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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529904/mini-review-of-conventional-and-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-combined-with-immunotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Allison M Campbell, Roy H Decker
A successful antitumoral response requires immunological activation as well as an antigenic pool capable of stimulating both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Recent advances in immunotherapy have been aimed at boosting the activation status of the innate and adaptive immune system, including cytokine administration, monoclonal antibodies engineered to target high yield elements in oncogenic signaling pathways, cancer vaccines, and checkpoint inhibitors. Herein, we examine the ways that radiation therapy induced cell death provides a pool of stimulus antigen, and draw parallels from the immunobiology of autoimmunity to explore how the immunogenicity of antigen derived from radiation-induced cell death might augment the antitumoral response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529902/current-state-of-immunotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Jyoti Malhotra, Salma K Jabbour, Joseph Aisner
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancers. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for metastatic NSCLC when genomic testing reveals no targetable alteration such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ROS1 translocation/re-arrangements. But, chemotherapy produces response rates ranging only between 15-30%. For patients whose disease progresses on first-line chemotherapy, second-line therapy historically consists of taxane-based salvage chemotherapy with a response rate of less than 25%...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529576/increased-mir31hg-lncrna-expression-increases-gefitinib-resistance-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-lines-through-the-egfr-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#3
Bing Wang, Hong Jiang, Limin Wang, Xueqin Chen, Kan Wu, Shirong Zhang, Shenglin Ma, Bing Xia
The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and demonstrate whether long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression signatures differ between gefitinib-sensitive PC9 and gefitinib-resistant PC9 (PC9-R) cell lines. PC9 and PC9-R cells were treated with gefitinib and, after 48 h, proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry. Microarray expression profiling of lncRNAs was undertaken in both PC9 and PC9-R cells, and the expression profiles were verified by reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527352/a-cbr-framework-with-gradient-boosting-based-feature-selection-for-lung-cancer-subtype-classification
#4
Juan Ramos-González, Daniel López-Sánchez, Jose A Castellanos-Garzón, Juan F de Paz, Juan M Corchado
Molecular subtype classification represents a challenging field in lung cancer diagnosis. Although different methods have been proposed for biomarker selection, efficient discrimination between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in clinical practice presents several difficulties, especially when the latter is poorly differentiated. This is an area of growing importance, since certain treatments and other medical decisions are based on molecular and histological features. An urgent need exists for a system and a set of biomarkers that provide an accurate diagnosis...
May 13, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525914/cigarette-filter-ventilation-and-its-relationship-to-increasing-rates-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#5
Min-Ae Song, Neal L Benowitz, Micah Berman, Theodore M Brasky, K Michael Cummings, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Catalin Marian, Richard O'Connor, Vaughan W Rees, Casper Woroszylo, Peter G Shields
The 2014 Surgeon General's Report on smoking and health concluded that changing cigarette designs have caused an increase in lung adenocarcinomas, implicating cigarette filter ventilation that lowers smoking machine tar yields. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the authority to regulate cigarette design if doing so would improve public health. To support a potential regulatory action, two weight-of-evidence reviews were applied for causally relating filter ventilation to lung adenocarcinoma. Published scientific literature (3284 citations) and internal tobacco company documents contributed to causation analysis evidence blocks and the identification of research gaps...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525386/prognostic-value-of-kras-mutation-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-metaanalysis-and-review
#6
Jung Han Kim, Hyeong Su Kim, Bum Jun Kim
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as a promising treatment option in the fight against advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in NSCLC. We performed this meta-analysis to investigate if KRAS mutation status affects survival benefits of ICIs in patients with advanced NSCLC. Electronic databases were searched for eligible studies. We included randomized trials with the data of overall survival stratified by KRAS mutation status. From 3 eligible studies, 138 patients with KRAS mutant NSCLC and 371 with KRAS wild-type tumor were included in the meta-analysis...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521294/expression-of-glucose-transporter-1-and-prognosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-pooled-analysis-of-1665-patients
#7
Zhibo Tan, Chao Yang, Xiaohan Zhang, Pingju Zheng, Weixi Shen
Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) plays an important role in the transport and metabolism of glucose in cancer cells. An increasing number of studies have explored the connection between GLUT1 expression and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the results have been controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the prognostic value of GLUT1 in NSCLC. Relevant studies from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. Hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as the effective measures...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515940/nivolumab-induced-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus-presenting-as-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-lung-cancer
#8
James Luke Godwin, Shuchie Jaggi, Imali Sirisena, Pankaj Sharda, Ajay D Rao, Ranee Mehra, Colleen Veloski
BACKGROUND: Advances in cancer immunotherapy have generated encouraging results in multiple malignancies refractory to standard chemotherapies. As the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) proliferates, the incidence of autoimmune side effects associated with these agents, termed immune related adverse events (irAE), is expected to increase. The frequency of significant irAE in ICI treated patients is about 10-20% and early recognition is critical to prevent serious morbidity and even mortality...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515245/biomarker-based-treatment-selection-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Wallace Akerley
Patients with non-small cell lung cancer must be tested for biomarkers. Currently, treatments directed against EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 mutations are standard of care. A number of emerging new targets and treatments are on the horizon.
