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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102368/-body-dysmorphic-disorder-future-prospects-of-medical-care
#1
E Siegfried, A Ayrolles, H Rahioui
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by excessive preoccupation with a slight or imagined defect in one's physical appearance, believing they look ugly, abnormal or deformed. While the most common preoccupations focus on the skin, hair and nose, any part of the body may be involved. Preoccupations are intrusive, time-consuming and hard to control. Repetitive behaviors are performed in response to the preoccupations. BDD is associated with marked impairment in socio-professional functioning, poor quality of life and high suicide rates...
November 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083031/practitioner-review-definition-recognition-and-treatment-challenges-of-irritability-in-young-people
#2
REVIEW
Argyris Stringaris, Pablo Vidal-Ribas, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft
BACKGROUND: Irritability is one of the most common reasons for referral to child and adolescent mental health services and is the main characteristic of the new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). However, the recognition and management of irritability presents a major challenge in clinical practice and may be partly responsible for the dramatic increase in antipsychotic prescribing in recent years. METHODS: In this review, we provide up-to-date information on the definition and mechanisms underlying irritability, and its assessment in clinical practice...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812313/current-and-potential-pharmacological-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-anxiety-symptoms-and-disorders-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-structured-review
#3
REVIEW
Fleur M Howells, David G Kingdon, David S Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Between 30% and 62% of patients with schizophrenia present with co-morbid anxiety disorders that are associated with increased overall burden. Our aim was to summarize current and potential interventions for anxiety in schizophrenia. DESIGN: Structured review, summarizing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions used to reduce anxiety in schizophrenia and psychosis. RESULTS: Antipsychotics have been shown to reduce anxiety, increase anxiety, or have no effect...
August 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738347/negative-beliefs-about-voices-in-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder-are-associated-with-distress-a-plea-for-cognitive-behavioural-therapy
#4
Christina W Slotema, Jan Dirk Blom, Mathijs Deen, Marieke B A Niemantsverdriet, Mark van der Gaag, Hans W Hoek, Iris E C Sommer
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are experienced by 21-54% of patients diagnosed with a borderline personality disorder (BPD), and ensuing distress is often high. Little is known about the beliefs these patients foster about their voices, and the influence thereof on distress and need for hospitalisation. METHODS: In a convenience sample of 38 BPD outpatients with AVH, data were collected with the aid of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), Beliefs about Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ), Social Comparison Rating Scale (SCRS), and Voice Power Differential Scale (VPDS)...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612979/research-and-practice-for-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-national-survey-of-early-intervention-in-psychosis-services-in-england
#5
Helen J Stain, Lauren Mawn, Stephanie Common, Marie Pilton, Andrew Thompson
BACKGROUND: Evidence from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials show interventions for young people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis are effective both clinically and economically. While research evidence has begun to be integrated into clinical guidelines, there is a lack of research on the implementation of these guidelines. This paper examines service provision for UHR individuals in accordance with current clinical guidelines within the National Health Service (NHS) in England...
June 14, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580031/the-meaning-of-voices-in-understanding-and-treating-psychosis-moving-towards-intervention-informed-by-collaborative-formulation
#6
REVIEW
Aoife Lonergan
From a medical perspective, hearing voices is perceived as a symptom of mental illness and their content as largely irrelevant. The effectiveness of antipsychotic medication has made it central to the treatment of psychosis. However pharmacological treatment alone is rarely sufficient for this disabling condition. This review examined the feasibility of formulating an understanding of the meaning of voices in psychosis to inform intervention. Examination of the literature demonstrated the need for a paradigm shift to a recovery model, drawing on biopsychosocial factors in formulating an understanding of the meaning of voices in the context of a person's life...
