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Julia Jaekel, Christian Sorg, Josef Baeuml, Peter Bartmann, Dieter Wolke
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of infant and toddler head growth on intelligence scores from early childhood to adulthood in very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age; VP) and/or very low birth weight (<1500 g; VLBW) and term born individuals. METHODS: 203 VP/VLBW and 198 term comparisons were studied from birth to adulthood as part of the prospective geographically defined Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS). Head circumference was assessed at birth; 5, 20 months; and 4 years of age...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
G Li, K Rossbach, W Jiang, L Zhao, K Zhang, Y Du
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes within grey matter (GM) volume in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, little is known about GM volume changes and the relation with symptom severity in Chinese boys with low functioning autism spectrum disorder (LFASD). METHOD: GM volume was analysed using SPM 8 and compared between 16 boys with LFASD as well as 16 typically developing (TD) boys (using REST 1.8). Additionally, the correlation between GM volume and clinical symptoms was analysed, using subscales within the Autism Behaviour Checklist (ABC)...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Teresa Gamucci, Laura Pizzuti, Clara Natoli, Lucia Mentuccia, Isabella Sperduti, Maddalena Barba, Domenico Sergi, Laura Iezzi, Marcello Maugeri-Saccà, Angela Vaccaro, Emanuela Magnolfi, Alain Gelibter, Giacomo Barchiesi, Valentina Magri, Loretta D'Onofrio, Alessandra Cassano, Ernesto Rossi, Andrea Botticelli, Luca Moscetti, Claudia Omarini, Maria Agnese Fabbri, Angelo Fedele Scinto, Domenico Corsi, Luisa Carbognin, Marco Mazzotta, Emilio Bria, Jennifer Foglietta, Riccardo Samaritani, Carlo Garufi, Luciano Mariani, Sandro Barni, Rosanna Mirabelli, Roberta Sarmiento, Vincenzo Graziano, Daniele Santini, Paolo Marchetti, Giuseppe Tonini, Luigi Di Lauro, Giuseppe Sanguineti, Giancarlo Paoletti, Silverio Tomao, Ruggero De Maria, Enzo Veltri, Ida Paris, Francesco Giotta, Agnese Latorre, Antonio Giordano, Gennaro Ciliberto, Patrizia Vici
We carried out a retrospective observational study of 264 HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients to explore the efficacy of first-line treatment with pertuzumab/trastuzumab/taxane in real-world setting. Survival data were analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves and log rank test. Median follow-up, length of pertuzumab/trastuzumab/taxane treatment and of pertuzumab, trastuzumab maintenance were 21, 4 and 15 months, respectively. The response rate was 77.3%, and the clinical benefit rate 93.6%. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 21 months, and median overall survival (mOS) was not reached...
November 7, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Pei-Yin Pan, Chin-Bin Yeh
OBJECTIVES: Irritability is among the most bothersome emotional symptoms in children. It often leads to mental health services referral, significant impairment, and distress to their families. Although there is increasing scientific evidence supporting the existence of extreme irritability in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, few studies have investigated the measurement of irritability in children...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Sarah A Graham, Elliot J Roth, David A Brown
BACKGROUND: Treadmill training, with or without body-weight support (BWSTT), typically involves high step count, faster walking speed, and higher heart-rate intensity than overground walking training. The addition of challenging mobility skill practice may offer increased opportunities to improve walking and balance skills. Here we compare walking and balance outcomes of chronic stroke survivors performing BWSTT with BWSTT including challenging mobility skills. METHODS: Single-blind randomized clinical trial comparing two BWSTT interventions performed in a rehabilitation research laboratory facility over 6 weeks...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Ethan D Borre, Adam Goode, Giselle Raitz, Bimal Shah, Angela Lowenstern, Ranee Chatterjee, Lauren Sharan, Nancy M Allen LaPointe, Roshini Yapa, J Kelly Davis, Kathryn Lallinger, Robyn Schmidt, Andrzej Kosinski, Sana M Al-Khatib, Gillian D Sanders
BACKGROUND:  Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that increases the risk of stroke. Medical therapy for decreasing stroke risk involves anticoagulation, which may increase bleeding risk for certain patients. In determining the optimal therapy for stroke prevention for patients with AF, clinicians use tools with various clinical, imaging and patient characteristics to weigh stroke risk against therapy-associated bleeding risk. AIM:  This article reviews published literature and summarizes available risk stratification tools for stroke and bleeding prediction in patients with AF...