May 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515244/what-when-and-how-of-biomarker-testing-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Gregory L Riely
Biomarker testing is recommended for all patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer. At a minimum, testing should include the mutations/fusions EGFR, ALK, ROS1, and the protein programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), because FDA-approved therapies are available for these alterations. Other actionable molecular findings include RET rearrangements, BRAF(V600E) mutations, and MET exon 14 alterations. If adequate testing was not performed at treatment initiation, molecular testing should be performed before administration of subsequent lines of therapy...
May 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514755/a-novel-serum-based-biomarker-panel-has-complementary-ability-to-preclude-presence-of-early-lung-cancer-for-low-dose-ct-ldct
#11
Xiaobing Wang, Xiuyi Zhi, Zhaogang Yang, Haimei Tian, Yanfen Li, Mo Li, Wenya Zhao, Chao Zhang, Teng Wang, Jing Liu, Di Shen, Cuining Zheng, Dan Zhao, Sheng Yang, Jun Qi, Hongwu Xin, Alexander Stojadinovic, Itzhak Avital, L James Lee, Jianyu Rao, Wei Zhang
Low Dosage Computerized Tomography (LDCT) has been shown to improve early detection of lung cancer and mortality rates in high-risk individuals, which was, however, limited by specifically coverage for heavy smokers and high rates of false positivity. Here, we aim to investigate a novel biomarker for early detection of lung cancer, and further extend to concentrate high-risk subjects for increasing specificity and coverage of LDCT. We performed retrospective blinded evaluation of lung cancer and healthy controls in training and validation cohorts...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514740/differential-expression-of-circulating-biomarkers-of-tumor-phenotype-and-outcomes-in-previously-treated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-receiving-erlotinib-vs-cytotoxic-chemotherapy
#12
Mary Jo Fidler, Casey Frankenberger, Richard Seto, Gabriela C Lobato, Cristina L Fhied, Selina Sayidine, Sanjib Basu, Mark Pool, Reem Karmali, Marta Batus, Wen-Rong Lie, David Hayes, Jehangir Mistry, Philip Bonomi, Jeffrey A Borgia
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify serum biomarkers capable of predicting clinical outcomes in previously-treated NSCLC patients with wild-type for EGFR activating mutations or insufficient tissue for mutation status determination. METHODS: Sixty-six Luminex immunoassays representative of biological themes that emerged from a re-analysis of transcriptome data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were evaluate against pretreatment serum specimens from previously-treated advanced NSCLC patients received either cytotoxic chemotherapy (n=32) or erlotinib (n=79)...
April 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514730/circulating-micrornas-as-novel-biomarkers-of-alk-positive-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-and-predictors-of-response-to-crizotinib-therapy
#13
Liang-Liang Li, Li-Li Qu, Han-Jiang Fu, Xiao-Fei Zheng, Chuan-Hao Tang, Xiao-Yan Li, Jian Chen, Wei-Xia Wang, Shao-Xing Yang, Lin Wang, Guan-Hua Zhao, Pan-Pan Lv, Min Zhang, Yang-Yang Lei, Hai-Feng Qin, Hong Wang, Hong-Jun Gao, Xiao-Qing Liu
Circulating microRNAs are potential diagnostic and predictive biomarkers, but have not been investigated for patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lung cancer. In this exploratory study, we sought to identify potential plasma biomarkers for ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A microRNA microarray was used to select ALK-related microRNAs in ALK-positive NSCLC (n = 3), ALK-negative NSCLC (n = 3), and healthy subjects (n = 3). Plasma levels of 21 microRNAs were differentially expressed for ALK-positive and ALK-negative NSCLC, including 14 down-regulated and 7 up-regulated microRNAs...
