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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643273/chronic-constipation-in-rome-iv-era-the-indian-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal
Chronic constipation (CC) is a common problem in the community and in gastroenterology practice all over the world including India. After release of Rome IV guidelines in April 2016, there is increasing interest among gastroenterologists and physicians in India to look into special issues on CC in the Indian perspective. There are important differences in the bowel habit, definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology including dietary factors and management of CC in India as compared to the West. As severity and frequency of abdominal pain, a symptom essential to diagnose constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) rather than functional constipation (FC), is less common among Indian patients, FC is commoner than IBS-C in India...
June 23, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638926/-mechanisms-and-applications-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-in-analgesia
#2
Zheng-Yu Tang, Hui-Quan Wang, Xiao-Lei Xia, Yi Tang, Wei-Wei Peng, Li Hu
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), as a non-pharmacological and non-invasive analgesic therapy with low-cost, has been widely used to relieve pain in various clinical applications, by delivering current pulses to the skin area to activate the peripheral nerve fibers. Nevertheless, analgesia induced by TENS varied in the clinical practice, which could be caused by the fact that TENS with different stimulus parameters has different biological mechanisms in relieving pain. Therefore, to advance our understanding of TENS in various basic and clinical studies, we discussed (1) neurophysiological and biochemical mechanisms of TENS-induced analgesia; (2) relevant factors that may influence analgesic effects of TENS from the perspectives of stimulus parameters, including stimulated position, pulse parameters (current intensity, frequency, and pulse width), stimulus duration and used times in each day; and (3) applications of TENS in relieving clinical pain, including post-operative pain, chronic low back pain and labor pain...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635081/understanding-and-improving-photo-control-of-ion-channels-in-nociceptors-with-azobenzene-photoswitches
#3
Alexandre Mourot, Christian Herold, Michael A Kienzler, Richard H Kramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We previously developed a photoisomerizable local anaesthetic, named QAQ, to gain rapid, optical control over pain signaling without involving genetic modification. In darkness or in green light, trans-QAQ blocks voltage-gated K(+) and Na(+) channels and silences action potentials in pain-sensing neurons. Upon photoisomerization to cis with near UV light, QAQ blockade is rapidly relieved and neuronal activity is restored. However, the molecular mechanism of cis and trans QAQ blockade is not known...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628468/dapsa-das28-and-mda-predict-long-term-treatment-regime-in-psoriatic-arthritis-the-swedish-early-psoriatic-arthritis-cohort
#4
Ulla Lindqvist, Mona-Lisa Wernroth, Tomas Husmark, Per Larsson, Mats Geijer, Annika Teleman, Elke Theander, Gerd-Marie Alenius
OBJECTIVES: To describe treatment patterns in the Swedish early psoriatic arthritis cohort (SwePsA) of the mono-/oligo-arthritic (M/O) and polyarthritis (P) and identify early predictive factors for treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic (DMARD), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and tumour necrosis factor inhibition (TNFi) after 5 years. METHODS: Data for 198 M/O and P PsA were obtained within the programme for SwePsA. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between early predictive factors and treatment after 5 years adjusted for age at inclusion...
June 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625446/a-novel-treatment-for-chronic-opioid-use-after-surgery
#5
Paul F White, Ofelia Loani Elvir-Lazo, Hector Hernandez
In a recent article from the Center for Disease Control, the authors addressed the current opioid epidemic in America and emphasized the importance of utilizing non-opioid analgesic alternatives to opioid medication for treating chronic pain. In cases where non-opioid analgesic drugs alone have failed to produce adequate pain relief, these authors suggested that non-pharmacologic therapies should also be considered. This Case Series describes a pilot study designed to evaluate a novel non-pharmacologic approach to treating long-standing (>1year) opioid dependency...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618052/comparison-between-swinging-and-playing-of-white-noise-among-colicky-babies-a-paired-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Emel Sezici, Deniz Yigit
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of swinging and playing of white noise on the crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies. BACKGROUND: Infantile colic (IC) is one of the most common reasons for doctor visits among babies younger than 3 months. One out of five babies older than 3 months also experiences IC. IC, unlike gastrointestinal problems, is regarded as an individual differentiation and maturation of the central nervous system...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612352/pain-management-in-home-hospice-patients-a-retrospective-descriptive-study
#7
Cathy L Campbell, Meghan Kelly, Virginia Rovnyak
The development and evaluation of evidence-based, safe, and effective home-based pain management models for caregivers implementation is receiving greater attention in the literature because of international initiatives intended to increase the number of people who receive end-of-life care in home-based settings. The purpose of this "retrospective descriptive design" study was to describe pharmacological pain management and outcomes for 40 cancer and non-cancer patients receiving hospice care at home. While the median pain score was higher at admission in the cancer group than in the hospice care at home group, the difference was not significant at or within 48 hour of admission...