May 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552026/mental-health-clinicians-beliefs-about-the-causes-of-psychosis-differences-between-professions-and-relationship-to-treatment-preferences
#7
Lucy Carter, John Read, Melissa Pyle, Heather Law, Anthony P Morrison
BACKGROUND: Previous evidence suggests that how an individual conceptualises the cause of a health problem can impact on subsequent perceptions and behaviour. AIMS: This study explored the beliefs about the causes of psychosis in a group of mental health professionals. The study also sought to examine the relationship between causal beliefs and the perceived helpfulness of different treatments. METHODS: A total of 219 clinicians completed a questionnaire about the provision of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and antipsychotic medication for their clients who were experiencing psychosis and their opinions about the helpfulness of these treatments...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078209/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-co-occurring-with-psychosis-systematic-review-of-evidence
#8
Antonio Tundo, Roberta Necci
AIM: To review available evidence on the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for treating obsessive compulsive disorder co-occurring with psychosis. METHODS: In this paper we present a detailed and comprehensive review of the current literature focusing on CBT treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occurring with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We identified relevant literature published between 2001 and May 2016 through MEDLINE/PubMed search using as search string ("obsessive compulsive disorders" or "obsessive compulsive symptoms") and ("schizophrenia" or "schizoaffective disorder" or "psychosis") and ("cognitive behavioural therapy")...
December 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690134/induced-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-ocs-in-schizophrenia-patients-under-atypical-2-antipsychotics-aaps-review-and-hypotheses
#9
REVIEW
Diane Grillault Laroche, Adeline Gaillard
The prevalence of OCS and OCD is higher in schizophrenic patients than in the general population. These disorders are sometimes induced by AAPs. There is higher frequency of OCS and greater severity in patients treated with antipsychotics with predominant anti-serotoninergic profiles opposed to those with predominant dopaminergic blockade. Induced OCS may be due to complex neuromodulation involving many serotonin, dopamine and glutamate receptors and several subtypes. Concerning connectivity, AAPs differentially influence the BOLD signal, depending on the intensity of D2 receptor blockade...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514778/implementation-of-a-clinical-practice-guideline-for-schizophrenia-in-a-specialist-mental-health-center-an-observational-study
#10
Ilan Fischler, Sanaz Riahi, Melanie I Stuckey, Philip E Klassen
BACKGROUND: In mental health settings, implementation of and adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is low. Strategies are needed to overcome barriers and facilitate successful implementation of CPGs into standard care. The goals of this study were to develop a framework for the implementation of a CPG for schizophrenia for hospitalized service users in a mental health care facility, and to monitor adherence to the guideline. METHODS: An eight-step framework was developed based on project management principles: 1) the Appraisal Guideline for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) tool was used to rate and select a CPG; 2) an algorithm was created from the guideline; 3) a gap analysis identified clinical services and processes not conforming with the CPG recommendations; 4) a governance structure was created; 5) a modified Delphi process determined key outcome and process adherence metrics; 6) a project charter was developed; 7) clinical informatics ensured that systems and tools were in place to support the CPG; and 8) therapeutic services were realigned to match the requirements of the CPG within specified fiscal constraints...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376016/treating-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-an-update
#11
REVIEW
Gary Remington, George Foussias, Gagan Fervaha, Ofer Agid, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Jimmy Lee, Margaret Hahn
Interest in the negative symptoms of schizophrenia has increased rapidly over the last several decades, paralleling a growing interest in functional, in addition to clinical, recovery, and evidence underscoring the importance negative symptoms play in the former. Efforts continue to better define and measure negative symptoms, distinguish their impact from that of other symptom domains, and establish effective treatments as well as trials to assess these. Multiple interventions have been the subject of investigation, to date, including numerous pharmacological strategies, brain stimulation, and non-somatic approaches...
2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197125/-a-review-and-recommendations-of-evidence-based-treatments-for-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Bertrand Lauth, Urður Njardvik, Tord Ivarsson
UNLABELLED: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent obsessions and compulsions. In this review we depict evidence-based treatments for pediatric OCD patients. We searched PubMed for relevant publications including randomized controlled trials, reviews, and expert guidelines. Substantial evidence for cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) among treatment-naïve patients shows that both treatments are effective...
April 2016: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26729104/pharmacotherapy-treatment-options-for-insomnia-a-primer-for-clinicians
#13
REVIEW
Gregory M Asnis, Manju Thomas, Margaret A Henderson
Insomnia is a prevalent disorder with deleterious effects such as decreased quality of life, and a predisposition to a number of psychiatric disorders. Fortunately, numerous approved hypnotic treatments are available. This report reviews the state of the art of pharmacotherapy with a reference to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) as well. It provides the clinician with a guide to all the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved hypnotics (benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines, ramelteon, low dose sinequan, and suvorexant) including potential side effects...