April 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512460/immunological-aspect-of-radiation-induced-pneumonitis-current-treatment-strategies-and-future-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Anup Kainthola, Teena Haritwal, Mrinialini Tiwari, Noopur Gupta, Suhel Parvez, Manisha Tiwari, Hrideysh Prakash, Paban K Agrawala
Delivery of high doses of radiation to thoracic region, particularly with non-small cell lung cancer patients, becomes difficult due to subsequent complications arising in the lungs of the patient. Radiation-induced pneumonitis is an early event evident in most radiation exposed patients observed within 2-4 months of treatment and leading to fibrosis later. Several cytokines and inflammatory molecules interplay in the vicinity of the tissue developing radiation injury leading to pneumonitis and fibrosis. While certain cytokines may be exploited as biomarkers, they also appear to be a potent target of intervention at transcriptional level...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512015/the-association-between-mir-34-dysregulation-and-distant-metastases-formation-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#15
Iben Daugaard, Alice Knudsen, Tina E Kjeldsen, Henrik Hager, Lise Lotte Hansen
Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate amongst human cancers and the majority of deaths can be attributed to metastatic spread. The miR-34 family includes three tumor suppressive miRs: miR-34a, miR-34b and miR-34c. miR-34 downregulation is a frequent observation in human malignancies and is often attributed to hypermethylation of the miR-34a and miR-34b/c promoters. Here, the potential association between aberrant miR-34 expression and promoter methylation and distant metastases formation in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is investigated...
May 13, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511612/ngs-analysis-on-tumor-tissue-and-cfdna-for-genotype-directed-therapy-in-metastatic-nsclc-patients-between-hope-and-hype
#16
Alexander T Falk, Simon Heeke, Véronique Hofman, Virginie Lespinet, Camille Ribeyre, Olivier Bordone, Michel Poudenx, Josiane Otto, Georges Garnier, Olivier Castelnau, Joël Guigay, Sylvie Leroy, Charles-Hugo Marquette, Paul Hofman, Marius Ilié
The advent of genomic based precision medicine led to the implementation of biomarker testing in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been recently implemented to routine diagnostic requirements in lung oncology. Areas covered: Two cases of patients with metastatic NSCLC for whom NGS analysis performed on both tumor and liquid biopsy has not improved the clinical course of their disease are reported. These cases illustrate the difficulty of the so-called "personalized or precision" medicine in clinical routine practice for metastatic NSCLC...
May 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510571/second-line-pazopanib-in-patients-with-relapsed-and-refractory-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-multicentre-phase-ii-study-of-the-hellenic-oncology-research-group
#17
F Koinis, S Agelaki, V Karavassilis, N Kentepozidis, E Samantas, S Peroukidis, P Katsaounis, E Hartabilas, I I Varthalitis, I Messaritakis, G Fountzilas, V Georgoulias, A Kotsakis
BACKGROUND: Pazopanib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic activity. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression is increased in SCLC and is correlated with poor prognosis. The efficacy and tolerance of second-line pazopanib in SCLC was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with platinum-sensitive (cohort A; n=39) and -resistant/refractory (cohort B; n=19) SCLC were enrolled in a multicentre phase II study. The primary end point was the progression-free survival rate (PFS-R) at week 8 in each cohort...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510291/associations-between-rna-splicing-regulatory-variants-of-stemness-related-genes-and-racial-disparities-in-susceptibility-to-prostate-cancer
#18
Yanru Wang, Jennifer A Freedman, Hongliang Liu, Patricia G Moorman, Terry Hyslop, Daniel J George, Norman H Lee, Steven R Patierno, Qingyi Wei
Evidence suggests that cells with a stemness phenotype play a pivotal role in oncogenesis, and prostate cells exhibiting this phenotype have been identified. We used two genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets of African descendants, from the Multiethnic/Minority Cohort Study of Diet and Cancer (MEC) and the Ghana Prostate Study, as well as two GWAS datasets of non-Hispanic whites, from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), to analyze the associations between genetic variants of stemness-related genes and racial disparities in susceptibility to prostate cancer...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510121/can-glypican-3-be-a-disease-specific-biomarker
#19
REVIEW
Chaolei Chen, Xiaomin Huang, Zhaojian Ying, Dengmin Wu, Yani Yu, Xiangdong Wang, Chengshui Chen
BACKGROUND: Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a cell surface-bound proteoglycan which has been identified as a potential biomarker candidate in hepatocellular carcinoma, lung carcinoma, severe pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of our review is to evaluate whether GPC3 has utility as a disease-specific biomarker, to discuss the potential involvement of GPC3 in cell biology, and to consider the changes of GPC3 gene and protein expression and regulation in hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, severe pneumonia, and ARDS...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508826/genomic-aberrations-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-their-impact-on-treatment-outcome
#20
REVIEW
Amrallah A Mohammed, Hani El-Tanni, Mohammed A Alsakkaf, Ahmad A Mirza, Tariq Al-Malki Atiah, Arwa Al-Malki Atiah
The therapeutic options of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy has been changed since the first discovery of activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and the development of specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which resulted in the evolution of "personalized medicine." There are a considerable number of genomic aberrations in NSCLC serving as potential predictive biomarkers and drug targets and still more. We summarized the molecular pathways, potential targets, and possible impact on disease outcome in NSCLC...
January 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
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