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Substance use prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454179/race-ethnicity-and-racial-group-composition-moderate-the-effectiveness-of-mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-for-substance-use-disorder
#1
Brenna L Greenfield, Corey Roos, Kylee J Hagler, Elena Stein, Sarah Bowen, Katie A Witkiewitz
INTRODUCTION: Mindfulness-based relapse prevention has shown promise as a treatment for substance use disorder but its efficacy according to racial/ethnic minority status and group composition is unknown. METHOD: This is a secondary analysis of existing data (Bowen et al., 2014) testing individual race/ethnicity and racial/ethnic group composition as moderators of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP). Participants (N = 191; 29% female; 47% racial/ethnic minority; mean age = 39) with substance use disorder were randomized to MBRP or relapse prevention (RP)...
February 7, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453995/changes-of-lipid-peroxidation-and-glutathione-redox-system-and-expression-of-glutathione-peroxidase-regulatory-genes-as-effect-of-short-term-aflatoxin-b-1-exposure-in-common-carp
#2
Benjamin Kövesi, Csilla Pelyhe, Erika Zándoki, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián Balogh
Lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase activity and gene expression of transcription factors, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione synthetase and glutathione reductase was investigated in common carp liver. Short term (24 h) exposure of aflatoxin B 1 at different doses (100, 200 and 400 μg AFB 1 kg -1 feed) was used. It was found that conjugated dienes and trienes elevated after 16 h, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content increased only at the lowest dose after 16 and 24 h of exposure...
February 14, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453937/trajectory-classes-of-cannabis-use-and-heavy-drinking-among-rural-african-american-adolescents-multilevel-predictors-of-class-membership
#3
Allen W Barton, Gene H Brody, Tamika C B Zapolski, Trenette C Goings, Steven M Kogan, Michael Windle, Tianyi Yu
AIMS: To inform research on the etiology and prevention of substance use among rural African American youth by (a) identifying developmental trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking across adolescence and young adulthood, and (b) examining associations between trajectory class membership and multi-level assessments of risk factors. DESIGN: A prospective study spanning nine years with assessments of cannabis use and heavy drinking, the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, perceived stress, and psychosocial risk factors...
February 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452067/alcohol-and-drug-use-among-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-individuals-a-secondary-analysis-of-nhanes-2013-2014
#4
Melissa L Anderson, Bei-Hung Chang, Nisha Kini
BACKGROUND: Within the field of behavioral health research, one of the most understudied populations is the U.S. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) population - a diverse group of individuals with hearing loss that have varied language and communication preferences, community affiliations, and sociocultural norms. Recent research identified concerning behavioral health disparities experienced by the D/HH population; yet, little research has been conducted to extend these findings to the topic of substance use disorder...
February 16, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451351/delphinidin-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibits-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-erk-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-human-osteosarcoma-cell-lines
#5
Hae-Mi Kang, Bong-Soo Park, Hyun-Kyung Kang, Hae-Ryoun Park, Su-Bin Yu, In-Ryoung Kim
Delphinidin is major anthocyanidin that is extracted from many pigmented fruits and vegetables. This substance has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer properties. In addition, delphinidin strongly suppresses the migration and invasion of various cancer cells during tumorigenesis. Although delphinidin has anti-cancer effects, little is known about its functional roles in osteosarcoma (OS). For these reasons, we have demonstrated the effects of delphinidin on OS cell lines. The effects of delphinidin on cell viability and growth of OS cells were assessed using the MTT assay and colony formation assays...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450254/correlates-of-cannabis-vape-pen-use-and-knowledge-among-u-s-college-students
#6
Tessa Frohe, Robert F Leeman, Julie Patock-Peckham, Anthony Ecker, Shane Kraus, Dawn W Foster
