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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319897/dialysis-membrane-enforced-microelectrode-array-measurement-of-diverse-gut-electrical-activity
#1
Naoko Iwata, Takumi Fujimura, Chiho Takai, Kei Odani, Shin Kawano, Shinsuke Nakayama
A variety of electrical activities occur depending on the functional state in each section of the gut, but the application of microelectrode array (MEA) is rather limited. We thus developed a dialysis membranes-enforced technique to investigate diverse and complex spatio-temporal electrical activity in the gut. Muscle sheets isolated from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mice along with a piece of dialysis membrane were woven over and under the strings to fix them to the anchor rig, and mounted on an 8×8 MEA (inter-electrode distance=150µm)...
March 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319616/dna-probes-for-monitoring-dynamic-and-transient-molecular-encounters-on-live-cell-membranes
#2
Mingxu You, Yifan Lyu, Da Han, Liping Qiu, Qiaoling Liu, Tao Chen, Cuichen Sam Wu, Lu Peng, Liqin Zhang, Gang Bao, Weihong Tan
Cells interact with the extracellular environment through molecules expressed on the membrane. Disruption of these membrane-bound interactions (or encounters) can result in disease progression. Advances in super-resolution microscopy have allowed membrane encounters to be examined, however, these methods cannot image entire membranes and cannot provide information on the dynamic interactions between membrane-bound molecules. Here, we show a novel DNA probe that can transduce transient membrane encounter events into readable cumulative fluorescence signals...
March 20, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318169/-development-of-transcriptional-regulators-of-streptococcus-mutans-in-cariogenic-virulence
#3
Li Lan, Zhang Bowen, Li Jiyao
Some transcriptional regulators contribute to the expression of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) cariogenic virulence factors. Although the target sequence transcriptional regulators anchored on the cell wall and the molecular mechanism of the regulation of S. mutans are yet to be clarified, certain global regulators potentially associated with the cariogenicity of S. mutans have been identified. This review is about these related transcriptional regulators, their function, and possible mechanisms.
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317903/stability-and-dynamics-of-membrane-spanning-dna-nanopores
#4
Vishal Maingi, Jonathan R Burns, Jaakko J Uusitalo, Stefan Howorka, Siewert J Marrink, Mark S P Sansom
Recently developed DNA-based analogues of membrane proteins have advanced synthetic biology. A fundamental question is how hydrophilic nanostructures reside in the hydrophobic environment of the membrane. Here, we use multiscale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the structure, stability and dynamics of an archetypical DNA nanotube inserted via a ring of membrane anchors into a phospholipid bilayer. Coarse-grained MD reveals that the lipids reorganize locally to interact closely with the membrane-spanning section of the DNA tube...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315703/molecular-endocrinology-of-vitamin-d-on-the-epigenome-level
#5
REVIEW
Carsten Carlberg
The molecular endocrinology of vitamin D is based on the facts that i) its metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is the high affinity ligand of the nuclear receptor vitamin D receptor (VDR) and ii) the transcription factor VDR is the unique target of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the nucleus. Short-term alterations of the epigenome are primarily changes in the post-translational modification status of nucleosome-forming histone proteins, the consequences of which are i) a local increase or decrease in chromatin accessibility and ii) the activation or repression of gene transcription...
March 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314136/platelet-microparticle-inspired-clot-responsive-nanomedicine-for-targeted-fibrinolysis
#6
Christa L Pawlowski, Wei Li, Michael Sun, Kavya Ravichandran, DaShawn Hickman, Clarissa Kos, Gurbani Kaur, Anirban Sen Gupta
Intravascular administration of plasminogen activators is a clinically important thrombolytic strategy to treat occlusive vascular conditions. A major issue with this strategy is the systemic off-target drug action, which affects hemostatic capabilities and causes substantial hemorrhagic risks. This issue can be potentially resolved by designing technologies that allow thrombus-targeted delivery and site-specific action of thrombolytic drugs. To this end, leveraging a liposomal platform, we have developed platelet microparticle (PMP)-inspired nanovesicles (PMINs), that can protect encapsulated thrombolytic drugs in circulation to prevent off-target uptake and action, anchor actively onto thrombus via PMP-relevant molecular mechanisms and allow drug release via thrombus-relevant enzymatic trigger...
