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Tianli Xia, Hiroyasu Konno, Glen N Barber
The innate immune regulator STING stimulates cytokine production in response to the presence of cytosolic DNA, which can arise following DNA damage. Extrinsic STING signaling is also needed for antigen-presenting cells (APC) to stimulate antitumor T cell immunity. Here we show that STING signaling is recurrently suppressed in melanoma cells, where this event may enable immune escape after DNA damage. Mechanistically STING signaling was suppressed most frequently by epigenetic silencing of either STING or the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which generates STING-activating cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) after binding cytosolic DNA species...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Research
Hasan Rehman, Ann W Silk, Michael P Kane, Howard L Kaufman
With the recent regulatory approval of Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) for the treatment of advanced of melanoma in the United States, Europe and Australia, oncolytic virus immunotherapy has earned its place in the clinic. However, the adoption of T-VEC by the U.S. oncology community has been slow, and so far has been largely limited to specialized cancer centers. Limiting factors include the intratumoral route of administration, which is unfamiliar to medical oncologists, biosafety concerns related to the use of a live virus in the clinic, and the explosion of other therapeutic strategies now available for the treatment of advanced melanoma...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Alan E Bilsland, Pavlina Spiliopoulou, T R Jeffry Evans
For decades, effective cancer gene therapy has been a tantalising prospect; for a therapeutic modality potentially able to elicit highly effective and selective responses, definitive efficacy outcomes have often seemed out of reach. However, steady progress in vector development and accumulated experience from previous clinical studies has finally led the field to its first licensed therapy. Following a pivotal phase III trial, Imlygic (talimogene laherparepvec/T-Vec) received US approval as a treatment for cutaneous and subcutaneous melanoma in October 2015, followed several weeks later by its European authorisation...
2016: F1000Research
Robert H Andtbacka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
Hiroshi Fukuhara, Yasushi Ino, Tomoki Todo
Oncolytic virus therapy is perhaps the next major breakthrough in cancer treatment following the success in immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors. Oncolytic viruses are defined as genetically engineered or naturally occurring viruses that selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells without harming the normal tissues. T-Vec (talimogene laherparepvec), a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) armed with GM-CSF, was recently approved as the first oncolytic virus drug in the USA and Europe...
August 3, 2016: Cancer Science
Robert H I Andtbacka, Merrick Ross, Igor Puzanov, Mohammed Milhem, Frances Collichio, Keith A Delman, Thomas Amatruda, Jonathan S Zager, Lee Cranmer, Eddy Hsueh, Lisa Chen, Mark Shilkrut, Howard L Kaufman
PURPOSE: Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is an oncolytic immunotherapy designed to induce tumor regression of injected lesions through direct lytic effects, and of uninjected lesions through induction of systemic antitumor immunity. In this study, we describe the patterns and time course of response to T-VEC from the phase III OPTiM trial of 436 patients with unresected stages IIIB-IV melanoma. METHODS: Lesion-level response analyses were performed based on the type of lesion (injected or uninjected cutaneous, subcutaneous, or nodal lesions; or visceral lesions [uninjected]), and the best percentage change from baseline of the sum of products of the longest diameters was calculated...
June 24, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Igor Puzanov, Mohammed M Milhem, David Minor, Omid Hamid, Ai Li, Lisa Chen, Michael Chastain, Kevin S Gorski, Abraham Anderson, Jeffrey Chou, Howard L Kaufman, Robert H I Andtbacka
PURPOSE: Combining immunotherapeutic agents with different mechanisms of action may enhance efficacy. We describe the safety and efficacy of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC; an oncolytic virus) in combination with ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 checkpoint inhibitor) in patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS: In this open-label, multicenter, phase Ib trial of T-VEC in combination with ipilimumab, T-VEC was administered intratumorally in week 1 (10(6) plaque-forming units/mL), then in week 4 and every 2 weeks thereafter (10(8) plaque-forming units/mL)...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Sanjiv S Agarwala
The US Food and Drug Administration has been rapidly approving new checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies for melanoma and other tumors. Recently, it approved the first intralesional therapy, talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), for the treatment of metastatic melanoma lesions in the skin and lymph nodes. Several other intralesional therapies (PV-10, interleukin-12 electroporation, coxsackievirus A21 [CVA21]) are entering later-stage testing. Locally injected agents have clearly shown their ability to produce local responses that can be durable...
May 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Patrick A Ott, F Stephen Hodi
Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a first-in-class oncolytic virus that mediates local and systemic antitumor activity by direct cancer cell lysis and an "in situ vaccine" effect. Based on an increased durable response rate compared with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in a randomized phase III trial, it was approved by the FDA for the treatment of melanoma metastatic to skin or lymph nodes. The drug is currently in clinical trials as monotherapy and in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors and radiotherapy in melanoma and other cancers...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Robert Ancuceanu, Monica Neagu
A few years ago therapeutic options in advanced melanoma were very limited and the prognosis was somber. Although recent progresses are far from providing a cure for advanced melanoma, yet these have kindled new hopes and searching for a cure does not seem unreasonable. Seven new medicines have been authorized in various regions of the world in the recent past in the therapy of advanced melanoma, over half of them acting by mechanisms involving the immune system of the host. The anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein-4) ipilimumab has been followed by anti-PD1 (programmed death1) inhibitors, more effective and safer...