Introduction: The proliferation of electronic devices, such as vape-pens, has provided alternative means for cannabis use. Research has found cannabis-vaping (i.e., vape-pen use) is associated with lower perceived risks and higher cannabis use. Knowledge of these products may increase likelihood of subsequent use. As policies for cannabis shift, beliefs that peers and family approve of this substance use (injunctive norms) increase and there has been an increase in vape-pen use among young adults (18-35 year olds); however, correlates thereof remain unknown...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450244/characteristics-of-adherence-to-methadone-maintenance-treatment-over-a-15-year-period-among-homeless-adults-experiencing-mental-illness
#7
Milad Parpouchi, Akm Moniruzzaman, Stefanie N Rezansoff, Angela Russolillo, Julian M Somers
Background: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has important protective effects related to reduced illicit opioid use, infectious disease transmission, and overdose mortality. Adherence to MMT has not been examined among homeless people. We measured MMT adherence and reported relevant characteristics among homeless adults experiencing mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Material and methods: Homeless adults living with mental illness who had received MMT prior to the baseline interview of the Vancouver At Home study ( n = 78) were included in analyses...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449065/effects-of-fluoride-and-epigallocatechin-gallate-on-soft-drink-induced-dental-erosion-of-enamel-and-root-dentin
#8
Yin-Lin Wang, Hao-Hueng Chang, Yu-Chih Chiang, Yu-Chen Lu, Chun-Pin Lin
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Fluoride and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been proven to prevent dental caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fluoride and EGCG on soft-drink-induced dental erosion in vitro. METHODS: Forty enamel and dentin specimens were prepared from extracted human teeth. The specimens were divided into 4 groups and treated separately with distilled water (as control), 0.5 M sodium fluoride (NF), 400 μM EGCG (EG), and a solution containing 0...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448854/mental-health-care-providers-talk-about-their-experiences-preventing-suicide-in-people-with-substance-use-disorders-in-south-africa-implications-for-clinical-practice
#9
Daniel Goldstone, Jason Bantjes
OBJECTIVE: This study explored mental health care providers' experiences of preventing suicide in people with substance use disorders and their perceptions of factors related to clinical practice that contributed to these experiences. METHODS: In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 mental health care providers working in South Africa. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data inductively with Atlas.ti software. RESULTS: Participants described feeling hopeless, helpless, powerless and guilty and needed to debrief from their experiences of preventing suicide...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446116/does-integrated-academic-and-health-education-prevent-substance-use-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#10
REVIEW
G J Melendez-Torres, T Tancred, A Fletcher, J Thomas, R Campbell, C Bonell
BACKGROUND: Prevention of substance (alcohol, tobacco, illegal/legal drug) use in adolescents is a public health priority. As the scope for school-based health education is constrained in school timetables, interventions integrating academic and health education have gained traction in the UK and elsewhere, though evidence for their effectiveness remains unclear. We sought to synthesize the effectiveness of interventions integrating academic and health education for the prevention of substance use...
February 15, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445832/analytical-challenges-in-sports-drug-testing
#11
Mario Thevis, Oliver Krug, Hans Geyer, Katja Walpurgis, Norbert Baume, Andreas Thomas
Analytical chemistry represents a central aspect of doping controls. Routine sports drug testing approaches are primarily designed to address the question whether a prohibited substance is present in a doping control sample and whether prohibited methods (for example, blood transfusion or sample manipulation) have been conducted by an athlete. As some athletes have availed themselves of the substantial breadth of research and development in the pharmaceutical arena, proactive and preventive measures are required such as the early implementation of new drug candidates and corresponding metabolites into routine doping control assays, even though these drug candidates are to date not approved for human use...
