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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433056/discriminative-sensing-of-dopa-enantiomers-by-cyclodextrin-anchored-graphene-nanohybrids
#1
Salih Ates, Erhan Zor, Ilker Akin, Haluk Bingol, Sabri Alpaydin, Emine G Akgemci
Discriminative sensing of chiral species with a convenient and robust system is a challenge in chemistry, pharmaceutics and particularly in biomedical science. Advanced nanohybrid materials for discrimination of these biologically active molecules can be developed by combination of individual obvious advantages of different molecular scaffolds. Herein, we report on the comparison of the performance of cyclodextrin functionalized graphene derivatives (x-CD/rGO, x: α-, β-, γ-) for discrimination of DOPA enantiomers...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432566/four-new-species-of-dactylogyrus-diesing-1850-monogenea-dactylogyridae-parasitising-the-gills-of-northern-moroccan-luciobarbus-heckel-cyprinidae-morphological-and-molecular-characterisation
#2
Imane Rahmouni, Eva Řehulková, Antoine Pariselle, Ouafae Berrada Rkhami, Andrea Šimková
Four new species of Dactylogyrus Diesing, 1850 are described from the gills of three species of Luciobarbus Heckel collected from various hydrographical basins in northern Morocco: Dactylogyrus scorpius n. sp. from Luciobarbus rifensis Doadrio, Casal-Lopez & Yahyaoui; D. benhoussai n. sp. from L. moulouyensis Pellegrin; and D. varius n. sp. and D. falsiphallus n. sp. from L. maghrebensis Doadrio, Perea & Yahyaoui. The descriptions of the new species are confirmed by molecular data (partial 18S rDNA, ITS1, and partial 28S rDNA sequences)...
April 21, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430907/food-intake-affects-sperm-egg-fusion-through-the-gip-psg17-axis-in-mice
#3
Tatsunori Shimizu, Takehiro Sato, Katsushi Tsukiyama, Hiroki Fujita, Shunsuke Kato, Manabu Hoizumi, Hiromitsu Shirasawa, Takuma Narita, Yukihiro Terada, Yutaka Seino, Yuichiro Yamada
In addition to overeating, starvation also reduces fecundity in mammals. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking food intake to fertility, especially in males. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from intestinal K-cells after meal ingestion, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells through the action of incretin and has several extra-pancreatic effects. Here, we identified GIP receptor (Gipr) expression in mouse spermatids. Microarray analysis revealed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17 (Psg17), a potential CD9-binding partner, was significantly decreased in GIP receptor-knockout (Gipr-/-) testes...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427876/polar-n-terminal-residues-conserved-in-type-2-secretion-pseudopilins-determine-subunit-targeting-and-membrane-extraction-steps-during-fibre-assembly
#4
Javier Santos-Moreno, Alexandra East, Ingrid Guilvout, Nathalie Nadeau, Peter J Bond, Guy Tran Van Nhieu, Olivera Francetic
Bacterial type 2 secretion systems (T2SS), type 4 pili (T4P) and archaeal flagella assemble fibres from initially membrane-embedded pseudopilin and pilin subunits. Fibre subunits are made as precursors with positively charged N-terminal anchors, whose cleavage via the prepilin peptidase, essential for pilin membrane extraction and assembly, is followed by N-methylation of the mature (pseudo)pilin N-terminus. The conserved Glu residue at position 5 (E5) of mature (pseudo)pilins is essential for assembly. Unlike T4 pilins, where E5 residue substitutions also abolish N-methylation, the E5A variant of T2SS pseudopilin PulG remains N-methylated, but is affected in interaction with the T2SS component PulM...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423272/distinguishing-lead-and-molecule-states-in-graphene-based-single-electron-transistors
#5
Pascal Gehring, Jakub K Sowa, Jonathan Cremers, Qingqing Wu, Hatef Sadeghi, Yuewen Sheng, Jamie H Warner, Colin J Lambert, G Andrew D Briggs, Jan A Mol
Graphene provides a two-dimensional platform for contacting individual molecules, which enables transport spectroscopy of molecular orbital, spin and vibrational states. Here we report single-electron tunneling through a molecule that has been anchored to two graphene leads. Quantum interference within the graphene leads gives rise to an energy-dependent transmission and fluctuations in the sequential tunnel-rates. The lead states are electrostatically tuned by a global back-gate, resulting in a distinct pattern of varying intensity in the measured conductance maps...