June 13, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598907/treating-pain-on-skin-graft-donor-sites-review-and-clinical-recommendations
#8
Sarthak Sinha, Amanda J Schreiner, Jeff Biernaskie, Duncan Nickerson, Vincent A Gabriel
Split-thickness skin grafting (STSG) is the most common reconstructive procedure in managing burn injuries. Harvesting split-thickness skin creates a new partial thickness wound referred to as the donor site. Pain at the donor site is reported to be one of the most distressing symptoms during the early post-operative period. Here, we a) identify strategies for managing donor site pain, b) assess the quality of individual studies and c) formulate evidence-based recommendations based on the amount and consistency of evidence...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597354/pharmacologic-considerations-for-pediatric-sedation-and-anesthesia-outside-the-operating-room-a-review-for-anesthesia-and-non-anesthesia-providers
#9
REVIEW
Narjeet Khurmi, Perene Patel, Molly Kraus, Terrence Trentman
Understanding the pharmacologic options for pediatric sedation outside the operating room will allow practitioners to formulate an ideal anesthetic plan, allaying anxiety and achieving optimal immobilization while ensuring rapid and efficient recovery. The authors identified relevant medical literature by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases for English language publications covering a period from 1984 to 2017. Search terms included pediatric anesthesia, pediatric sedation, non-operating room sedation, sedation safety, and pharmacology...
June 8, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595447/therapeutic-suggestions-with-critically-ill-in-palliative-care
#10
Adrienn K Szilágyi, Zoltán Kekecs, Katalin Varga
Suggestions can be used without formal hypnosis, especially with critically ill patients, due to their spontaneous trance state. In this paper we outline data on the effectiveness of therapeutic suggestions. We interpret the possible mechanism of therapeutic suggestions in the context of stress cognition. Basic principles of formulating suggestions are discussed and some recommended versions of non-pharmacological pain control are provided. Case vignettes are given of how suggestions are used with critically ill ICU patients...
May 28, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594620/abdominal-pain-related-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-children
#11
Jagrati Chopra, Neal Patel, Dharamveer Basude, Elena Gil-Zaragozano, Siba Prosad Paul
Recurrent abdominal pain is a common presentation in children and mostly non-organic in origin. Nearly one-fifth of the childhood population are known to suffer from it worldwide, although only 50% of these may seek consultation with a health professional. Non-organic recurrent abdominal pain encompasses four main conditions broadly labelled as abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). These are diagnosed following exclusion of organic pathologies and by symptom concordance with defined parameters, published as the Rome IV criteria for FGIDs...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592614/the-cannabinoid-cb2-agonist-gw405833-suppresses-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-through-a-cb1-mechanism-that-is-independent-of-cb2-receptors-in-mice
#12
Ai-Ling Li, Lawrence M Carey, Ken Mackie, Andrea G Hohmann
GW405833, widely accepted as a cannabinoid CB2 agonist, suppresses pathological pain in preclinical models without unwanted central side effects of CB1 agonists. However, recent in vitro studies suggest that GW405833 may also behave as a non-competitive CB1 antagonist, suggesting that its pharmacology is more complex than initially appreciated. Here, we further investigated the pharmacological specificity of in vivo antinociceptive actions of GW405833 in models of neuropathic (i.e. partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) model) and inflammatory (i...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590211/a-systematic-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-palliative-interventions-to-treat-rectal-tenesmus-in-cancer
#13
Áine Ní Laoire, Lucy Fettes, Fliss Em Murtagh
BACKGROUND: Rectal tenesmus is a distressing symptom in patients with advanced cancer and challenging to treat. There is lack of consensus on the appropriate management of tenesmus in this patient population. AIM: To identify and examine the effectiveness of interventions to palliate rectal tenesmus caused by advanced cancer when surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy are no longer treatment options. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature following standard systematic review methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance...