March 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304043/the-mechanism-of-aquaporin-inhibition-by-gold-compounds-elucidated-by-biophysical-and-computational-methods
#7
Andreia de Almeida, Andreia F Mósca, Darren Wragg, Margot Wenzel, Paul Kavanagh, Giampaolo Barone, Stefano Leoni, Graça Soveral, Angela Casini
The inhibition of water and glycerol permeation via human aquaglyceroporin-3 (AQP3) by gold(iii) complexes has been studied by stopped-flow spectroscopy and, for the first time, its mechanism has been described using molecular dynamics (MD), combined with density functional theory (DFT) and electrochemical studies. The obtained MD results showed that the most effective gold-based inhibitor, anchored to Cys40 in AQP3, is able to induce shrinkage of pores preventing glycerol and water permeation. Moreover, the good correlation between the affinity of the Au(iii) complex to Cys binding and AQP3 inhibition effects was highlighted, while no influence of the different oxidative character of the complexes could be observed...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300259/-d-%C3%AF-a-2-%C3%AF-d-a-type-ferrocenyl-bisthiazole-linked-triphenylamine-based-molecular-systems-for-dssc-synthesis-experimental-and-theoretical-performance-studies
#8
Ramesh Maragani, Rajneesh Misra, M S Roy, Manish Kumar Singh, Ganesh D Sharma
We have designed and synthesized ferrocenyl (donor) bisthiazole linked triphenylamine (donor) based donor-π-acceptor-π-donor-acceptor (D-π-A)2-π-D-A type dyes D1 and D2 by using Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling and Knoevenagel condensation reactions. Their photophysical, electrochemical and computational studies reveal strong donor-acceptor interaction. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on D1 and D2 exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 6.33% and 5.03%, respectively. The higher PCE value of the D1 based DSSC is attributed to its enhanced short-circuit current (Jsc) and open-circuit current (Voc) and fill factor (FF) values because of the strong binding of the anchoring cyanoacrylic acid with the TiO2 surface as compared to the dicyanovinyl unit in D2...
March 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297669/molecular-landscape-of-the-ribosome-pre-initiation-complex-during-mrna-scanning-structural-role-for-eif3c-and-its-control-by-eif5
#9
Eiji Obayashi, Rafael E Luna, Takashi Nagata, Pilar Martin-Marcos, Hiroyuki Hiraishi, Chingakham Ranjit Singh, Jan Peter Erzberger, Fan Zhang, Haribabu Arthanari, Jacob Morris, Riccardo Pellarin, Chelsea Moore, Ian Harmon, Evangelos Papadopoulos, Hisashi Yoshida, Mahmoud L Nasr, Satoru Unzai, Brytteny Thompson, Eric Aube, Samantha Hustak, Florian Stengel, Eddie Dagraca, Asokan Ananbandam, Philip Gao, Takeshi Urano, Alan G Hinnebusch, Gerhard Wagner, Katsura Asano
During eukaryotic translation initiation, eIF3 binds the solvent-accessible side of the 40S ribosome and recruits the gate-keeper protein eIF1 and eIF5 to the decoding center. This is largely mediated by the N-terminal domain (NTD) of eIF3c, which can be divided into three parts: 3c0, 3c1, and 3c2. The N-terminal part, 3c0, binds eIF5 strongly but only weakly to the ribosome-binding surface of eIF1, whereas 3c1 and 3c2 form a stoichiometric complex with eIF1. 3c1 contacts eIF1 through Arg-53 and Leu-96, while 3c2 faces 40S protein uS15/S13, to anchor eIF1 to the scanning pre-initiation complex (PIC)...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295982/light-harvesting-and-photocurrent-generation-in-a-conjugated-polymer-nanoparticle-reduced-graphene-oxide-composite
#10
Amitava Patra, Arnab Ghosh, Bikash Jana, Sourav Maiti, Rajesh Bera, Hiren Ghosh
Polymer - graphene nanocomposites are promising candidates towards light harvesting systems such as photocatalysis, photovoltaics; where significant charge separation occurs due to photoinduced electron transfer. Much attention has been paid to use reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) as template for anchoring various nanomaterials due to its efficient electron accepting and transport property. Here, we have prepared Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) nanoparticles from MEH-PPV polymer and investigate the change in photophysical properties due to formation of polymer nanoparticles from molecular state by using steady state and time resolved spectroscopy...
