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Elizabeth S Barrie, Julia K Pinsonneault, Wolfgang Sadee, Jill A Hollway, Benjamin L Handen, Tristram Smith, L Eugene Arnold, Eric Butter, Emily Hansen-Kiss, Gail E Herman, Michael G Aman
Background: Frequent non-pathogenic genetic variants may act as moderators of phenotypic severity for complex disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We previously identified polymorphisms affecting mRNA expression of candidate genes, including tryptophan hydroxylase 2 ( TPH2 ), dopamine beta hydroxylase ( DBH ), and dopamine transporter ( DAT, SLC6A3 ). Method: We compare genotypes and (1) clinical response to atomoxetine, (2) scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and (3) severity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a cohort of patients with ASD from multiple study sites...
June 2018: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
Noor Hussein, Charles R Ashby, Haneen Amawi, Angelique Nyinawabera, Atul Vij, Vishwa M Khare, Chandrabose Karthikeyan, Amit K Tiwari
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a continuing clinical problem that limits the efficacy of chemotherapy in cancer. The over expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family G2 (ABCG2) transporter is one of the main mechanisms that mediates MDR in cancer. Molecular modeling data indicated that cariprazine, a dopamine D₂/D₃ receptor partial agonist, had a significant binding affinity for ABCG2 transporter with a Glide XP score of -6.515. Therefore, in this in vitro study, we determined the effect of cariprazine on MDR resulting from the overexpression of ABCG2 transporters...
September 4, 2018: Cancers
Adeola M Rotimi, Rian Pierneef, Oleg N Reva
BACKGROUND: Metagenomic approaches have revealed the complexity of environmental microbiomes with the advancement in whole genome sequencing displaying a significant level of genetic heterogeneity on the species level. It has become apparent that patterns of superior bioactivity of bacteria applicable in biotechnology as well as the enhanced virulence of pathogens often requires distinguishing between closely related species or sub-species. Current methods for binning of metagenomic reads usually do not allow for identification below the genus level and generally stops at the family level...
August 30, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
María Asunción Esteve-Pastor, José Miguel Rivera-Caravaca, Vanessa Roldán, Vicente Vicente, Mariano Valdés, Francisco Marín, Gregory Y H Lip
Risk scores in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) based on clinical factors alone generally have only modest predictive value for predicting high risk patients that sustain events. Biomarkers might be an attractive prognostic tool to improve bleeding risk prediction. The new ABCBleeding score performed better than HAS-BLED score in a clinical trial cohort but has not been externally validated. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive performance of the ABC-Bleeding score compared to HAS-BLED score in an independent "real-world" anticoagulated AF patients with long-term follow-up...
October 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
V Lambert-Obry, A Gouault-Laliberté, A Castonguay, G Zanotti, T Tran, M Mates, J Lemieux, P Chabot, C Prady, F Couture, J Lachaine
Background: Advanced breast cancer (abc) represents a substantial burden for patients and caregivers. In the present study, we aimed to estimate quality of life (qol), utility, productivity loss, pain, health care resource utilization, and costs for patients with abc, and qol, utility, and productivity loss for their caregivers. Methods: This multicentre prospective non-interventional study was conducted in Canada. Eligible participants were postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive, her2-negative unresectable abc and their caregivers...
August 2018: Current Oncology
Divya Dhasmana, Ashutosh Singh, Rohit Shukla, Timir Tripathi, Neha Garg
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major cause, by which cancer cells expel the drugs out, developing a challenge against the current chemotherapeutic drugs regime. This mechanism is attributed to the over expression of ABC transporters like MRP1 on the surface of cells. Since nucleotide binding domains (NBD) of ABC transporters are the site of ATP binding and hydrolysis, thereby in this study we have targeted NBD1 of MRP1using molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations (MDS). The compounds present in the FDA approved library were docked against NBD1 of the human multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (PDB ID: 2CBZ)...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amirreza T Motameni, Rebekah A Hodge, William I McKinley, Jiliene M Georgel, Brian P Strollo, Matthew V Benns, Keith R Miller, Brian G Harbrecht
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is the most common cause of early death in trauma patients. Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) have been designed to accelerate the release of blood products but can result in waste if activated inappropriately. The Assessment of Blood Consumption (ABC) score has become a widely accepted score for MTP activation. In this study, we compared the use of ABC criteria to physician judgment in MTP activation. METHODS: Adult trauma patients treated at University of Louisville Trauma Center from January 2016 to December 2016 were studied...
