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Substance use prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107669/medical-comorbidity-in-bipolar-disorder-the-link-with-metabolic-inflammatory-systems
#1
REVIEW
Ana SayuriYamagata, Elisa Brietzke, Joshua D Rosenblat, Ron Kakar, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, several medical comorbidities and a decreased life expectancy. Metabolic-inflammatory changes have been postulated as one of the main links between BD and medical comorbidity, although there are few studies exploring possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. Therefore, the aims of the current narrative review were 1) synthesize the evidence for metabolic-inflammatory changes that may facilitate the link between medical comorbidity and BD and 2) discuss therapeutic and preventive implications of these pathways...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106934/neuroimaging-the-neural-correlates-of-increased-risk-for-substance-use-disorders-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#2
Vitria Adisetiyo, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are nearly three times more likely to develop substance use disorders (SUD) than their typically developing peers. Our objective was to review the existing neuroimaging research on high-risk ADHD (ie, ADHD with disruptive behavior disorders, familial SUD and/or early substance use), focusing on impulsivity as one possible mechanism underlying SUD risk. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was conducted using combinations of the keywords "ADHD," "substance use," "substance use disorder," "SUD," "addiction," "dependence," "abuse," "risk," "brain" "MRI," "imaging" and "neuroimaging...
January 20, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106278/caffeine-prevents-blood-retinal-barrier-damage-in-a-model-in-vitro-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#3
Grazia Maugeri, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Daniela Maria Rasà, Valentina La Cognata, Salvatore Saccone, Rita Federico, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the major cause of vision loss in patients affected by diabetic retinopathy. Hyperglycemia and hypoxia, represent the key elements in the progression of this pathologies, leading to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Caffeine, a psychoactive substance largely consumed in the world, is a nonselective antagonist of adenosine receptors (AR) and it possesses a protective effect in various diseases, including eye pathologies. Here, we have investigated the effect of this substance on BRB integrity following exposure to hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101953/associations-between-participation-in-family-activities-and-adolescent-school-problems
#4
S S Goldfarb, J L Locher, J Preskitt, D Becker, S L Davies, B Sen
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent risk outcomes related to school issues are widespread, with about 20% parents reporting poor school engagement amongst their youth. Previous literature suggests that adolescents who report strong bonds with their parents are often identified as being less likely to engage in risky behaviours, such as substance use. The current study sought to examine the association between the frequencies of selected family activities and school problems amongst adolescents after adjustments for family connectedness and other characteristics...
January 18, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098747/integrated-treatment-of-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorders-the-mediating-role-of-ptsd-improvement-in-the-reduction-of-depression
#5
Kristina J Korte, Kaitlin E Bountress, Rachel L Tomko, Therese Killeen, Megan Moran-Santa Maria, Sudie E Back
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents one of the most common mental health disorders, particularly among veterans, and is associated with significant distress and impairment. This highly debilitating disorder is further complicated by common comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as substance use disorders (SUD). Individuals with PTSD and co-occurring SUD also commonly present with secondary symptoms, such as elevated depression. Little is known, however, about how these secondary symptoms are related to treatment outcome...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097594/mechanism-of-anti-vibrio-activity-of-marine-probiotic-strain-bacillus-pumilus-h2-and-characterization-of-the-active-substance
#6
Xi-Yan Gao, Ying Liu, Li-Li Miao, Er-Wei Li, Ting-Ting Hou, Zhi-Pei Liu
Vibriosis is a major epizootic disease that impacts free-living and farmed fish species worldwide. Use of probiotics is a promising approach for prevention of Vibrio infections in aquaculture. A probiotic anti-Vibrio strain, Bacillus pumilus H2, was characterized, and the mechanism of its effect was investigated. All 29 Vibrio strains tested were growth-inhibited by H2. The anti-Vibrio substance present in cell-free supernatant of H2 was purified and characterized by reversed-phase HPLC. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the purified substance, determined in liquid media for various Vibrio strains, ranged from 0...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097048/effects-of-grazing-intensity-and-the-use-of-veterinary-medical-products-on-dung-beetle-biodiversity-in-the-sub-mountainous-landscape-of-central-italy
#7
Mattia Tonelli, José R Verdú, Mario E Zunino
Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate) and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs) on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy). Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity-related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming-is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0) and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095883/moderated-online-social-therapy-for-carers-of-young-people-recovering-from-first-episode-psychosis-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
John Gleeson, Reeva Lederman, Helen Herrman, Peter Koval, Dina Eleftheriadis, Sarah Bendall, Sue M Cotton, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
BACKGROUND: First-episode psychosis most often has its onset during late adolescence. In caring for the young person, families endure high levels of stress and depression. Meanwhile, the social networks of families often erode. Our group has previously shown that family cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) leads to significantly improved perceived stress compared with specialist first-episode treatment as usual; however, there are well-known barriers to the dissemination of effective family interventions...
