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clinical micro review

Qianquan Ma, Jun Su, Ying Li, Jiaxing Wang, Wenyong Long, Mei Luo, Qing Liu
Background: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the long-term efficacy of medication treatment vs. surgery treatment in patients with prolactinomas. Methods: An electronic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for studies dated before July in 2018. Patients with prolactinomas received primary dopamine agonists (DAs) treatment or primary surgical interventions were included in this study. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed in pertinent studies meeting eligible criteria...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Abdullah B Chahin, Jason M Opal, Steven M Opal
Ninety years ago, Gregory Shwartzman first reported an unusual discovery following the intradermal injection of sterile culture filtrates from principally Gram-negative strains from bacteria into normal rabbits. If this priming dose was followed in 24 h by a second intravenous challenge (the provocative dose) from same culture filtrate, dermal necrosis at the first injection site would regularly occur. This peculiar, but highly reproducible, event fascinated the microbiologists, hematologists, and immunologists of the time, who set out to determine the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of this reaction...
November 2018: Innate Immunity
K Beck, R Young, S Read, H Harper, J Desireddi, C A Harper
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the characteristics and comorbidities associated with ROP in micro-premature infants and their results. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review involving multiple intensive care units in Central Texas from 2011 to 2016. Infants were included if birth weight (BW) was≤750 g with confirmed ROP by the International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ICROP). Neonates were examined and treated with laser ablation or intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) with subsequent laser treatment, guided by fluorescein angiography, if met treatment criteria defined as type 1 ROP by the Early Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity standards...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Marco Santoro, Javier Navarro, John P Fisher
The recapitulation of human anatomy and physiology is critical for organ regeneration. Due to this fundamental requirement, bioprinting holds great promise in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to the possibility of fabricating complex scaffolds that host cells and biochemical cues in a physiologically relevant fashion. The ever-growing research in this field has been proceeding along two different, yet complementary, routes: on the one hand, the development of bioprinting to fabricate large tissue surrogates for transplantation purposes in vivo (macrobioprinting), and on the other the spread of bioprinting-based miniaturized systems to model the tissue microenvironment in vitro (microbioprinting)...
March 13, 2018: Small methods
Guillaume Bouguéon, Tina Kauss, Bérangère Dessane, Philippe Barthélémy, Sylvie Crauste-Manciet
Recent developments in bioprinting have enabled an optimized formulation of bioinks by incorporating pharmaceuticals into cell-containing gel matrices. The proof-of-printability of a variety of forms has been provided, such as particles and fibers in the nanometric or micrometric range like dendrimers or micelles, although this is still lacking for some (liposomes for example). Resulting composite bioinks have the advantage of (i) improving cell growth and differentiation, (ii) delivering active molecules or (iii) improving mechanical properties of bioinks, printed scaffolds or the printing process...
November 1, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Jason L Johnson
Cardiovascular diseases encompassing atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, restenosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension, remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In response to a range of stimuli, the dynamic interplay between biochemical and biomechanical mechanisms affect the behaviour and function of multiple cell types, driving the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Accumulating evidence has highlighted microRNAs (miRs) as significant regulators and micro-managers of key cellular and molecular pathophysiological processes involved in predominant cardiovascular diseases, including cell mitosis, motility and viability, lipid metabolism, generation of inflammatory mediators, and dysregulated proteolysis...
October 31, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Kai-Ming Yuan, Pei-Hua Zhang, Shan-Shan Qi, Qiao-Zhen Zhu, Ping Li
Exosomes are small secretory vesicles that are involved in intercellular communication. Exosomes are secreted by many types of cells and exert important functions in plasma-membrane exchange as well as the transport of bioactive substances, such as proteins, messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs), micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) and organelles. Exosomes may regulate physiological processes by altering gene regulatory networks or epigenetic recombination. Recent studies have shown that exosomes secreted by stem cells can effectively transport proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs and play important roles in the regulation of tissue regeneration...
November 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Valentina Fattorusso, Rosa Nugnes, Alberto Casertano, Giuliana Valerio, Enza Mozzillo, Adriana Franzese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-diabetic hyperglycemia (NDHY) is a pathological condition that is not yet well known. The aim of this review is to examine approaches for management of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: While it is well known that persistent hyperglycemia in diabetes affects immune response and risk for diabetes-related micro- and macrovascular complications, little is known about the biological effects of transient NDHY, particularly in the pediatric age group...
