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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630901/stable-anchoring-chemistry-for-room-temperature-charge-transport-through-graphite-molecule-contacts
#1
Alexander V Rudnev, Veerabhadrarao Kaliginedi, Andrea Droghetti, Hiroaki Ozawa, Akiyoshi Kuzume, Masa-Aki Haga, Peter Broekmann, Ivan Rungger
An open challenge for single-molecule electronics is to find stable contacts at room temperature with a well-defined conductance. Common coinage metal electrodes pose fabrication and operational problems due to the high mobility of the surface atoms. We demonstrate how molecules covalently grafted onto mechanically robust graphite/graphene substrates overcome these limitations. To this aim, we explore the effect of the anchoring group chemistry on the charge transport properties of graphite-molecule contacts by means of the scanning tunneling microscopy break-junction technique and ab initio simulations...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630157/pore-formation-by-dimeric-bak-and-bax-an-unusual-pore
#2
REVIEW
Rachel T Uren, Sweta Iyer, Ruth M Kluck
Apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial pathway occurs in all vertebrate cells and requires the formation of pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Two Bcl-2 protein family members, Bak and Bax, form these pores during apoptosis, and how they do so has been investigated for the last two decades. Many of the conformation changes that occur during their transition to pore-forming proteins have now been delineated. Notably, biochemical, biophysical and structural studies indicate that symmetric homodimers are the basic unit of pore formation...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630090/t-cell-transcriptomes-from-paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria-patients-reveal-novel-signaling-pathways
#3
Kohei Hosokawa, Sachiko Kajigaya, Keyvan Keyvanfar, Wangmin Qiao, Yanling Xie, Danielle M Townsley, Xingmin Feng, Neal S Young
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disorder originating from hematopoietic stem cells and is a life-threating disease characterized by intravascular hemolysis, bone marrow (BM) failure, and venous thrombosis. The etiology of PNH is a somatic mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene (PIG-A) on the X chromosome, which blocks synthesis of the glycolipid moiety and causes deficiency in GPI-anchored proteins. PNH is closely related to aplastic anemia, in which T cells mediate destruction of BM...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628083/molecular-basis-of-selective-mitochondrial-fusion-by-heterotypic-action-between-opa1-and-cardiolipin
#4
Tadato Ban, Takaya Ishihara, Hiroto Kohno, Shotaro Saita, Ayaka Ichimura, Katsumi Maenaka, Toshihiko Oka, Katsuyoshi Mihara, Naotada Ishihara
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that undergo frequent fusion and fission. Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is an essential GTPase protein for both mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) fusion and cristae morphology. Under mitochondria-stress conditions, membrane-anchored L-OPA1 is proteolytically cleaved to form peripheral S-OPA1, leading to the selection of damaged mitochondria for mitophagy. However, molecular details of the selective mitochondrial fusion are less well understood. Here, we showed that L-OPA1 and cardiolipin (CL) cooperate in heterotypic mitochondrial IM fusion...
June 19, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627561/a-promising-single-atom-catalyst-for-co-oxidation-ag-on-boron-vacancies-of-h-bn-sheets
#5
Zhansheng Lu, Peng Lv, Zongxian Yang, Shuo Li, Dongwei Ma, Ruqian Wu
Single atom catalysts (SACs) have attracted broad research interest in recent years due to their importance in various fields, such as environmental protection and energy conversion. Here, we discuss the mechanisms of CO oxidation to CO2 over single Ag atoms supported on hexagonal boron-nitride sheets (Ag1/BN) through systematic van der Waals inclusive density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The Ag adatom can be anchored onto a boron defect (VB), as suggested by the large energy barrier of 3.12 eV for Ag diffusion away from the VB site...
June 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625162/a-reference-genome-for-nicotiana-tabacum-enables-map-based-cloning-of-homeologous-loci-implicated-in-nitrogen-utilization-efficiency
#6
K D Edwards, N Fernandez-Pozo, K Drake-Stowe, M Humphry, A D Evans, A Bombarely, F Allen, R Hurst, B White, S P Kernodle, J R Bromley, J P Sanchez-Tamburrino, R S Lewis, L A Mueller
BACKGROUND: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is an important plant model system that has played a key role in the early development of molecular plant biology. The tobacco genome is large and its characterisation challenging because it is an allotetraploid, likely arising from hybridisation between diploid N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis ancestors. A draft assembly was recently published for N. tabacum, but because of the aforementioned genome complexities it was of limited utility due to a high level of fragmentation...