August 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Narong Maneeton, Benchalak Maneeton, Suwannee Putthisri, Pakapan Woottiluk, Assawin Narkpongphun, Manit Srisurapanont
Background: Various clinical trials suggested that risperidone was beneficial in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adolescents. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of risperidone in the treatment of children and adolescents with ASD. Data sources: The databases of Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched in February 2017...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Charles T Harris, Brittney M Dudley, Daniel Davenport, Jacob Higgins, Lisa Fryman, Andrew Bernard
Early initiation of a high ratio massive transfusion can lower trauma patient mortality by 80%. Long transport times from rural Level IV trauma centers therefore require that damage control resuscitation begin before patient transfer. This study evaluates the current use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) at Level IV trauma centers and the feasibility of implementing trauma transfusion protocols at these centers. Demographic and clinical data were collected for trauma patients at all state Level IV trauma centers who would have met criteria for massive transfusion protocol (MTP) activation based on the Assessment of Blood Consumption (ABC) score...
July 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Abdulmajeed Owaid Alsharari, Abdulrahaman Alduraywish, Ekremah Ali Al-Zarea, Naif Ibrahim Salmon, Md Sayed Ali Sheikh
Background: Sudden cardiac arrest is a major public health problem in the world. Immediate initiation of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) significantly increased patient survival rate. Therefore, it is very important to train young people and increase public awareness of CPR for the long-term benefit of the community. Objective: We aimed at estimating the level of knowledge and attitude towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the university students in the northern region of Saudi Arabia...
2018: Cardiology Research and Practice
Meloja Satkunam, Laura N Anderson, Sarah Carsley, Jonathon L Maguire, Patricia C Parkin, Ann E Sprague, Geoff D C Ball, Catherine S Birken
OBJECTIVES: International data suggest the prevalence of severe obesity in young children may be increasing, yet no Canadian data are available. The objectives of this study were to examine definitions of severe obesity and to evaluate associated risk factors among young children in Ontario. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in children 17 to 24 months of age using two Ontario data sources: TARGet Kids! (n = 3713) and BORN Ontario (n = 768)...
May 30, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Pierre Delion, Julien Labreuche, Dominique Deplanque, David Cohen, Alain Duhamel, Céline Lallié, Maud Ravary, Jean-Louis Goeb, François Medjkane, Jean Xavier
INTRODUCTION: The use of therapeutic body wraps (TBW) has been reported in small series or case reports, but has become controversial. OBJECTIVES: This is a feasibility, multicentre, randomized, controlled, open-label trial with blinded outcome assessment (PROBE design). SETTING: Children with autism and severe-injurious behaviours (SIB) were enrolled from 13 specialized clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Dry-sheet TBW (DRY group) vs...
2018: PloS One
Gerry Leisman, Calixto Machado, Yanin Machado, Mauricio Chinchilla-Acosta
The study examined the efficacy of low-level laser therapy, a form of photobiomodulation, for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic spectrum disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-17 years. Twenty-one of the 40 participants received eight 5-min procedures administered to the base of the skull and temporal areas across a 4-week period (test, i.e., active treatment participants). All the participants were evaluated with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), with the global scale and five subscales (irritability/agitation, lethargy/social withdrawal, stereotypic behavior, hyperactivity/noncompliance, and inappropriate speech), and the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Scale including a severity-of-illness scale (CGI-S) and a global improvement/change scale (CGI-C)...
June 29, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
David Wohl, Amanda Clarke, Franco Maggiolo, Will Garner, Marianne Laouri, Hal Martin, Erin Quirk
BACKGROUND: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are recommended for first-line antiretroviral therapy in combination with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Co-formulated bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF), a novel, INSTI-based regimen, is currently approved in the US and EU for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and recommended as first-line treatment in current guidelines. In our current analysis, we aimed to determine changes in patient-reported symptoms over time among HIV-1-infected adults who initiated or switched to B/F/TAF versus another INSTI-based regimen, co-formulated abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine (ABC/DTG/3TC)...
