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Kidney,Chronic kidney disease,acute renal failure, dialysis

Vina Tresa, Afshan Yaseen, Ali Asghar Lanewala, Seema Hashmi, Sabeeta Khatri, Irshad Ali, Muhammed Mubarak
BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence rates and etiologies of acute kidney injury (AKI) are quite variable in different regions of the world. The current study was planned to determine the etiology, clinical profile, and short-term outcome of pediatric AKI at our hospital. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was carried out from April 2014 to March 2015. All pediatric patients (1 month to ≤15 years) diagnosed as AKI using modified pRIFLE criteria were studied and followed for 3 months to document short-term outcome...
October 21, 2016: Renal Failure
Hannelore Sprenger-Mähr, Emanuel Zitt, Karl Lhotta
INTRODUCTION: The number of patients suffering from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) is increasing. Whereas causes and outcome of AKI-D in the intensive care unit (ICU) are described extensively, few data exist about AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU. Aim of this study was to identify the causes of AKI-D, determine in-depth the comorbid conditions and outcome of this particular patient group and identify possibilities for its prevention. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU in a single nephrology referral center between January 2010 and June 2015...
2016: PloS One
Thomas A Mavrakanas, David M Charytan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article focuses on the most significant cardiovascular complications in dialysis patients [sudden cardiac death (SCD), acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation]. RECENT FINDINGS: Current and ongoing research aims to quantify the rate and pattern of significant arrhythmia in dialysis patients and to determine the predominant mechanism of SCD. Preliminary findings from these studies suggest a high rate of atrial fibrillation and that bradycardia and asystole may be more frequent than ventricular arrhythmia as a cause of sudden death...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Wen Tang, Xiu-Hong Hu, Lei Zhu, Zhe-Li Niu, Chu-Yan Su, Qing-Feng Han, Tao Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of pre-dialysis renal care on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients' outcomes in China. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients who started PD during January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014, were included. Patients' medical charts were reviewed to extract the information. To explore the effect of pre-dialysis renal care on patients' outcomes, patient were divided into two groups according to whether or not they had frequent renal clinic visits: Group A (with frequent visits) and Group B (without frequent visits)...
November 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Tony Amin, P Toby Coates, Jeffrey Barbara, Paul Hakendorf, Nazmul Karim
Introduction. Postrenal transplant bone disease is a significant problem. Factors influencing postrenal transplant bone status include high dose acute and low dose long-term steroid use, persistent hypercalcaemia, and graft failure. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of hypercalcaemia and to evaluate the risk factors for postrenal transplant hypercalcaemia in long-term renal transplant patients at our centre. Methods. This is a biochemical audit in which we studied renal transplant recipients from the Central Northern Adelaide Renal Transplant Services, South Australia...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology
Ivo W Soliman, Jos F Frencken, Linda M Peelen, Arjen J C Slooter, Olaf L Cremer, Johannes J van Delden, Diederik van Dijk, Dylan W de Lange
BACKGROUND: Prognostic factors for the combination of long-term survival and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after intensive care unit (ICU) stay have not yet been studied. Our aim was to assess whether early acute kidney injury (eAKI), AKI occurring on the first day of ICU admission, is an independent predictor of this combined one-year outcome. METHODS: We included all patients admitted to the mixed ICU of the University Medical Centre Utrecht between July 2009 and April 2013, excluding patients with chronic dialysis, cardiac surgery, and length of stay shorter than 24 hours...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Morgan B Slater, Andrea Gruneir, Paula A Rochon, Andrew W Howard, Gideon Koren, Christopher S Parshuram
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury may be promoted by critical illness, preexisting medical conditions, and treatments received both before and during ICU admission. We aimed to estimate the frequency of acute kidney injury during ICU treatment and to determine factors, occurring both before and during the ICU stay, associated with the development of acute kidney injury. DESIGN: Cohort study of critically ill children. SETTING: University-affiliated PICU...
September 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Hsiao-Chien Chen, Chung-Yi Cheng, Hsiu-Chen Lin, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Cheng-Hsien Chen, Chih-Ping Yang, Kai-Huei Yang, Chun-Mao Lin, Tsung-Yao Lin, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yu-Chuan Liu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is inflammation-related. Patients with chronic renal failure who undergo hemodialysis (HD) have some acute adverse effects caused by dialysis-induced oxidative stress, protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and activation of coagulation and inflammation. Here, resonantly illuminated gold nanoparticles-modified artificial kidney (AuNPs@AK) for achieving high efficiency accompanying therapeutic strategy for CKD during HD is proposed. The efficiency in removing uremic toxins increased obviously, especially in the presence of protein (closer to the real blood)...
August 3, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Himanshu J Patel, Donald S Likosky, Andrew L Pruitt, Edward T Murphy, Patricia F Theurer, Richard L Prager
BACKGROUND: As transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) therapy transitions from inoperable or high-risk patients to those considered moderate risk, a contemporary evaluation of AVR in this latter group is warranted. METHODS: Using the Michigan Cardiothoracic Surgical Quality Collaborative Database, we analyzed outcomes and identified predictors of a composite end point (30-day death, stroke, and dialysis) for 2,979 patients (2007 to 2015) undergoing AVR (n = 1,196) or AVR and coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 1,783) with a preoperative The Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality (PROM) of 4% to 8% (mean, 5...