April 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422092/hierarchical-assembly-of-centriole-subdistal-appendages-via-centrosome-binding-proteins-ccdc120-and-ccdc68
#6
Ning Huang, Yuqing Xia, Donghui Zhang, Song Wang, Yitian Bao, Runsheng He, Junlin Teng, Jianguo Chen
In animal cells, the centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing centre where microtubules are nucleated and anchored. The centriole subdistal appendages (SDAs) are the key structures that anchor microtubules in interphase cells, but the composition and assembly mechanisms of SDAs are not well understood. Here, we reveal that centrosome-binding proteins, coiled-coil domain containing (CCDC) 120 and CCDC68 are two novel SDA components required for hierarchical SDA assembly in human cells. CCDC120 is anchored to SDAs by ODF2 and recruits CEP170 and Ninein to the centrosome through different coiled-coil domains at its N terminus...
April 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416707/distinct-domains-confer-chea-with-unique-functions-in-chemotaxis-and-cell-length-in-azospirillum-brasilense-sp7
#7
Jessica M Gullett, Amber Bible, Gladys Alexandre
Chemotaxis is the movement of cells in response to gradients of diverse chemical cues. Motile bacteria utilize a conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system to bias their motility and navigate through a gradient. A central regulator of chemotaxis is the histidine kinase, CheA. This cytoplasmic protein interacts with membrane-bound receptors, which assemble into large polar arrays, to propagate the signal. In the alphaproteobacterium, Azospirillum brasilense, Che1 controls transient increases in swimming speed during chemotaxis, but it also biases the cell length at division...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416567/the-c-terminal-dsrna-binding-domain-of-drosophila-dicer-2-is-crucial-for-efficient-and-high-fidelity-production-of-sirna-and-loading-of-sirna-to-argonaute2
#8
Suresh K Kandasamy, Li Zhu, Ryuya Fukunaga
Drosophila Dicer-2 efficiently and precisely produces 21-nt siRNAs from long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates and loads these siRNAs onto the effector protein Argonaute2 for RNA silencing. The functional roles of each domain of the multi-domain Dicer-2 enzyme in the production and loading of siRNAs are not fully understood. Here we characterized Dicer-2 mutants lacking either the N-terminal helicase domain or C-terminal dsRNA-binding domain (CdsRBD) (ΔHelicase and ΔCdsRBD, respectively) in vivo and in vitro...