March 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589311/needs-assessment-of-primary-care-physicians-in-the-management-of-chronic-pain-in-cancer-survivors
#14
Ronald Chow, Kevin Saunders, Howard Burke, Andre Belanger, Edward Chow
INTRODUCTION: Cancer patients live longer with effective anti-cancer therapy and supportive care. About 30% of cancer survivors (non-palliative cancer patients who completed treatment) suffer from chronic pain, which will be managed by their primary care physician (PCP). The aim of this study was to assess practice patterns and treatment barriers in the management of chronic pain in cancer survivors among PCPs. METHODS: A survey using a 16-item questionnaire was sent to PCPs across Canada...
June 7, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585588/non-pharmacological-strategies-used-to-reduce-procedural-pain-in-infants-by-nurses-at-family-health-centres
#15
Diler Aydin, Nejla Canbulat Sahiner, Esra Karaca Ciftci
OBJECTIVE: To determine the methods used by nurses working in family health centres to decrease pain during medical procedures in infants. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at family health centres in the county town of Bandirma, and city centres of Karaman and Gaziantep, Turkey, in September and October 2015, and comprised nurses. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis...
June 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548225/single-and-combined-effects-of-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-cannabidiol-in-a-mouse-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-neuropathic-pain
#16
Kirsten M King, Alyssa M Myers, Ariele J Soroka-Monzo, Ronald F Tuma, Ronald J Tallarida, Ellen A Walker, Sara Jane Ward
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been suggested that the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) can impact the pharmacological effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We tested the hypothesis that CBD and THC would significantly mitigate mechanical sensitivity in a mouse model of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, and that CBD+THC combinations would produce synergistic effects. We also tested the hypothesis that CBD would attenuate oxaliplatin- and vincristine- induced mechanical sensitivity...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538809/self-medication-among-nursing-students-in-the-state-of-amazonas-brazil
#17
Abel Santiago Muri Gama, Silvia Regina Secoli
Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-medication and associated factors among nursing students. Method: This is a cross-sectional study with 116 nursing students from the public university in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, from March to April 2014. Data were collected using a questionnaire with socioeconomic and medicine use variables. The data were subjected to bivariate analysis and logistic regression at a significance level of 5%. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 76...
May 18, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537354/the-use-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Deepak Ramanathan, Anas Saleh, Alison K Klika, Carlos A Higuera, Wael K Barsoum
INTRODUCTION: Multimodal pain management is used after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce opioid intake. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has generated much interest as a non-pharmacologic, patient-controlled therapy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of TENS in reducing opioid intake and improving recovery after TKA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, parallel-group, double-blinded, randomized trial of patients receiving femoral nerve catheter block with allocation to either active or placebo TENS device groups...
May 24, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536810/fibromyalgia-treating-pain-in-the-juvenile-patient
#19
REVIEW
Sabrina Gmuca, David D Sherry
Presently, evidence for the efficacy of medications for the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFMS) is limited. While there are medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (duloxetine, milnacipran and pregabalin) for adults with fibromyalgia syndrome, there are none for the treatment of JFMS. A variety of medications have been prescribed for the treatment of JFMS, including (but not limited to) non-opioid analgesics, opioids, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and muscle relaxants...
May 23, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536365/new-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-fibromyalgia
#20
REVIEW
Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Martin Diers
Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and several additional symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, depressive episodes, and anxiety. The underlying pathophysiology of fibromyalgia is still poorly understood, and treatment is often unsatisfactory. Current research provides evidence for altered pain processing in chronic pain patients, and specifically in fibromyalgia patients, possibly based on altered functional connectivity and brain chemistry in brain regions within the pain processing system...
May 13, 2017: Biomedicines
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