June 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623976/adam28-localizes-to-hla-g-trophoblasts-and-promotes-column-cell-outgrowth
#7
L C De Luca, H T Le, D L Mara, A G Beristain
INTRODUCTION: Trophoblast progenitor cell differentiation towards the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage initiates within proximal regions of anchoring columns of first trimester placental villi. While molecular processes controlling the initial stages of progenitor cell differentiation along the EVT pathway have been described, much remains unknown about factors important in distal column cell differentiation into invasive EVTs. ADAMs are proteases that regulate growth factor signaling, cell-matrix adhesion, and matrix proteolysis, and thus impact many processes relevant in placentation...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623230/flexible-body-motions-of-calmodulin-and-the-farnesylated-hypervariable-region-yield-a-high-affinity-interaction-enabling-k-ras4b-membrane-extraction
#8
Hyunbum Jang, Avik Banerjee, Tanmay Chavan, Vadim Gaponenko, Ruth Nussinov
In calmodulin (CaM)-rich environments, oncogenic KRAS plays a critical role in adenocarcinomas by promoting PI3K/Akt signaling. We previously proposed that at elevated calcium levels in cancer, CaM recruits PI3Kα to the membrane and extracts K-Ras4B from the membrane, organizing a K-Ras4B/CaM/PI3Kα ternary complex. CaM can thereby replace a missing receptor tyrosine kinase signal to fully activate PI3Kα. Recent experimental data show that CaM selectively promotes K-Ras signaling, but not of N-Ras or H-Ras...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621907/role-of-cleavage-and-polyadenylation-specificity-factor-100-anchoring-poly-a-sites-and-modulating-transcription-termination
#9
Juncheng Lin, Ruqiang Xu, Xiaohui Wu, Yingjia Shen, Qingshun Q Li
CPSF100 is a core component of the Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (CPSF) complex for the 3'-end formation of mRNA, but it still has no clear functional assignment. CPSF100 was reported to play a role in RNA silencing and promote flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not fully understood. Our genetics analyses indicate that plants with a hypomorphic mutant of CPSF100 (esp5) show defects in embryogenesis, reduced seed production, or altered root morphology...
June 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621802/glypican-3-a-promising-biomarker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Fubo Zhou, Wenting Shang, Xiaoling Yu, Jie Tian
Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type. Therefore, molecular targets are urgently required for the early detection of HCC and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Glypican-3 (GPC3), an oncofetal proteoglycan anchored to the cell membrane, is normally detected in the fetal liver but not in the healthy adult liver. However, in HCC patients, GPC3 is overexpressed at both the gene and protein levels, and its expression predicts a poor prognosis...
June 16, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620036/substrate-selectivity-in-the-zdhhc-family-of-s-acyltransferases
#11
REVIEW
Kimon Lemonidis, Christine Salaun, Marianna Kouskou, Cinta Diez-Ardanuy, Luke H Chamberlain, Jennifer Greaves
S-acylation is a reversible lipid modification occurring on cysteine residues mediated by a family of membrane-bound 'zDHHC' enzymes. S-acylation predominantly results in anchoring of soluble proteins to membrane compartments or in the trafficking of membrane proteins to different compartments. Recent work has shown that although S-acylation of some proteins may involve very weak interactions with zDHHC enzymes, a pool of zDHHC enzymes exhibit strong and specific interactions with substrates, thereby recruiting them for S-acylation...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616799/dolichol-phosphate-mannose-synthase-a-glycosyltransferase-with-unity-in-molecular-diversities
#12
REVIEW
Dipak K Banerjee, Zhenbo Zhang, Krishna Baksi, Jesús E Serrano-Negrón
N-glycans provide structural and functional stability to asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycoproteins, and add flexibility. Glycan biosynthesis is elaborative, multi-compartmental and involves many glycosyltransferases. Failure to assemble N-glycans leads to phenotypic changes developing infection, cancer, congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) among others. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the assembly of dolichol-linked tetra-decasaccharide (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol) where dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPMS) plays a central role...
June 14, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614699/a-signal-amplification-probe-enhances-sensitivity-of-antibodies-and-aptamers-based-immuno-diagnostic-assays
#13
Ofer Nussbaum, Michal Bar Oz, Tal Tilayov, Helly Atiya, Shlomo Dagan
One major unmet need is improving the sensitivity of immune-diagnostic assays. This is particularly important in the field of biomarker discoveries and monitoring. We have established a novel signal amplification probe system enabling a highly sensitive target detection platform to be used in immuno-assays. The probe consists of a double stranded DNA that can carry a large number of signaling elements such as biotin or fluorescent molecules. The DNA probe anchors to the recognition unit, whether an antibody or an aptamer, by covalent conjugation or by a simple and rapid molecular association process...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612997/a-structural-perspective-on-the-interactions-of-traf6-and-basigin-during-the-onset-of-melanoma-a-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study
#14
Ria Biswas, Semanti Ghosh, Angshuman Bagchi
Metastatic melanoma is the most fatal type of skin cancer. The roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have well been established in the onset of melanoma. Basigin (BSG) belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is critical for induction of extracellular MMPs during the onset of various cancers including melanoma. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an E3-ligase that interacts with BSG and mediates its membrane localization, which leads to MMP expression in melanoma cells. This makes TRAF6 a potential therapeutic target in melanoma...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612494/enhanced-interfacial-charge-transfer-on-wo3-photoanode-by-molecular-iridium-catalyst
#15
Haili Tong, Yi Jiang, Qian Zhang, Jialing Li, Wenchao Jiang, Donghui Zhang, Na Li, Lixin Xia
The rational design of active photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is crucial for future applications in sustainable energy conversion. A combination of catalysts with photoelectrodes is generally required to improve surface kinetics and suppress surface recombination. In this study, we present an iridium complex (Ir-PO3H2) modified WO3 photoanode (WO3+Ir-PO3H2) for PEC water oxidation. When the Ir-based molecular catalyst (Ir-PO3H2) is anchored to a WO3 electrode, the photoanode shows a significant improvement both in photocurrent and faradaic efficiency compared to bare WO3...
