relationship may be biased by confounding factors and effects that change across development. Using a population-based Finnish twin sample (N = 3,632 individuals), we conducted twin modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling of the relationship between PD and substance use at ages 12-22. Shared environmental factors contributed to early PD and heavier substance use for females...
April 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423975/turning-points-in-the-lives-of-youth-of-with-without-adhd-are-they-linked-to-changes-in-substance-use
#18
Peter S Jensen, Kumi Yuki, Desiree Murray, John T Mitchell, Thomas Weisner, Steven Hinshaw, Brooke Molina, James Swanson, L Eugene Arnold, Lily Hechtman, Karen Wells
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the behavior beliefs, social supports, and turning points in individuals with/without ADHD related to their substance use/abuse (SU/A) decisions. METHOD: The coded interviews from 60 participants with/without ADHD were compared for their SU/A decisions and precipitants with these decisions among abstainers, persisters, and desisters. RESULTS: ADHD participants reported fewer social advantages to avoid SU/A than non-ADHD participants...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422352/places-and-social-contexts-associated-with-simultaneous-use-of-alcohol-tobacco-and-marijuana-among-young-adults
#19
Sharon Lipperman-Kreda, Mallie J Paschall, Saltz Robert F, Christopher N Morrison
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Little is known about social-ecological correlates of simultaneous use of alcohol with other substances. This study examined places and social contexts associated with simultaneous use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana among young adults. DESIGN AND METHODS: We used survey data obtained from 1538 young adult recent alcohol drinkers (49% male; 18-30 years old) in 24 non-contiguous cities in California. Event-level measures included alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use, drinking places and social characteristics of the event...
April 19, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421606/role-of-mucosa-in-generating-spontaneous-activity-in-the-guinea-pig-seminal-vesicle
#20
Mitsue Takeya, Hikaru Hashitani, Tokumasa Hayashi, Ryuhei Higashi, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Makoto Takano
The role of the mucosa in generating the spontaneous activity of guinea-pig seminal vesicle (SV) was explored. Changes in contractility, membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics of SV smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were recorded using isometric tension recording, intracellular microelectrode recording and epi-fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging, respectively. Mucosa-intact but not mucosa-denuded SV preparations generated TTX (1 μm)-resistant spontaneous phasic contractions that were abolished by nifedipine (3 μm)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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