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Primary eye care

Oded Sagiv, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Renata Ferrarotto, Thomas J Kandl, Sudip D Thakar, Bonnie S Glisson, Mehmet Altan, Bita Esmaeli
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Locally advanced (T4 per American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition) periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) can lead to loss of the eye. We report the neoadjuvant use of vismodegib followed by surgery in patients with such lesions with eye preservation as primary goal. METHODS: This retrospective interventional study includes all patients with a T4 periocular BCC (per 8th edition AJCC for eyelid carcinoma) treated by the senior author between 2013 and 2017 with neoadjuvant vismodegib prior to definitive surgery...
July 18, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Mae Fa Chong, Helen Hi Cho, A Jonathan Jackson, Sharon A Bentley
BACKGROUND: The number of Australians living with vision impairment or blindness is expected to increase substantially due to the ageing population and prevalence of age-related eye disease. In response, the Australian College of Optometry (ACO) commenced a low vision clinic in 2013. The ACO is a not-for-profit organisation providing eye-care services to more than 60,000 Victorians per year experiencing economic or social disadvantage. Consultation fees are bulk-billed to the Australian national health care scheme - Medicare - while spectacles and visual aids are subsidised through the state government-funded Victorian Eyecare Service...
July 18, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Sarah Aumond, Etty Bitton
The primary role of eyelashes is to protect and maintain the health of the lid margin. However, the mechanisms to fulfill this role are not fully understood. Unraveling these mechanisms will stand to greatly improve the efficiency of eye care professionals' interventions in anomalies of the eyelashes. The aim of this article is to provide a review on eyelashes including highlights and new avenues for research; the biology of both the lash and its follicle; the pathophysiology and management of lash anomalies by eye care professionals; and the effect of iatrogenic factors on lashes...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Optometry
Hillary K Rono, Andrew Bastawrous, David Macleod, Emmanuel Wanjala, GianLuca DiTanna, Helen A Weiss, Matthew J Burton
BACKGROUND: Childhood visual impairment is a major public health concern that requires effective screening and early intervention. We investigated the effectiveness of Peek school eye health, a smartphone-based sight test and referral system (comprising Peek Acuity test, sight simulation referral cards, and short message service [SMS] reminders), versus standard care (Snellen's Tumbling-E card and written referral). METHODS: We initially compared the performance of both the Snellen Tumbling-E card and the Peek Acuity test to a standard backlit EDTRS LogMAR visual acuity test chart...
August 2018: Lancet Global Health
Varshini Varadaraj, Ashok Vardhan, Lucy I Mudie, Sophie LaBarre, Yuhan Ong, Bingsong Wang, Cheryl Sherrod, David S Friedman
BACKGROUND: To determine the magnitude of uncontrolled hypertension and smoking among patients visiting an eye clinic, and ascertain if referral to care providers is effective. METHODS: Information on smoking status and blood pressure (BP) was collected among patients ≥18 years visiting an eye clinic. Those with high BP (systolic: ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic: ≥90 mm Hg) received a pamphlet on harms of hypertension on vision and were referred to a primary care physician...
July 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Nyawira Mwangi, Mark Ng'ang'a, Esbon Gakuo, Stephen Gichuhi, David Macleod, Consuela Moorman, Lawrence Muthami, Peter Tum, Atieno Jalango, Kibata Githeko, Michael Gichangi, Joseph Kibachio, Covadonga Bascaran, Allen Foster
BACKGROUND: All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination...