April 17, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411645/polymer-based-protein-engineering-synthesis-and-characterization-of-armored-high-graft-density-polymer-protein-conjugates
#9
Sheiliza Carmali, Hironobu Murata, Chad Cummings, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Alan J Russell
Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from the surface of a protein can generate remarkably dense polymer shells that serve as armor and rationally tune protein function. Using straightforward chemistry, it is possible to covalently couple or display multiple small molecule initiators onto a protein surface. The chemistry is fine-tuned to be sequence specific (if one desires a single targeted site) at controlled density. Once the initiator is anchored on the protein surface, ATRP is used to grow polymers on protein surface, in situ...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407243/simulations-of-membrane-bound-diglycosylated-human-prion-protein-reveal-potential-protective-mechanisms-against-misfolding
#10
Chin Jung Cheng, Heidi Koldsø, Marc W Van der Kamp, Birgit Schiøtt, Valerie Daggett
Prion diseases are associated with the misfolding of the prion protein (PrP) from its normal cellular form (PrP(C) ) to its infectious scrapie form (PrP(S)(c) ). Posttranslational modifications of PrP in vivo can play an important role in modulating the process of misfolding. To gain more insight into the effects of posttranslational modifications on PrP structure and dynamics and to test the hypothesis that such modifications can interact with the protein, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of diglycosylated human PrP(C) bound to a lipid bilayer via a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406172/anchored-but-not-internalized-shape-dependent-endocytosis-of-nanodiamond
#11
Bokai Zhang, Xi Feng, Hang Yin, Zhenpeng Ge, Yanhuan Wang, Zhiqin Chu, Helena Raabova, Jan Vavra, Petr Cigler, Renbao Liu, Yi Wang, Quan Li
Nanoparticle-cell interactions begin with the cellular uptake of the nanoparticles, a process that eventually determines their cellular fate. In the present work, we show that the morphological features of nanodiamonds (NDs) affect both the anchoring and internalization stages of their endocytosis. While a prickly ND (with sharp edges/corners) has no trouble of anchoring onto the plasma membrane, it suffers from difficult internalization afterwards. In comparison, the internalization of a round ND (obtained by selective etching of the prickly ND) is not limited by its lower anchoring amount and presents a much higher endocytosis amount...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404749/diffusion-of-lipids-and-gpi-anchored-proteins-in-actin-free-plasma-membrane-vesicles-measured-by-sted-fcs
#12
Falk Schneider, Dominic Waithe, Mathias P Clausen, Silvia Galiani, Thomas Koller, Gunes Ozhan, Christian Eggeling, Erdinc Sezgin
Diffusion and interaction dynamics of molecules at the plasma membrane play an important role in cellular signalling, and they are suggested to be strongly associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we utilise super-resolution STED microscopy combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STED-FCS) to access and compare the diffusion characteristics of fluorescent lipid analogues and GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in the live cell plasma membrane and in actin cytoskeleton-free cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs)...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402019/epigallocatechin-gallate-inhibits-streptococcus-pneumoniae-virulence-by-simultaneously-targeting-pneumolysin-and-sortase%C3%A2-a
#13
Meng Song, Zihao Teng, Meng Li, Xiaodi Niu, Jianfeng Wang, Xuming Deng
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), the causative agent of several human diseases, possesses numerous virulence factors associated with pneumococcal infection and pathogenesis. Pneumolysin (PLY), an important virulence factor, is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family and has cytolytic activity. Sortase A (SrtA), another crucial pneumococcal virulence determinate, contributes greatly to the anchoring of many virulence-associated surface proteins to the cell wall. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a natural compound with little known antipneumococcal activity, was shown to directly inhibit PLY-mediated haemolysis and cytolysis by blocking the oligomerization of PLY and simultaneously reduce the peptidase activity of SrtA...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400525/manipulation-of-the-host-cell-membrane-during-plasmodium-liver-stage-egress
#14
Paul-Christian Burda, Reto Caldelari, Volker T Heussler
A crucial step in the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites is the transition from the liver stage to the blood stage. Hepatocyte-derived merozoites reach the blood vessels of the liver inside host cell-derived vesicles called merosomes. The molecular basis of merosome formation is only partially understood. Here we show that Plasmodium berghei liver stage merozoites, upon rupture of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, destabilize the host cell membrane (HCM) and induce separation of the host cell actin cytoskeleton from the HCM...