March 14, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294510/an-electrophilic-carbene-anchored-silylene-phosphinidene
#11
Subrata Kundu, Bin Li, Johannes Kretsch, Regine Herbst-Irmer, Diego M Andrada, Gernot Frenking, Dietmar Stalke, Herbert W Roesky
The cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene-anchored silylene-phosphinidene was isolated as L-Si-P(:cAAC-Me) (L=benzamidinate) at room temperature, synthesized from the reduction of L-Si(Cl2 )-P(:cAAC-Me) (1) using two equivalents of KC8 . Compound 1 was prepared by the oxidative addition of a chlorophosphinidene to the benzamidinate substituted silylene center. This is the first molecular example of a silylene-phosphinidene characterized by single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. Moreover, (1) H, (31) P, and also (29) Si NMR spectroscopic data supported the formulation of the products...
March 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290671/mobility-and-core-protein-binding-patterns-of-disordered-c-terminal-tails-in-%C3%AE-tubulin-isotypes
#12
Yoann Laurin, Joel Eyer, Charles H Robert, Chantal Prevost, Sophie Sacquin-Mora
Although they play a significant part in the regulation of microtubule structure, dynamics, and function, the disordered C-terminal tails of tubulin remain invisible to experimental structural methods and do not appear in the crystallographic structures that are currently available in the Protein Data Bank. Interestingly, these tails concentrate most of the sequence variability between tubulin isotypes and are the sites of the principal post-translational modifications undergone by this protein. Using homology modeling, we developed two complete models for the human αI/βI- and αI/βIII-tubulin isotypes that include their C-terminal tails...
March 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289740/corrugated-graphene-layers-for-sea-water-desalination-using-capacitive-deionization
#13
Madhavi Dahanayaka, Bo Liu, Zhongqiao Hu, Zhong Chen, Adrian Wing-Keung Law, Kun Zhou
The effect of the electric field and surface morphology of corrugated graphene (GE) layers on their capacitive deionization process is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Deionization performances are evaluated in terms of water flow rate and ion adsorption and explained by analysing the water density distribution, radial distribution function and distribution of the ions inside the GE layers. The simulation results reveal that corrugation of GE layers reduces the water flow rate but largely enhances ion adsorption in comparison to the flat GE layers...
March 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289488/copper-ii-and-the-pathological-h50q-%C3%AE-synuclein-mutant-environment-meets-genetics
#14
COMMENT
Anna Villar-Piqué, Giulia Rossetti, Salvador Ventura, Paolo Carloni, Claudio O Fernández, Tiago Fleming Outeiro
Copper is one of the metals described to bind the Parkinson disease-related protein α-synuclein (aSyn), and to promote its aggregation. Although histidine at position 50 in the aSyn sequence is one of the most studied copper-anchoring sites, its precise role in copper binding and aSyn aggregation is still unclear. Previous studies suggested that this residue does not significantly affect copper-mediated aSyn aggregation. However, our findings showed that the aggregation of the pathological H50Q aSyn mutant is enhanced by copper hints otherwise...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289087/reoxidation-of-the-thiol-disulfide-oxidoreductase-mdba-by-a-bacterial-vitamin-k-epoxide-reductase-in-the-biofilm-forming-actinobacterium-actinomyces-oris
#15
Truc Thanh Luong, Melissa E Reardon-Robinson, Sara D Siegel, Hung Ton-That
Post-translocational protein folding in the Gram-positive biofilm-forming actinobacterium Actinomyces oris is mediated by a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase named MdbA, which catalyzes oxidative folding of nascent polypeptides transported by the Sec translocon. Reoxidation of MdbA involves a bacterial Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase (VKOR)-like protein that contains four cysteine residues C93/C101 and C175/C178 with the latter forming a canonical CXXC thioredoxin-like motif; however, the mechanism of VKOR-mediated reoxidation of MdbA is not known...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288894/endogenous-inspired-biomineral-installed-hyaluronan-nanoparticles-as-ph-responsive-carrier-of-methotrexate-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Md Mahmudul Alam, Hwa Seung Han, Shijin Sung, Jin Hee Kang, Keum Hee Sa, Hasan Al Faruque, Jungwan Hong, Eon Jeong Nam, In San Kim, Jae Hyung Park, Young Mo Kang