January 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095736/development-of-multifunctional-foods
#9
Koji Yamada
Foods contain various biologically active substances with extent physiological effects. Among them, some substances, such as dietary fibers, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and antioxidants, exert multiple activities. In addition, combinational uses of some components, such as sesamin and α-tocopherol, enhance their biological effects each other. The expression of multiple effect leads to the production of multifunctional foods which prevent the occurrence of various diseases. Furthermore, synergic effects between biologically active substances allow us to decrease the dose of each component, which lead to the improvement of safety and reduction of production cost of multifunctional foods...
January 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095283/substance-use-among-european-students-east-west-comparison-between-1995-and-2011
#10
Alojz Nociar, Janusz Sierosławski, Ladislav Csémy
AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate long-term trends differences in student substance misuse between countries of former Eastern Bloc (FEB) and Western Europe (WEST). Overall data on student substance misuse gathered in five waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD) conducted between 1995 and 2011 were pooled and analysed. Findings were compared between FEB and WEST countries at the five time-points of data collection. METHODS: Over 396,000 of 16 years old students from thirteen FEB and thirteen WEST countries completed anonymous ESPAD questionnaires...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095034/self-reported-driving-under-the-influence-of-alcohol-and-cannabis-among-ontario-students-associations-with-graduated-licensing-risk-taking-and-substance-abuse
#11
Steven Cook, Danielle Shank, Tara Bruno, Nigel E Turner, Robert E Mann
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the patterns of self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) and driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) among licenced Ontario students in 2009, and examines their associations with graduated licencing, risk taking, and substance use problems for understanding DUIA and DUIC behaviours. Ontario's graduated licencing system requires new drivers to hold a G1 license for a minimum of 8 months, and a G2 licence for a minimum of 12 months before a full and unrestricted G license can be obtained...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093667/low-and-increasing-trajectories-of-perpetration-of-physical-dating-violence-7-year-associations-with-suicidal-ideation-weapons-and-substance-use
#12
Pamela Orpinas, Lusine Nahapetyan, Natalia Truszczynski
Understanding the interrelation among problem behaviors and their change over time is fundamental for prevention research. The Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study followed a cohort of adolescents from Grades 6-12. Prior research identified two distinct trajectories of perpetration of physical dating violence: Low and Increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents in these two trajectories differed longitudinally on other problem behaviors: (1) suicidal ideation and attempts, (2) weapon-carrying and threats with a weapon, and (3) substance use, particularly alcohol and marijuana...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090109/substance-use-attitudes-behaviors-education-and-prevention-in-colleges-of-pharmacy-in-the-united-states
#13
REVIEW
Samah F Al-Shatnawi, Matthew Perri, Henry N Young, Merrill Norton
This review describes and summarizes student pharmacists' substance use behavior in the United States. Current literature indicates that there are problems with alcohol and other drug use among student pharmacists. Although researchers have found variations in the type and rate of reported substance use, significant proportions of student pharmacists were identified as being at high risk for substance use disorders (SUDs). Findings from this review suggest that pharmacy schools should encourage and stimulate more research in order to implement effective screening and early intervention programs in an effort to address this important student health issue...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088890/nanoparticles-as-a-carrier-system-for-drug-delivery-across-blood-brain-barrier
#14
Alika Sarkar, Ismat Fatima, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Usman Sayeed, M Kalim A Khan, Salman Akhtar, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Alvina Farooqui, Mohammad Haris Siddiqui
Brain, the center of the nervous system and an integral part the body, is protected by two anatomical and biochemical dynamic barriers- Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) and Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier (BCSFB). Blood-Brain Barrier is a highly complex multi-cellular organized structure that protects the brain from harmful substances and invading organisms from the bloodstream and thus protecting it from diseases and injuries. However, it also significantly precludes the delivery of drug to the brain, thus, preventing treatment of a number of neurological disorders...