April 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400484/amino-acid-polymorphisms-in-the-fibronectin-binding-repeats-of-fibronectin-binding-protein-a-affect-bond-strength-and-fibronectin-conformation
#15
Nadia N Casillas-Ituarte, Carlos H B Cruz, Roberto D Lins, Alex C DiBartola, Jessica Howard, Xiaowen Liang, Magnus Höök, Isabelle F T Viana, M Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Steven K Lower
The Staphylococcus aureus cell surface contains cell wall-anchored proteins such as fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) that bind to host ligands (e.g. fibronectin; Fn) present in the extracellular matrix of tissue or coatings on cardiac implants. Recent clinical studies have found a correlation between cardiovascular infections caused by S. aureus and nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FnBPA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and molecular simulations were used to investigate interactions between Fn and each of eight, 20-mer peptide variants containing amino acids A, H, I, K, N, and Q at positions equivalent to 782 and/or 786 in Fn-binding repeat-9 (FnBR-9) of FnBPA...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394265/detecting-electron-transport-of-amino-acids-by-using-conductance-measurement
#16
Wei-Qiong Li, Bing Huang, Miao-Ling Huang, Lin-Lu Peng, Ze-Wen Hong, Ju-Fang Zheng, Wen-Bo Chen, Jian-Feng Li, Xiao-Shun Zhou
The single molecular conductance of amino acids was measured by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) break junction. Conductance measurement of alanine gives out two conductance values at 10(-1.85) G₀ (1095 nS) and 10(-3.7) G₀ (15.5 nS), while similar conductance values are also observed for aspartic acid and glutamic acid, which have one more carboxylic acid group compared with alanine. This may show that the backbone of NH₂-C-COOH is the primary means of electron transport in the molecular junction of aspartic acid and glutamic acid...
April 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392425/t-cadherin-promotes-autophagy-and-survival-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-mek1-2-erk1-2-axis-activation
#17
Emmanouil Kyriakakis, Agne Frismantiene, Boris Dasen, Dennis Pfaff, Olga Rivero, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Paul Erne, Therese J Resink, Maria Philippova
Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved intracellular catabolic process of vital importance to cell and tissue homeostasis. Autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis but participating cells, molecular mechanisms and functional outcomes have not been fully elucidated. T-cadherin, an atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily of adhesion molecules, is upregulated on smooth muscle cells (SMCs)(1) in atherosclerotic lesions. Here, using rat and murine aortic SMCs as experimental models, we surveyed the ability of T-cadherin to regulate autophagy in SMCs during serum-starvation stress...
April 6, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391060/spatiotemporal-mechanisms-of-root-branching
#18
REVIEW
Krisztina Ötvös, Eva Benková
The fundamental tasks of the root system are, besides anchoring, mediating interactions between plant and soil and providing the plant with water and nutrients. The architecture of the root system is controlled by endogenous mechanisms that constantly integrate environmental signals, such as availability of nutrients and water. Extremely important for efficient soil exploitation and survival under less favorable conditions is the developmental flexibility of the root system that is largely determined by its postembryonic branching capacity...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382961/in-search-of-tail-anchored-protein-machinery-in-plants-reevaluating-the-role-of-arsenite-transporters
#19
Manuel Maestre-Reyna, Shu-Mei Wu, Yu-Ching Chang, Chi-Chih Chen, Alvaro Maestre-Reyna, Andrew H-J Wang, Hsin-Yang Chang
Although the mechanisms underlying selective targeting of tail-anchored (TA) membrane proteins are well established in mammalian and yeast cells, little is known about their role in mediating intracellular membrane trafficking in plant cells. However, a recent study suggested that, in green algae, arsenite transporters located in the cytosol (ArsA1 and ArsA2) control the insertion of TA proteins into the membrane-bound organelles. In the present work, we overproduced and purified these hydrophilic proteins to near homogeneity...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380339/molecular-basis-of-substrate-specific-acetylation-by-n-terminal-acetyltransferase-natb
#20
Haiyan Hong, Yongfei Cai, Shijun Zhang, Hongyan Ding, Haitao Wang, Aidong Han
The NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase specifically acetylates the N-terminal group of substrate protein peptides starting with Met-Asp/Glu/Asn/Gln. How NatB recognizes and acetylates these substrates remains unknown. Here, we report crystal structures of a NatB holoenzyme from Candida albicans in the presence of its co-factor CoA and substrate peptides. The auxiliary subunit Naa25 of NatB forms a horseshoe-like deck to hold specifically its catalytic subunit Naa20. The first two amino acids Met and Asp of a substrate peptide mediate the major interactions with the active site in the Naa20 subunit...
April 4, 2017: Structure
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