October 2018: Patient
Mohamed Abdel Rahman, Ayman Mohammad El Masry, Sherif Ishak Azmy
BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an aggressive benign lesion that may sometimes be difficult to treat. Lesions that occur in the proximal femur require to be addressed aggressively because of the high rate of local recurrence and the risk of fracture. Few articles report the experience of management of ABC in the proximal femur. This location presents a surgical challenge due to its anatomical and biomechanical peculiarity. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 16 cases with ABC in the proximal femur that were treated in our institution between 2005 and 2014, utilizing extended curettage and liquid nitrogen as adjuvant therapy and reconstruction using nonvascularized autogenous fibular strut graft...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Zhen Tong, Meng Ding, Xiaoli Li, Erjuan Cai, Jiannan Kang
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behaviors. Electroencephalograph (EEG), which can measure neurological changes associated with cortical synaptic activity, has been proven to be a powerful tool for detecting neurological disorders. The main goal of this study is to explore the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on behavioral response and EEG. We enrolled 32 autistic children, rTMS group ( n = 16) and control group ( n = 16) and calculated the relative power of the δ, θ, α, β rhythms in each brain area by fast Fourier transform and Welch's method...
March 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Gerda M de Kuijper, Pieter J Hoekstra
Although physicians are aware of the risks of prescribing long-term off-label antipsychotics in people with intellectual disability, attempts to discontinue often fail. This study aimed to identify potential determinants of successful and failed discontinuation. Long-term off-label antipsychotics were tapered in 14 weeks, with 12.5% of baseline dose every 2 weeks. Participants living in facilities offered by intellectual disability service providers, ≥6 years, with an IQ <70 were eligible to discontinue antipsychotic use, as judged by their physicians...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Krystal Herline, Frances Prelli, Pankaj Mehta, Claire MacMurray, Fernando Goñi, Thomas Wisniewski
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by physiologically endogenous proteins amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau undergoing a conformational change and accumulating as soluble oligomers and insoluble aggregates. Tau and Aβ soluble oligomers, which contain extensive β-sheet secondary structure, are thought to be the most toxic forms. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of TWF9, an anti-β-sheet conformation antibody (aβComAb), to selectively recognize pathological Aβ and phosphorylated tau in AD human tissue compared with cognitively normal age-matched controls and to improve the performance of old 3xTg-AD mice with advanced pathology in behavioral testing after acute treatment with TWF9...
June 18, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Naoko Kurahashi, Yukiko Futamura, Norie Nonobe, Shunsuke Ogaya, Yuki Maki, Ikuko Yoshimura, Takeshi Suzuki, Yosuke Hosokawa, Keitaro Yamada, Kosaburo Aso, Koichi Maruyama, Miho Nakamura
BACKGROUND: There are few studies on hiragana reading skill and phonological awareness in Japanese schoolchildren with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). METHODS: Three seven-year-old children with PVL who had no intellectual disabilities or dysarthria were recruited. Their perinatal information, brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) at term equivalent age, accompanying neurodevelopmental disorders, ophthalmologic features, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), a hiragana reading test (four tasks), and a phonological awareness task (mora reversal tasks) were analyzed...
November 2018: Brain & Development
Gautam Adusumilli, Samantha Lancia, Victoria A Levasseur, Vaishak Amblee, Megan Orchard, Joanne M Wagner, Robert T Naismith
The standard functional tool for gait assessment in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical trials has been the 25-Foot Timed Walk Test, a measure of gait speed. Straight-line gait assessment may not reflect adequately upon balance and coordination. Walking tests with turns may add additional information towards understanding gait and balance status, and be more reflective of ambulation in the community. Understanding the impact of turn parameters on patient-reported outcomes of balance and walking would help MS clinicians better formulate treatment plans for persons with gait limitations...
2018: PloS One
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