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Non pharmacologic pain

A Perna, L Ricciardi, G Barone, F C Tamburrelli, L Proietti, E Pola
Within the developed countries, low back pain and related ailments represent one of the most relevant conditions, affecting both health and socio-economic systems. Non-specific acute low back pain (nsALBP) could represent either an isolated event or the presenting symptom of an underlying condition. Its management is usually medical and radiological investigations should be avoided. However, a general agreement on the best pharmacological treatment is still missing. In the present study, we retrospectively collected patients' data from the institutional database...
November 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Hiromi Maeda, Hideki Nakamura, Yoshinobu Kikukawa
Herpes zoster is a viral infectious disease caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in a latently infected ganglion, and is characterized by blistering and pain developing in a zonal region innervated from the ganglion. Amenamevir is an antiherpes agent that does not have a nucleic acid-like structure, and exerts antiviral action by inhibiting the enzymatic activity of a virus-derived helicase-primase complex, which is considered essential for viral DNA replication. Amenamevir is mainly metabolized by CYP3A, and excreted into feces...
2019: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Yu Heng Kwan, Warren Fong, Xiang Ling Ang, Chuen Seng Tan, Bee Choo Tai, Youyi Huang, Marcel Bilger, Jie Kie Phang, Hui Chin Tan, Jia Ven Lee, Limin Sun, Choy Tip Tan, Bao Qiang Dong, Hwee Ling Koh, Ying Ying Leung, Nai Lee Lui, Siaw Ing Yeo, Swee Cheng Ng, Kok Yong Fong, Julian Thumboo, Truls Østbye
BACKGROUND: Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) is a chronic disease which results in fatigue, pain, and reduced quality of life (QoL). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), especially acupuncture, has shown promise in managing pain. Although a TCM collaborative model of care (TCMCMC) has been studied in cancer, there are no randomized controlled trials investigating TCM in AxSpA. Therefore, we will conduct a pragmatic trial to determine the clinical effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of TCMCMC for patients with AxSpA...
January 14, 2019: Trials
Andrew I Yang, Brendan J McShane, Frederick L Hitti, Sukhmeet K Sandhu, H Isaac Chen, John Y K Lee
OBJECTIVEFirst-line treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is pharmacological management using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), e.g., carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OCBZ). Surgical intervention has been shown to be an effective and durable treatment for TN that is refractory to medical therapy. Despite the lack of evidence for efficacy in patients with TN, the authors hypothesized that patients with neuropathic facial pain are prescribed opioids at high rates, and that neurosurgical intervention may lead to a reduction in opioid use...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Qi Zhang, Lufei Young, Feng Li
To compare the effectiveness of different non-pharmacological interventions on pain relief in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA), literature databases, bibliographies, and other relevant sources were searched. No language limitations were applied. Thirty-two trials published from 1997 to 2017 were included in the systematic review and network meta-analyses. We included only RCTs and studies that evaluated the effects of non-pharmacological interventions on alleviating pain in elderly adults (age 60 years or more or mean age over 65) who suffer from OA, irrespective of gender...
January 10, 2019: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Freija Ter Heegde, Ana P Luiz, Sonia Santana-Varela, Iain P Chessell, Fraser Welsh, John N Wood, Chantal Chenu
OBJECTIVE: Mechanisms responsible for osteoarthritic pain remain poorly understood and current analgesic therapies are often insufficient. We have characterized and pharmacologically tested the pain phenotype of a non-invasive mechanical joint loading (MJL) model of osteoarthritis thus providing an alternative murine model for osteoarthritic pain. METHODS: The right knees of male mice (12-week-old, C57BL/6) were loaded at 9N or 11N (40 cycles, three times/week for two weeks)...
January 14, 2019: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Angela Brenton-Rule, Nicola Dalbeth, N Lawrence Edwards, Keith Rome
Background: Gout frequently affects the foot, particularly the first metatarsophalangeal joint. People with gout commonly wear ill-fitting footwear that lacks cushioning and support, which may further contribute to foot pain and disability. Footwear with good cushioning and motion control may be an effective non-pharmacological intervention. Currently, there is limited understanding about the footwear experience in people with gout. The aim was to understand footwear characteristics, experience of finding footwear, and factors contributing to footwear choice, in people with gout...
2019: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Marco Schreijenberg, Bart W Koes, Chung-Wei Christine Lin
Introduction Analgesic drugs are often prescribed to patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). Recommendations for non-invasive pharmacological management of NSLBP from recent clinical practice guidelines were compared with each other and with the best available evidence on drug efficacy. Areas covered Recommendations concerning opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), paracetamol, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and muscle relaxants from national primary care guidelines published within the last 3 years were included in this review...
January 8, 2019: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Owoicho Adogwa, Mark A Davison, Victoria Vuong, Shyam A Desai, Daniel T Lilly, Jessica Moreno, Joseph Cheng, Carlos Bagley
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in opioid use after lumbar decompression and fusion surgery for patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis or spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies have demonstrated higher prevalence of chronic pain states and greater pain sensitivity among women compared with men. Furthermore, differences in responsivity to pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments have been observed...
December 19, 2018: Spine
Himanshu Garg
Sleep plays a pivotal role in regulation and function of the central nervous system (CNS) and other physiological functions of the body such as regulation of body temperature, metabolism, catabolism, learning, and memory consolidation. Therefore, sleep is not a mere passive state, but it is a highly organized interaction of neural networks and neurotransmitters of the CNS which maintain active neurobehavioral state. However, in insomnia normal physiological function is disturbed which results in several comorbidities such as depression, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, breathing difficulties, chronic pain, and gastrointestinal problems which affect the quality of life...