June 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604889/homo-lumo-coupling-the-fourth-rule-for-highly-effective-molecular-rectifiers
#16
Aaron Zhenghui Thong, Milo S P Shaffer, Andrew P Horsfield
Three rules for creating highly effective unimolecular rectifiers that utilize asymmetric anchoring groups have been proposed by Van Dyck and Ratner [Ratner et al., Nano Lett., 2015, 15, 1577-1584]. This study investigates their proposed rectification mechanism in a functionalised azafullerene system (4TPA-C60) and identifies a fourth rule. NEGF-DFT shows that 4TPA-C60 fulfills the three design rules and finds that a saturated bridge is not required to fulfil the third rule, contrary to previous belief. Instead a twisted-π bridge decouples the donor and acceptor states whilst still providing a high conductance pathway...
June 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602954/a-versatile-genetic-tool-to-study-midline-glia-function-in-the-drosophila-cns
#17
Swati Banerjee, E Mino, Elizabeth S Fisher, Manzoor A Bhat
Neuron-glial interactions are crucial for growth, guidance and ensheathment of axons across species. In the Drosophila CNS midline, neuron-glial interactions underlie ensheathment of commissural axons by midline glial (MG) cells in a manner similar to mammalian oligodendrocytes. Although there has been some advance in the study of neuron-glial interactions and ensheathment of axons in the CNS midline, key aspects of axonal ensheathment are still not fully understood. One of the limitations has been the unavailability of MG membrane markers that could highlight the glial processes wrapping the axons...
June 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600680/tight-junctions-of-the-proximal-tubule-and-their-channel-proteins
#18
REVIEW
Michael Fromm, Jörg Piontek, Rita Rosenthal, Dorothee Günzel, Susanne M Krug
The renal proximal tubule achieves the majority of renal water and solute reabsorption with the help of paracellular channels which lead through the tight junction. The proteins forming such channels in the proximal tubule are claudin-2, claudin-10a, and possibly claudin-17. Claudin-2 forms paracellular channels selective for small cations like Na(+) and K(+). Independently of each other, claudin-10a and claudin-17 form anion-selective channels. The claudins form the paracellular "pore pathway" and are integrated, together with purely sealing claudins and other tight junction proteins, in the belt of tight junction strands surrounding the tubular epithelial cells...
June 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598437/centromeres-are-maintained-by-fastening-cenp-a-to-dna-and-directing-an-arginine-anchor-dependent-nucleosome-transition
#19
Lucie Y Guo, Praveen Kumar Allu, Levani Zandarashvili, Kara L McKinley, Nikolina Sekulic, Jennine M Dawicki-McKenna, Daniele Fachinetti, Glennis A Logsdon, Ryan M Jamiolkowski, Don W Cleveland, Iain M Cheeseman, Ben E Black
Maintaining centromere identity relies upon the persistence of the epigenetic mark provided by the histone H3 variant, centromere protein A (CENP-A), but the molecular mechanisms that underlie its remarkable stability remain unclear. Here, we define the contributions of each of the three candidate CENP-A nucleosome-binding domains (two on CENP-C and one on CENP-N) to CENP-A stability using gene replacement and rapid protein degradation. Surprisingly, the most conserved domain, the CENP-C motif, is dispensable...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598353/cellular-consequences-of-diminished-protein-o-mannosyltransferase-activity-in-baker-s-yeast
#20
Ewa Zatorska, Lihi Gal, Jaro Schmitt, Daniela Bausewein, Maya Schuldiner, Sabine Strahl
O-Mannosylation is a type of protein glycosylation initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the protein O-mannosyltransferase (PMT) family. Despite the vital role of O-mannosylation, its molecular functions and regulation are not fully characterized. To further explore the cellular impact of protein O-mannosylation, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with increased sensitivity towards the PMT-specific inhibitor compound R3A-5a. We identified the cell wall and the ER as the cell compartments affected most upon PMT inhibition...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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