June 18, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Melissa H Little, Pamela Kairath
The treatment of renal failure has changed little in decades. Organ transplantation and dialysis continue to represent the only therapeutic options available. However, decades of fundamental research into the response of the kidney to acute injury and the processes driving progression to chronic kidney disease are beginning to open doors to new options. Similarly, continued investigations into the cellular and molecular basis of normal kidney development, together with major advances in stem cell biology, are now delivering options in regenerative medicine not possible as recently as a decade ago...
August 2016: Kidney International
Chien-Ning Hsu, Chien-Te Lee, Chien-Hao Su, Yu-Ching Lily Wang, Hsiao-Ling Chen, Jiin-Haur Chuang, You-Lin Tain
The disease burden and outcomes of community-acquired (CA-) and hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) are not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors of AKI in a large Taiwanese adult cohort.This retrospective cohort study examined 734,340 hospital admissions from a group of hospitals within an organization in Taiwan between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014. Patients with AKI at discharge were classified as either CA- or HA-AKI based on the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of function, end stage of kidney disease) classification criteria...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mario Meola, Federico Nalesso, Ilaria Petrucci, Sara Samoni, Claudio Ronco
Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known in the past as acute renal failure, is a syndrome characterized by the rapid loss of kidney excretory function. It is usually diagnosed by the accumulation of end products of nitrogen metabolism (urea and creatinine) or decreased urine output or both. AKI is the clinical consequence of several disorders that acutely affect the kidney, causing electrolytes and acid-base imbalance, hyperhydration and loss of depurative function. AKI is common in critical care patients in whom it is often secondary to extrarenal events...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Linda Rydén, Daniel Hertzberg, Ulrik Sartipy, Martin Holzmann
Acute kidney injury, previously called acute renal failure, is very common in different health care settings. Acute kidney injury is strongly related to an increased risk of death, myocardial infarction, heart failure and dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. The established classification of acute kidney injury, KDIGO, uses changes in serum creatinine values, and/or urine output to define different stages (stages 1-3). Acute kidney injury stage 1 is defined as an increase in serum creatinine levels of 26 μmol/l, or an 1...
2016: Läkartidningen
Paola D'Errigo, Claudio Moretti, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Stefano Rosato, Fausto Biancari, Marco Barbanti, Francesco Santini, Marco Ranucci, Antonio Miceli, Corrado Tamburino, Francesco Onorati, Gennaro Santoro, Claudio Grossi, Danilo Fusco, Fulvia Seccareccia
BACKGROUND: There are scarce data on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with renal failure. METHODS: We evaluated the impact of renal failure on outcomes after TAVI and SAVR and compared the results of these procedures in patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3b to 5 from the Observational Study of Effectiveness of AVR-TAVI Procedures for Severe Aortic Stenosis Treatment (OBSERVANT) study...
August 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Paweł Wróbel, Grażyna Wyrwicz-Zielińska, Izabela Krzysztonek-Weber, Władysław Sułowicz
INTRODUCTION: Patients with cardiovascular diseases are a group of increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Mortality in this group of patients with AKI, especially treated in intensive care units, is very high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristic of patients with AKI complicated severe cardiovascular diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of 246 questionnaire of patients with AKI in the course of severe cardiovascular diseases treated in the wards of nephrological profile from the malopolska and podkarpackie voivodships in the years 2000-2011 was performed...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Azar Mehrabadi, Mourad Dahhou, K S Joseph, Michael S Kramer
OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether the reported increase in obstetric acute renal failure in the United States was attributable to a concurrent rise in postpartum hemorrhage, a change in other risk factors, or changes in the diagnosis of acute renal failure. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to quantify temporal trends in acute renal failure among 10,969,263 hospital deliveries in the United States from 1999 to 2011 using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample...
May 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kent Doi
Kidney injury, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), has become very common in critically ill patients treated in ICUs. Many epidemiological studies have revealed significant associations of AKI and CKD with poor outcomes of high mortality and medical costs. Although many basic studies have clarified the possible mechanisms of sepsis and septic AKI, translation of the obtained findings to clinical settings has not been successful to date. No specific drug against human sepsis or AKI is currently available...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Wouter R Verberne, A B M Tom Geers, Wilbert T Jellema, Hieronymus H Vincent, Johannes J M van Delden, Willem Jan W Bos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Outcomes of older patients with ESRD undergoing RRT or conservative management (CM) are uncertain. Adequate survival data, specifically of older patients, are needed for proper counseling. We compared survival of older renal patients choosing either CM or RRT. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A retrospective survival analysis was performed of a single-center cohort in a nonacademic teaching hospital in The Netherlands from 2004 to 2014...
April 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Rashmi Mishra, Nupur Sinha, Richard Duncalf
Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
Sean Carter, Abhijit Dixit, Andrew Lunn, Anjum Deorukhkar, Martin Christian
A case is presented of a neonate born at 32 weeks of gestation with intra-uterine growth retardation. The renal scan performed at 31 weeks showed oligohydramnios but normal kidneys. The neonate was oliguric from birth and required early peritoneal dialysis. Her urine showed heavy proteinuria, and the plasma albumin was very low. Post-natal ultrasonography showed large bright kidneys with reduced corticomedullary differentiation but no dysplastia; arterial and venous flow was normal on Doppler ultrasound. The quiz discusses the differential diagnosis with particular reference to whether this picture represents acute kidney injury with expected improvement or chronic kidney disease...
February 18, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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