February 14, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445049/prevalence-and-predictors-of-internet-addiction-among-college-students-in-sousse-tunisia
#12
Menel Mellouli, Nawel Zammit, Manel Limam, Meriam Elghardallou, Ali Mtiraoui, Thouraya Ajmi, Chekib Zedini
BACKGROUND: Internet represents a revolution in the world of technology and communication all over the world including Tunisia. However, this technology has also introduced problematic use, especially among students. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students and its predictors in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: The current study was conducted in the colleges of Sousse, Tunisia in 2012-2013...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439776/clinical-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#13
REVIEW
Marco Solmi, Giorgio Pigato, John M Kane, Christoph U Correll
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a severe condition that can affect almost 1 out of 4 patients on current or previous antipsychotic treatment, including both first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). While two novel vesicular monoamine transporter inhibitors, deutetrabenazine and valbenazine, have shown acute efficacy for TD, the majority of patients do not remit, and TD appears to recur once treatment is withdrawn. Hence, prevention of TD remains a crucial goal...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438874/gender-differences-in-pathways-from-child-physical-and-sexual-abuse-to-adolescent-risky-sexual-behavior-among-high-risk-youth
#14
Susan Yoon, Laura A Voith, Julia M Kobulsky
This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437752/towards-high-quality-useful-practice-guidelines-for-child-and-youth-mental-health-disorders-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-consensus-exercise
#15
Kathryn Bennett, Stephanie Duda, Melissa Brouwers, Peter Szatmari, Amanda Newton, John McLennan, Purnima Sundar, Kristin Cleverley, Alice Charach, Joanna Henderson, Darren Courtney, Maureen Rice
INTRODUCTION: The quality of clinical practice guidelines (PGs) has not been evaluated in child and youth mental health (CYMH). To address this gap, we will: (1) conduct a systematic review (SR) to answer the question 'among eligible PGs relevant to the prevention or treatment of CYMH conditions, which PGs meet criteria for minimum and high quality?'; (2) apply nominal group methods to create recommendations for how CYMH PG quality, completeness and usefulness can be strengthened. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: SR: Potentially eligible PGs will be identified in 12 databases using a reproducible search strategy developed by a research librarian...
February 6, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435870/chemopreventive-potential-of-esculetin-in-7-12-dimethylbenz-a-anthracene-induced-hamster-buccal-pouch-carcinogenesis
#16
Renganathan Selvasundaram, Shanmugam Manoharan, Rajamanickam Buddhan, Mani Neelakandan, Radhakrishnan Murali Naidu
7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis is widely preferred to assess the tumor-inhibiting efficacy of the medicinal plants or their constituents. The present study explores the tumor-inhibiting potential of esculetin by utilizing the status of lipid peroxidation by products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), antioxidants (vitamin E, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), and phase I and phase II detoxification agents as biochemical end points and by using histopathological studies as well in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis...
February 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433788/gender-differences-in-trends-for-heroin-use-and-nonmedical-prescription-opioid-use-2007-2014
#17
Jeanne C Marsh, Keunhye Park, Yu-An Lin, Cliff Bersamira
BACKGROUND: Trends in the current opioid epidemic in the United States show that use of heroin is increasing while nonmedical use of prescription opioids is slowing. Understanding gender differences in these trends is essential to efforts to address the opioid epidemic. This study compared gender difference in trends in heroin and nonmedical prescription opioid use in the U.S. between 2007 and 2014. METHODS: Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used to trace prevalence and to estimate risk for heroin and nonmedical prescription opioid use in the last year for women and men...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433330/endothelial-nanomechanics-in-the-context-of-endothelial-dys-function-and-inflammation
#18
Johannes Fels, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog
SIGNIFICANCE: Stiffness of endothelial cells is closely linked to the function of the vasculature as it regulates the release of vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The outer layer of endothelial cells, consisting of the glycocalyx above and the cortical zone beneath the plasma membrane, is a vulnerable compartment able to adapt its nanomechanical properties to any changes of forces exerted by the adjacent blood stream. Sustained stiffening of this layer contributes to the development of endothelial dysfunction and vascular pathologies...
February 13, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432084/the-relationship-between-drug-use-settings-roles-in-the-drug-economy-and-witnessing-a-drug-overdose-in-baltimore-maryland
#19
Carl A Latkin, Catie Edwards, Melissa A Davey-Rothwell, Cui Yang, Karin E Tobin
BACKGROUND: There has been a dramatic increase in drug overdose deaths in the US. In the current study, we examined factors associated with witnessing a drug overdose. METHODS: A sample of 450 substance users in Baltimore, Maryland, US were recruited for a behavioral intervention and were administered a survey. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to compare participants who never witnessed a drug overdose to those who witnessed one in the prior six months and those who witnessed an overdose over six months ago...
February 12, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431974/childhood-bullying-implications-for-physicians
#20
Mary M Stephens, Hazel T Cook-Fasano, Katherine Sibbaluca
Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition such as asthma, diabetes mellitus, a skin condition, or food allergy; or being an outlier in weight and stature. An estimated 20% of youth have been bullied on school property, and 16% have been bullied electronically in the past year...
February 1, 2018: American Family Physician
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