December 30, 2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26688129/interventions-for-self-harm-in-children-and-adolescents
#14
REVIEW
Keith Hawton, Katrina G Witt, Tatiana L Taylor Salisbury, Ella Arensman, David Gunnell, Ellen Townsend, Kees van Heeringen, Philip Hazell
BACKGROUND: Self-harm (SH; intentional self-poisoning or self-injury) is common in children and adolescents, often repeated, and strongly associated with suicide. This is an update of a broader Cochrane review on psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for deliberate SH first published in 1998 and previously updated in 1999. We have now divided the review into three separate reviews; this review is focused on psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for SH in children and adolescents...
December 21, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26165310/a-case-of-severe-adolescent-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-treated-with-inpatient-hospitalization-risperidone-and-sertraline
#15
Mathew L Nguyen, Michael A Shapiro, Stephen J Welch
BACKGROUND: The initial treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has generally been limited to serotonergic agents, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or a combination of the two. These findings were supported by the POTS study for OCD in children and adolescents. However, treatment with serotonergic agents or CBT can take several weeks before benefit is seen; severe cases of OCD may require more immediate treatment. CASE REPORT: The authors present a case of severe OCD in an adolescent that required immediate treatment due to her critical medical condition...
June 2012: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26132683/half-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-cases-misdiagnosed-vignette-based-survey-of-primary-care-physicians
#16
Kimberly Glazier, Matt Swing, Lata K McGinn
OBJECTIVE: Medical settings are the primary mode of care for mental health problems; physicians' abilities with regard to psychiatric diagnosis and treatment recommendations are therefore essential. While misdiagnosis can occur across all psychiatric conditions, the heterogeneous nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may make this condition at an elevated risk for misidentification. The study's aim was to assess primary care physicians' ability to identify OCD. METHOD: The study was cross-sectional in design...
June 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26125602/perinatal-generalized-anxiety-disorder-assessment-and-treatment
#17
Shaila Misri, Jasmin Abizadeh, Shawn Sanders, Elena Swift
Perinatal generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has a high prevalence of 8.5%-10.5% during pregnancy and 4.4%-10.8% postpartum. Despite its attendant dysfunction in the patient, this potentially debilitating mental health condition is often underdiagnosed. This overview will provide guidance for clinicians in making timely diagnosis and managing symptoms appropriately. A significant barrier to the diagnosis of GAD in the perinatal population is difficulty in distinguishing normal versus pathological worry. Because a perinatal-specific screening tool for GAD is nonexistent, early identification, diagnosis and treatment is often compromised...
September 2015: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25997589/treatments-for-delusional-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Mike Skelton, Waqqas Ahmad Khokhar, Simon P Thacker
BACKGROUND: Delusional disorder is commonly considered to be difficult to treat. Antipsychotic medications are frequently used and there is growing interest in a potential role for psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of delusional disorder. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of medication (antipsychotic medication, antidepressants, mood stabilisers) and psychotherapy, in comparison with placebo in delusional disorder...
May 22, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25880383/early-psychotic-experiences-interventions-problems-and-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
S Dimitrakopoulos, C Kollias, N C Stefanis, V Kontaxakis
Psychotic or psychotic-like experiences and symptoms may precede and be indicative of later psychosis emergence. DSM-5 has introduced Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) as a condition for further study, arguing for its clinical validity and the need for identifying sub- threshold psychotic states. Early psychosis intervention has an already established role in reducing the Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP), delaying psychosis onset and relieving Ultra High Risk (UHR) individuals from their presenting symptoms...
January 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25871462/supportive-therapy-for-schizophrenia
#20
REVIEW
Lucy A Buckley, Nicola Maayan, Karla Soares-Weiser, Clive E Adams
BACKGROUND: Supportive therapy is often used in everyday clinical care and in evaluative studies of other treatments. OBJECTIVES: To review the effects of supportive therapy compared with standard care, or other treatments in addition to standard care for people with schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register of trials (November 2012). SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised trials involving people with schizophrenia and comparing supportive therapy with any other treatment or standard care...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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