September 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Mizuho Yano, Akihisa Matsuda, Takahiro Natsume, Shin'ya Ogawa, Yuji Awaga, Ikuo Hayashi, Aldric Hama, Hiroyuki Takamatsu
STUDY QUESTION: Can pain be objectively assessed in macaques with naturally occurring endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Behavioral, pharmacological and in vivo brain imaging findings indicate that pain can be quantified in macaques with endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Endometriosis is characterized by abdominopelvic hypersensitity. The mechanism by which endometriosis evokes pain is largely unknown, as currently available analgesics offer limited pain relief...
December 31, 2018: Human Reproduction
S W Evans, R A McCahon
In this review we describe the evidence base for postoperative analgesia after maxillofacial surgery. We discuss the implications of poorly managed pain, risk factors for the development of severe pain, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological analgesic strategies to manage it.
December 27, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Muna Subedi, Shalini Bajaj, Maushmi S Kumar, Mayur Yc
Patients with chronic non-malignant pain report impairment of physical and social life along with psychological state affecting their overall quality of life. The purpose of managing pain is to reduce the trauma and improve the patient comfort with better quality of life. Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ-opioid receptor analgesic and is a racemic mixture of (+)-tramadol and (-)-tramadol enantiomers. Tramadol is used worldwide and is listed in many medical guidelines for pain management. The (+)-tramadol has greater affinity for μ-opioid receptor and provides additional prevention of 5- hydroxy tryptamine reuptake, while the (-)-tramadol is a successful noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and intensifies its release by activating the auto receptor...
December 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Andrew L Jan, Emogene S Aldridge, Ian R Rogers, Eric J Visser, Max K Bulsara, Dana A Hince
OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient attitudes to analgesia, opioids and non-pharmacological analgesia, including acupuncture, in the ED. METHODS: ED patients with pain were surveyed regarding: pain scores, satisfaction, addiction concern, non-pharmacological methods of pain relief and acupuncture. Data were analysed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 196 adult patients, 52.8% were 'very satisfied' with analgesia. Most patients (84.7%) would accept non-pharmacological methods including acupuncture (68...
December 28, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Adaeze C Ayuk, Ikenna K Ndu, Chizoma I Eneh, Ngozi R Mbanefo, Osita U Ezenwosu
This narrative review aims to highlight the current paradigm on pain management in sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis. It specifically examines the pathophysiologic mechanisms of sickle cell pain as well as the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods of pain management. Recurrent painful episodes constitute the major morbidity in sickle cell disease (SCD). While adolescents and young adults experience mostly acute episodic nociceptive pain, it is now recognized that a significant number of adult patients develop chronic neuropathic and centralized pain...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Sávia Francisca Lopes Dias, Layane Carneiro Alves Pereira, Rosimeire Ferreira Dos Santos, Aldeidia Pereira de Oliveira, Lívio César Cunha Nunes
Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is another term for idiopathic menstrual cramps. Treatments include the use of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs have several side effects. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on the transdermal administration of drugs and the use of alternative therapies for the treatment of PD. Areas covered: The article bases were Web of Science, PubMed and Sciencedirect and the patent bases were INPI, EPO and WIPO with publications on Primary Dysmenorrhea and associations with Transdermal Administration; Complementary Therapies and Medicinal Plants...
December 27, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Isiaka A Ogunwande, Opeyemi N Avoseh, Kazeem N Olasunkanmi, Oladipupo A Lawal, Roberta Ascrizzi, Flamini Guido
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bougainvillea glabra is widely used in Nigeria for the treatment of inflammatory-related conditions, and as remedy for pain ailments. AIM OF THE STUDY: Considering the lack of scientific studies focused on chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of B. glabra essential oil, this work was designed to characterize the volatile compounds and evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties ascribed to this plant species...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kjersti Grønning, Torunn Hatlen Nøst, Toril Rannestad, Ola Bratås
Background: Non-pharmacological interventions aim to promote health and self-management for people with chronic pain. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore if the participants' experiences with a self-management intervention under development were aligned with the developers' rationale and desired outcome of the intervention. Methods: This was a qualitative study interviewing both participants and developers of a chronic pain self-management intervention...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Elitsa Veneva, Ralitsa Raycheva, Ani Belcheva
INTRODUCTION: A current non-pharmacological mean for attaining painless conservative treatment is presented by laser analgesia (LA), considered as bio-photomodulation of pulp reactivity aiming reduction of nociceptive impulse formation. Currently no consensus is reached regarding a detailed protocol with laser parameter settings for pre-emptive LA. The purpose of this study is determining the efficacy of erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser in achieving pulpal analgesia and quantifying duration and extent of any effects assessed...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Karen H Seal, Brian Borsari, Jennifer Tighe, Beth E Cohen, Kevin Delucchi, Benjamin J Morasco, Yongmei Li, Emily Sachs, Linda Abadjian, Erin Watson, Jennifer K Manuel, Lea Vella, Jodie Trafton, Amanda Midboe
Veterans seeking care in VA medical facilities have high rates of chronic pain, which often co-occur with mental health and substance use disorders, including prescription opioid misuse. The overall goal of the Optimizing Pain Treatment Interventions (OPTI) study was to pilot a 12-week Collaborative Care intervention to improve opioid safety, chronic pain disability, and use of non-pharmacological pain management strategies in veterans in VA primary care. Between November 2014 and January 2017, 100 veteran patients with chronic pain and high-risk prescription opioid use (e...
December 17, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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