July 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Dean Hallam, Gerrit Hilgen, Birthe Dorgau, Lili Zhu, Min Yu, Sanja Bojic, Philip Hewitt, Michael Schmitt, Marianne Uteng, Stefan Kustermann, David Steel, Mike Nicholds, Robert Thomas, Achim Treumann, Andrew Porter, Evelyne Sernagor, Lyle Armstrong, Majlinda Lako
The availability of in vitro models of the human retina in which to perform pharmacological and toxicological studies is an urgent and unmet need. An essential step for developing in vitro models of human retina is the ability to generate laminated, physiologically functional and light-responsive retinal organoids from renewable and patient specific sources. We investigated five different human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines and showed a significant variability in their efficiency to generate retinal organoids...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
D Cavan, L E Makaroff, J da Rocha Fernandes, S Karuranga, M Sylvanowicz, J Conlon, D Chaney, A Malhi, J Barratt
AIM: To assess the level of awareness and provision of screening and treatment for Diabetic Eye Disease (DED) comprising Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) among health care professionals. METHODS: The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase consisted of a qualitative study, based on semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews in 8 countries. The second phase used a quantitative approach utilising online surveys in 41 countries...
July 9, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Louisa von Baumgarten, Gerald Illerhaus, Agnieszka Korfel, Uwe Schlegel, Martina Deckert, Martin Dreyling
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a diffuse large B-celllymphoma with exclusive manifestation in the central nervous system (CNS), leptomeninges, and eyes. Its incidence is 0.5 per 100 000 persons per year.Currently, no evidence-based standard of care exists. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications (2000-2017) retrieved by aselective search in PubMed. RESULTS: The clinical and neuroradiological presentation of primary CNS lymphoma isoften nonspecific, and histopathological confirmation is obligatory...
June 22, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Zeynep Demirtaş, Gökçe Dağtekin, Muhammed Fatih Önsüz, Aziz Soysal, Nilgün Yıldırım, Selma Metintaş
Objectives: The present study was conducted to develop an instrument for measuring adults' glaucoma knowledge levels and to establish the instrument's validity and reliability. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 811 persons aged 40-80 years who presented to primary health care institutions and did not have a glaucoma diagnosis. A 27-item questionnaire measuring level of glaucoma knowledge was created by the study team. Following expert consultation, it was structurally evaluated...
June 2018: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
Martin Q Diep, Michele C Madigan
Choroidal detachments occur when there is an accumulation of fluid or blood in the suprachoroidal space, a potential space situated between the choroid and the sclera. They are an uncommon ocular pathology. The most common cause of choroidal detachment is secondary to trabeculectomy; however, there are other causes such as trauma and inflammation. Clinically, choroidal detachments may vary in presentation from asymptomatic, to very poor vision, severe ocular pain, vomiting and nausea. Ocular findings associated with choroidal detachments include serous retinal detachment, secondary angle closure, and a very shallow anterior chamber...
July 4, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
David M Wright, Dermot O'Reilly, Augusto Azuara-Blanco, Ruth E Hogg
AIM: To examine associations between uptake of free primary eye care, service availability (density of optometric practices) and service accessibility (household car access and drive time to nearest provider) after accounting for socioeconomic status and other individual, household and area factors. METHODS: We constructed a cohort of 294 870 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years, drawing contextual information from the 2011 Northern Ireland Census. Minimum drive times to the nearest optometry practice (1-19 min) and number of practices were derived for 890 geographical areas...