February 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Daniel G Coit, John A Thompson, Alain Algazi, Robert Andtbacka, Christopher K Bichakjian, William E Carson, Gregory A Daniels, Dominick DiMaio, Marc Ernstoff, Ryan C Fields, Martin D Fleming, Rene Gonzalez, Valerie Guild, Allan C Halpern, F Stephen Hodi, Richard W Joseph, Julie R Lange, Mary C Martini, Miguel A Materin, Anthony J Olszanski, Merrick I Ross, April K Salama, Joseph Skitzki, Jeff Sosman, Susan M Swetter, Kenneth K Tanabe, Javier F Torres-Roca, Vijay Trisal, Marshall M Urist, Nicole McMillian, Anita Engh
This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Melanoma focuses on adjuvant therapy and treatment of in-transit disease, because substantial changes were made to the recommendations for the 2016 update. Depending on the stage of the disease, options for adjuvant therapy now include biochemotherapy and high-dose ipilimumab. Treatment options for in-transit disease now include intralesional injection with talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), a new immunotherapy. These additions prompted re-assessment of the data supporting older recommended treatment options for adjuvant therapy and in-transit disease, resulting in extensive revisions to the supporting discussion sections...
April 2016: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Jonathan Pol, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
On 2015, October 27th, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has officially approved talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC, also known as OncoVEX(GM-CSF)) for use in melanoma patients with injectable but non-resectable lesions in the skin and lymph nodes. T-VEC (which is commercialized by Amgen, Inc. under the name of Imlygic®) becomes therefore the first oncolytic virus approved for cancer therapy in the US.
2016: Oncoimmunology
Gabriella Liszkay
The objective of the work is presentation of the available therapeutic results of the clinical trials with anti CTLA-4 and anti PD-1 treatment, which are operating on the immune checkpoints registered in advanced melanoma, and the results of T-VEC vaccination (NCT00094653, NCT00324155, KEYNOTE-001, -002, -006, CheckMate-066, -037, -067, NCT00769704). With ipilimumab therapy, long-term survival can be achieved in the case of 20% of patients, with low (10%) therapeutic response, and grade 3-4 treatment related, predominantly autoimmune adverse events occurring in 10-15% of patients...
March 2, 2016: Magyar Onkologia
Noura Nouri, Claus Garbe
INTRODUCTION: Intralesional immunotherapy supplements systemic treatments and often achieves higher remission rates as compared to systemic therapy. Its indication is metastatic melanoma with limited tumor burden, particularly in loco-regional metastasis and distant soft tissue metastasis. AREAS COVERED: This review describes intralesional immunotherapy with talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), with velimogene aliplasmid (Allovectin-7) and with intralesional interleukin-2...
2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Robert Coffin
Interviewed by Ellen Clarke, Commissioning Editor, Future Science Group. Robert Coffin is co-founder and CEO of Replimune. Previously he was Founder and CTO of BioVex Inc, a spin out from his research group at University College London in 1999. He was the inventor of all BioVex products including OncoVEXGM-CSF (talimogene laherparepvec; T-VEC; Imlygic) and oversaw all research and clinical development including bringing T-VEC through to two pivotal Phase 3 studies in melanoma and head and neck cancer. BioVex was acquired by Amgen in 2011 where he was VP Global Development until 2013...
February 2016: Immunotherapy
Frederick J Kohlhapp, Howard L Kaufman
Oncolytic viruses are native or engineered viruses that preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells. Selective tumor cell replication is thought to depend on infection of neoplastic cells, which harbor low levels of protein kinase R (PKR) and dysfunctional type I IFN signaling elements. These changes allow more efficient viral replication, and with selected deletion of specific viral genes, replication in normal cells with activated PKR may not be possible. Direct tumor cell lysis, release of soluble tumor antigens, and danger-associated molecular factors are all thought to help prime and promote tumor-specific immunity...
March 1, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Shaun Xiaoliu Zhang
Viruses have the intrinsic capability to kill host cells. Even when the initial infection consists of only a few viruses, they can reproduce themselves in large quantities within a short time and quickly spread to nearby cells, causing substantial tissue damage. These same infectious properties become desirable if they can be converted into killer agents with specificity for malignant cells. Cancer virotherapy is doing exactly that by modifying viruses in ways that allow them to replicate in malignant cells but not in normal cells...
November 2015: Discovery Medicine
Antonio Maria Grimaldi, Francesco M Marincola, Paolo Antonio Ascierto
INTRODUCTION: The advent of new immunotherapies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma has resulted in various novel combination strategies. Because of their distinct modes of action, different immunotherapies have been investigated in combination with one another, as well as combined with targeted therapies and other treatment modalities. AREAS COVERED: Anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 treatments enhance antitumor immunity through complementary and non-redundant mechanisms...
2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Elizabeth S Appleton, Samantha Turnbull, Christy Ralph, Emma West, Karen Scott, Kevin Harrington, Hardev Pandha, Alan Melcher
UNLABELLED: : Metastatic melanoma continues to present a significant therapeutic challenge, with an incidence rate rising faster than that of any other cancer. The last 5 years have seen a revolution in the development of new treatments for advanced melanoma, with oncogene targeted agents and checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapies providing the first convincing evidence of a positive shift in overall survival. The role of oncolytic virotherapy in this rapidly evolving field has long been the subject of debate...
2015: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Kevin J Harrington, Igor Puzanov, J Randolph Hecht, F Stephen Hodi, Zsolt Szabo, Swami Murugappan, Howard L Kaufman
Tumor immunotherapy is emerging as a promising new treatment option for patients with cancer. T-VEC is an intralesional oncolytic virus therapy based on a modified herpes simplex virus type-1. T-VEC selectively targets tumor cells, causing regression in injected lesions and inducing immunologic responses that mediate regression at uninjected/distant sites. In a randomized phase III trial, T-VEC met its primary endpoint of improving the durable response rate vs granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with unresectable melanoma...
2015: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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