October 30, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Hong-Hua Li, Chun-Li Li, Di Gao, Xiu-Yu Pan, Lin DU, Fei-Yong Jia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effect of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Forty children aged 2-5 years who were diagnosed with ASD from September 2017 to January 2018 were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into conventional intervention group and ESDM intervention group (n=20 each). Both groups were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale before intervention and by the ABC, CARS, CGI-S scale, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale after 3 months of intervention...
October 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Margaret Roller, Aimie Kachingwe, Janna Beling, Dawn-Marie Ickes, Allyson Cabot, Gabrielle Shrier
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Pilates exercises using a Reformer on measures of fall risk, balance and mobility, self-efficacy, and active range of motion in adults age 65 and over at risk for falls compared to a control group. DESIGN: Randomized Controlled Trial. METHODS: Fifty-five subjects (27 Pilates intervention, 28 control; 38 females, 17 males; mean age 77.6 years, range 65-95) were randomly assigned to either a Pilates Reformer intervention group or a control group (no intervention)...
October 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Sarah M Tashjian, Jordan L Mullins, Adriana Galván
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine modifiable environmental contributors of shortened sleep duration in adolescents. METHOD: We assayed sleep duration over two weeks using actigraphy in a sample of 98 adolescents (ages 14-18, 51 female). Reports of adolescents setting their own bedtime and parental monitoring of bedtime were collected and, using principal components analysis, reduced to one factor representing bedtime autonomy. In a subsample of participants (n = 63) frequency of nighttime cellphone use and reports of cellphone disruption were assessed and combined into a composite score of cellphone usage...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Bonnielin K Swenor, Jiangxia Wang, Varshini Varadaraj, Caterina Rosano, Kristine Yaffe, Marilyn Albert, Eleanor M Simonsick
BACKGROUND: An association between visual impairment and cognitive outcomes has been documented, but there is limited research examining this relationship using multiple measures of vision. METHODS: Participants included non-demented individuals in Year-3 of the Health ABC study. Visual impairment was assessed using: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereo acuity. Cognitive function was defined using the digit symbol test and the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS)...
October 25, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Livia Pitombeira de Figueirêdo, Michiel A Daam, Giulia Mainardi, Janine Mariën, Evaldo L G Espíndola, Cornelis A M van Gestel, Dick Roelofs
Pesticides risk assessments have traditionally focused on the effects on standard parameters, such as mortality, reproduction and development. However, one of the first signs of adverse effects that occur in organisms exposed to stress conditions is an alteration in their genomic expression, which is specific to the type of stress, sensitive to very low contaminant concentrations and responsive in a few hours. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and binary mixture toxicity of commercial products of abamectin (Kraft® 36 EC) and difenoconazole (Score® 250 EC) to Folsomia candida...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sandeep Raj, Kailash Chandra Ray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of deaths worldwide. Due to an increase in the rate of global mortalities, biopathological signal processing and evaluation are widely used in the ambulatory situations for healthcare applications. For decades, the processing of pathological electrocardiogram (ECG) signals for arrhythmia detection has been thoroughly studied for diagnosis of various cardiovascular diseases. Apart from these studies, efficient diagnosis of ECG signals remains a challenge in the clinical cardiovascular domain due to its non-stationary nature...
October 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Saliha Baykal, Melih Nuri Karakurt, Mahmut Çakır, Koray Karabekiroğlu
High stress levels and impairment of physical/mental health in parents can delay early and effective intervention in autism. The purpose of this study was to examine relations between the clinical characteristics of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and caregiver burden, and anxiety and depression levels. Seventy cases under monitoring at the Namık Kemal University Medical Faculty Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Polyclinic with a diagnosis of ASD, and their principal caregivers, were included in the study...