July 3, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
B Laxmi Narayana, Pooja Rao, Sevitha Bhat, K Vidyalakshmi
Soft contact lenses provide perfect conditions for the breeding of pathogens. The study is a prospective, experimental study, conducted to know the antimicrobial ability of multipurpose contact lens solution against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the stand-alone test. The test method is based on the procedures in the ISO 14729 standard primary stand-alone test. Three multipurpose contact lens care solutions commercially available in Mangalore markets, namely, Biotrue (Bausch & Lomb), Opti-Free Replenish (Alcon), and Aquasoft (Stericon Pharma), were tested for its antimicrobial effect in the microbiology lab at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Anika Amritanand, Padma Paul, Smitha Jasper, Samuel Prasanna Vinoth Kumar, Vinod Abraham
Purpose: Over 20% of the world's visually impaired and blind populations live in India. Integration of primary eye care (PEC) into existing primary health care by trained personnel could address access-related barriers. We piloted an unreported, modified WHO disability questionnaire-based model for community health workers (CHWs) to screen and refer persons with perceived visual impairment instead of the traditional visual acuity model. The objective of the study was (1) to determine the prevalence of perceived visual impairment, rate of follow-up postreferral, distribution of ocular morbidity, visual impairment, and proportion of appropriate referrals and (2) to compare results of this intervention with those of existing services...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Pallavi Shukla, Praveen Vashist, Suraj Senjam Singh, Vivek Gupta, Noopur Gupta, Meenakshi Wadhwani, Amit Bharadwaj, Lakshya Arora
Purpose: In India, teachers screen middle school children using the 6/9 Snellen's optotype. Recently, the National Program for Control of Blindness included primary school students also. The present cross-sectional study was planned to assess the inclusion of primary school students. Compliance to spectacles was ascertained after 6 months follow-up. Methods: Randomly selected 23 Government primary schools. A total of 30 teachers were nominated and given hands-on training in vision screening and recording formats...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Piyush Kohli, Sudesh Kumar Arya, Amit Raj, Uma Handa
AIM: To evaluate the signs and symptoms of dry eye after phacoemulsification; effects on the status of ocular surface using impression cytology; and associated risk factors. METHODS: Prospective study included 50 eyes (50 patients) with no dry eye signs or symptoms, who underwent clear corneal phacoemulsification for senile cataract. Dry eye indices used included Ocular Surface Disease Index scoring, Schirmer I test, tear break up time, tear meniscus height, corneal fluorescein staining, lissamine green staining and goblet cell density (GCD) with the help of impression cytology...
June 20, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Ju-Hyang Lee, Kyung In Woo, Yoon-Duck Kim
PURPOSE: Undercorrected blepharoptosis can be encountered after frontalis sling operation. Revision surgery for undercorrection has commonly involved introducing a new sling material. We describe and evaluate a simple surgical technique to correct undercorrection by adjusting preexisting fascia. METHODS: This is a retrospective interventional case series of patients undergoing sling revision between February 2010 and February 2017. Skin incision was made on the previous incision line...
June 18, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ramanjit Sihota, Sailesh Kumar, Talvir Sidhu, Neha Midha, Ajay Sharma, Suresh Yadav, Viney Gupta, Tanuj Dada
PURPOSE: Primary adult glaucomas that have an occludable angle with peripheral anterior synechiae which are too few to account for the chronically raised IOP, or the glaucomatous optic neuropathy, do not fit the definition of either POAG or PACG and can be considered as combined mechanism glaucoma (CMG). We aimed to compare the clinical features and anatomical parameters of combined mechanism glaucoma with age, sex, and refraction-matched POAG and chronic PACG eyes. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients with definitive optic nerve head and perimetric changes of glaucoma were screened at a tertiary care center...
June 20, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Diane van Staden
BACKGROUND: Decentralised clinical training (DCT) in optometry is an emerging concept in South Africa. In 2016, the University of KwaZulu Natal (UKZN) implemented this adaptive model of clinical training for undergraduate health professions. The initiative, which emanated through an agreement between UKZN's College of Health Sciences and the KwaZulu Natal Department of Health, centres on the placement of undergraduate optometry students within public health facilities for clinical training purposes...
June 20, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Iheukwumere Duru, Maria Napier, Abdus Samad Ansari, Sinead Coyle, Srikandan Kamalarajah, Stephen White, A Jonathan Jackson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to establish an up-to-date baseline of the profile of patients using the National Artificial Eye Service in Northern Ireland and to understand key areas of service provision, to contribute to patient and health-care provider education, and thus to improve patient outcomes for future researchers. METHODS: A prospective audit of artificial eye wearers attending the Northern Ireland National Artificial Eye Service between May 18, 2015 and June 26, 2015 was conducted...
June 19, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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