Methotrexate (MTX), an anchor drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), has been suffered from refractoriness and high toxicity limiting effective dosage. To mitigate these challenges, the ability to selectively deliver MTX to arthritis tissue is a much sought-after modality for the treatment of RA. In this study, we prepared mineralized nanoparticles (MP-HANPs), composed of PEGylated hyaluronic acid (P-HA) as the hydrophilic shell, 5β-cholanic acid as the hydrophobic core, and calcium phosphate (CaP) as the pH-responsive mineral...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287693/predicting-the-conditions-for-homeotropic-anchoring-of-liquid-crystals-at-a-soft-surface-5cb-on-alkylsilane-self-assembled-monolayers
#17
Otello Maria Roscioni, Luca Muccioli, Claudio Zannoni
We have studied, using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, the alignment of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB on self assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from octadecyl- and/or hexyl-trichlorosilanes (OTS and HTS) attached to glassy silica. We find a planar alignment on OTS at full coverage, and an intermediate situation at partial OTS coverage, due to a penetration of 5CB molecules in the monolayer, which also removes the tilt of the OTS SAM. Binary mixtures of HTS and OTS SAMs do instead induce homeotropic alignment...
March 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284838/prl-3-ptp4a3-phosphatase-regulates-integrin-%C3%AE-1-in-adhesion-structures-during-migration-of-human-ocular-melanoma-cells
#18
Malika Foy, Océane Anézo, Simon Saule, Nathalie Planque
In a previous transcriptomic analysis of 63 ocular melanomas of the uvea, we found that expression of the PRL-3/PTP4A3 gene, encoding a phosphatase that is anchored to the plasma membrane, was associated with the risk of metastasis, and a poor prognosis. We also showed that PRL-3 overexpression in OCM-1 ocular melanoma cells significantly increased cell migration in vitro and invasiveness in vivo, suggesting a direct role for PRL-3 in the metastatic spreading of uveal melanoma. Here, we aimed to identify PRL-3 substrates at the plasma membrane involved in adhesion to the extracellular matrix...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283221/actin-waves-origin-of-cell-polarization-and-migration
#19
REVIEW
Naoyuki Inagaki, Hiroko Katsuno
Actin filaments and associated proteins undergo wave-like movement in various cell types. Recent studies with cutting-edge analyses, including live-cell imaging, biophysical monitoring and manipulation, and mathematical modeling, have highlighted roles of 'actin waves' in cellular protrusion, polarization, and migration. The prevailing models to explain the wave-like dynamics of actin filaments involve an activator-inhibitor mechanism. In addition, axonal actin waves migrate by means of directional assembly and disassembly of membrane-anchored actin filaments, and thus represent a new type of machinery that translocates their component molecules to the cell edge...
March 7, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282049/ballbot-type-motion-of-n-heterocyclic-carbenes-on-gold-surfaces
#20
Gaoqiang Wang, Andreas Rühling, Saeed Amirjalayer, Marek Knor, Johannes Bruno Ernst, Christian Richter, Hong-Jun Gao, Alexander Timmer, Hong-Ying Gao, Nikos L Doltsinis, Frank Glorius, Harald Fuchs
Recently, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) were introduced as alternative anchors for surface modifications and so offered many attractive features, which might render them superior to thiol-based systems. However, little effort has been made to investigate the self-organization process of NHCs on surfaces, an important aspect for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), which requires molecular mobility. Based on investigations with scanning tunnelling microscopy and first-principles calculations, we provide an understanding of the microscopic mechanism behind the high mobility observed for NHCs...
February 2017: Nature Chemistry
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