October 17, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Kevin Robertson, Paul Maruff, Lisa L Ross, David Wohl, Catherine B Small, Howard Edelstein, Mark S Shaefer
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders can persist in many patients despite achieving viral suppression while on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Neurocognitive function over 48 weeks was evaluated using a Cogstate test battery assessing psychomotor function, attention, learning, and working memory in 293 HIV-1-infected, ART-experienced, and virologically suppressed adults. The ASSURE study randomized participants 1:2 to remain on tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) or simplify to abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir (ABC/3TC + ATV)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Andaleeb Sajid, Sabrina Lusvarghi, Eduardo E Chufan, Suresh V Ambudkar
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC transporter that exports many amphipathic or hydrophobic compounds, including chemically and functionally dissimilar anticancer drugs, from cells. To understand the role of transmembrane helices (TMH) 1 and 7 in drug-binding and transport, we selected six residues from both TMH1 (V53, I59, I60, L65, M68 and F72) and TMH7 (V713, I719, I720, Q725, F728 and F732); and substituted them with alanine by gene synthesis to generate a variant termed "TMH1,7 mutant P-gp". The expression and function of TMH1,7 mutant P-gp with twelve mutations was characterized using the BacMam baculovirus-HeLa cell expression system...
2018: PloS One
Silva Lõo, Pilvi Ilves, Mairi Männamaa, Rael Laugesaar, Dagmar Loorits, Tiiu Tomberg, Anneli Kolk, Inga Talvik, Tiina Talvik, Leena Haataja
BACKGROUND: Long-term follow-up data after different vascular types of ischemic perinatal stroke is sparse. Our aim was to study neurodevelopmental outcomes following neonatal and presumed perinatal ischemic middle cerebral artery territory stroke (arterial ischemic stroke, AIS) and periventricular venous infarction (PVI). METHODS: A prospective consecutive cohort of 40 term-born children with perinatal stroke (21 AIS, 19 PVI) was identified through the Estonian Paediatric Stroke Database...
July 21, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Arshya Vahabzadeh, Neha U Keshav, Rafiq Abdus-Sabur, Krystal Huey, Runpeng Liu, Ned T Sahin
Background: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) commonly demonstrate prominent social communication deficits, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and chronic irritability. These challenges hinder academic progress and frequently persist despite educational, behavioral, and medical interventions. An assistive smartglasses technology may aid these individuals, especially if the technology is efficacious in ecologically-valid school settings. This study explored the feasibility and efficacy of Empowered Brain, a computerized smartglasses intervention designed as a socio-emotional behavioral aid for students with ASD...
September 20, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Kazuhide Adachi, Mituhiro Hasegawa, Shinichiro Tateyama, Yuichi Hirose
BACKGROUND: Protecting the venous drainage route in cases with petroclival meningioma (PCM) is important, as PCM progression, as well as a transpetrosal approach, disturbs the venous drainage route; the transpetrosal approach is associated with a superior petrosal sinus venous route impairment risk. The intracranial veins, which do not have a venous valve and have anatomical anastomosis, form a bypass route. It is unknown whether venous congestion occurs in PCM cases. METHODS: Using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), we studied 24 patients who had undergone surgery for treating primary PCMs...
September 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Helena Kames Kjeldgaard, Åse Vikanes, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Carolin Junge, Susan Garthus-Niegel, Malin Eberhard-Gran
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy condition characterised by severe nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy. The experience of HG is for many women a traumatic event. Few studies have investigated a possible association between HG and birth-related posttraumatic stress. The objective of the current study was to assess whether HG increases the risk of birth-related posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). This was a population-based pregnancy cohort study using data from the Akershus Birth Cohort Study (ABC study)...
September 17, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Daniela Figueiredo, Martina Neves
The majority of validation studies with the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) are conducted with independent community-dwelling older people, which limits extrapolation to more vulnerable people, namely those receiving adult day care services. This study aimed to analyse the psychometric properties of the FES-I in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity with users of adult day care centres. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data collection included a socio-demographic questionnaire, the FES-I, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST)...
September 10, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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