January 13, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088740/associations-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-student-teacher-relationships-and-non-medical-use-of-prescription-medications-among-adolescents
#15
Myriam Forster, Amy L Gower, Iris W Borowsky, Barbara J McMorris
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and nonmedical use of prescription medication (NMUPM) in population-based samples of adolescents, and even fewer have examined whether promotive factors might buffer these effects. The present study assesses the direct effects of ACE and positive student-teacher relationships on NUMPD and whether positive student-teacher relationships moderate this association. DESIGN: Data were from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (MSS), an in-school survey administered every three years to students throughout Minnesota...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088739/the-effects-of-rurality-on-substance-use-disorder-diagnosis-a-multiple-groups-latent-class-analysis
#16
Billy Brooks, Matthew McBee, Robert Pack, Arsham Alamian
BACKGROUND: Rates of accidental overdose mortality from substance use disorder (SUD) have risen dramatically in the United States since 1990. Between 1999 and 2004 alone rates increased 62% nationwide, with rural overdose mortality increasing at a rate 3 times that seen in urban populations. Cultural differences between rural and urban populations (e.g., educational attainment, unemployment rates, social characteristics, etc.) affect the nature of SUD, leading to disparate risk of overdose across these communities...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087799/factors-associated-with-high-risk-alcohol-consumption-among-lgb-older-adults-the-roles-of-gender-social-support-perceived-stress-discrimination-and-stigma
#17
Amanda E B Bryan, Hyun-Jun Kim, Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults have elevated rates of high-risk alcohol consumption compared with heterosexual adults. Although drinking tends to decline with age in the general population, we know little about LGB older adults' drinking. Using 2014 data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS), we aimed to identify factors associated with high-risk drinking in LGB older adults. DESIGN AND METHODS: A U...
February 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087268/a-review-of-effective-youth-engagement-strategies-for-mental-health-and-substance-use-interventions
#18
REVIEW
Tom Dunne, Lisa Bishop, Susan Avery, Stephen Darcy
The majority of adult mental health and substance use (MH&SU) conditions emerge in adolescence. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment programs targeting this age group have a unique opportunity to significantly impact the well-being of the future generation of adults. At the same time, youth are reluctant to seek treatment and have high rates of dropout from interventions. An emphasis on youth engagement in prevention and treatment interventions for MH&SU results in better health outcomes for those youth. This literature review was undertaken to evaluate opportunities to improve youth engagement in MH&SU programs...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086894/c60-fullerene-as-promising-therapeutic-agent-for-correcting-and-preventing-skeletal-muscle-fatigue
#19
Yurij I Prylutskyy, Inna V Vereshchaka, Andriy V Maznychenko, Nataliya V Bulgakova, Olga O Gonchar, Olena A Kyzyma, Uwe Ritter, Peter Scharff, Tomasz Tomiak, Dmytro M Nozdrenko, Iryna V Mishchenko, Alexander I Kostyukov
BACKGROUND: Bioactive soluble carbon nanostructures, such as the C60 fullerene can bond with up to six electrons, thus serving by a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species similarly to many natural antioxidants, widely used to decrease the muscle fatigue effects. The aim of the study is to define action of the pristine C60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C60FAS), on the post-fatigue recovering of m. triceps surae in anaesthetized rats. RESULTS: During fatigue development, we observed decrease in the muscle effort level before C60FAS administration...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081185/upregulated-expression-of-transient-receptor-potential-cation-channel-subfamily-v-receptors-in-mucosae-of-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-patients-with-a-history-of-alcohol-consumption-or-smoking
#20
Akiko Sakakibara, Shunsuke Sakakibara, Junya Kusumoto, Daisuke Takeda, Takumi Hasegawa, Masaya Akashi, Tsutomu Minamikawa, Kazunobu Hashikawa, Hiroto Terashi, Takahide Komori
OBJECTIVES: Transient receptor potential cation channel (subfamily V, members 1-4) (TRPV1-4) are expressed in skin and neurons and activated by external stimuli in normal mucosae of all oral cavity sites. The oral cavity is exposed to various stimuli, including temperature, mechanical stimuli, chemical substances, and changes in pH, and, notably, the risk factors for oncogenic transformation in oral squamous epithelium are the same as the external stimuli received by TRPV1-4 receptors...
2017: PloS One
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