October 29, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Aminah M El Mourad
Background: The rapid developments in the field of adhesive dental materials have led to improvements in many aspects of clinical dentistry. Adhesive bond strength plays an important role in determining the clinical performance and longevity of dental restorations. Nevertheless, bond strength tests have never been well-standardized, although a number of important recommendations have been made. Objective: The aim of this paper is to critically review the validity of different bond strength testing methods for assessment of bonding effectiveness of adhesive materials to tooth structure and discuss factors that may affect bond strength measurement...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Benjamin W Maloney, David M McClatchy, Brian W Pogue, Keith D Paulsen, Wendy A Wells, Richard J Barth
Breast conserving surgery (BCS) is an effective treatment for early-stage cancers as long as the margins of the resected tissue are free of disease according to consensus guidelines for patient management. However, 15% to 35% of patients undergo a second surgery since malignant cells are found close to or at the margins of the original resection specimen. This review highlights imaging approaches being investigated to reduce the rate of positive margins, and they are reviewed with the assumption that a new system would need high sensitivity near 95% and specificity near 85%...
October 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Ciro Indolfi, Claudio Iaconetti, Clarice Gareri, Alberto Polimeni, Salvatore De Rosa
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are crucial in vascular remodeling. They exert pivotal roles in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, vascular response to injury, and restenosis after transcatheter angioplasty. As a witness of their importance in the cardiovascular system, a large body of evidence has accumulated about the role played by micro RNAs (miRNA) in modulating both VSMCs and ECs. More recently, a growing number of long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs) came beneath the spotlights in this research field...
October 24, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Bruna Codispoti, Massimo Marrelli, Francesco Paduano, Marco Tatullo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their great potential in clinical applications. In fact, MSCs can differentiate into several cell lineages and show paracrine behavior by releasing endogenous factors that stimulate tissue repair and modulate local immune response. Each MSC type is affected by specific biobanking issues-technical issues as well as regulatory and ethical concerns-thus making it quite tricky to safely and commonly use MSC banking for swift regenerative applications. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include a group of 150⁻1000 nm vesicles that are released by budding from the plasma membrane into biological fluids and/or in the culture medium from varied and heterogenic cell types...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Sarvesh Varma, Joel Voldman
Microfluidic device designers and users continually question whether cells are 'happy' in a given microsystem or whether they are perturbed by micro-scale technologies. This issue is normally brought up by engineers building platforms, or by external reviewers (academic or commercial) comparing multiple technological approaches to a problem. Microsystems can apply combinations of biophysical and biochemical stimuli that, although essential to device operation, may damage cells in complex ways. However, assays to assess the impact of microsystems upon cells have been challenging to conduct and have led to subjective interpretation and evaluation of cell stressors, hampering development and adoption of microsystems...
October 16, 2018: Lab on a Chip
J J Houben
INTRODUCTION: Surgical practice in gastro-enterology is concerned by deep technological advances. In the past century, the technological advances were conducted by clinical challenges and strategies. The 21th century is clearly led by the inversion of the paradigms. Medical practice does not only depend on the access to the technologies, but it seems submitted to her. Should the physician follow the engineer ? Does the clinical data collection, depend on the computer ? Who decides ? The doctor, the patient or the Artificial Intelligence ? Materiel et Methods : The present essay that definitely does not answer all these questions, is achieved thanks the practical experience of our colleagues...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Enisa Shevroja, Olivier Lamy, Didier Hans
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function, present for >3 months, with implications for, among others, bone health. Advanced stages of CKD have an increased risk of fragility fractures. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a relatively new gray-level textural parameter, which provides information on bone microarchitecture and has been shown to be a good predictor of fragility fractures independently of bone density and clinical risk factors. We aimed to review the scientific literature on TBS and its utility along the CKD spectrum and in kidney transplant recipients...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Suchitra Kumari
Epithelial ovarian cancer accounts for more than 90% of ovarian tumours and continues as a leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies. It is often difficult to differentiate a benign ovarian mass from malignant ones. Invasive histopathological biopsy is used as the gold standard diagnostic tool to diagnose cancer in patients with ovarian mass. A wide spectrum of Biomarkers were tried in various studies to develop a non invasive diagnostic tool, out of which HE4 and CA 125 remain the only clinically useful biomarker...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Miha Tibaut, Martin Caprnda, Peter Kubatka, Andreja Sinkovič, Vanda Valentova, Slavomira Filipova, Katarina Gazdikova, Ludovit Gaspar, Ioana Mozos, Emmanuel E Egom, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak, Daniel Petrovič
This is Part 2 of a two-part review summarising current knowledge on biomarkers of atherosclerosis. Part 1 addressed serological biomarkers. Here, in part 2 we address genetic and imaging markers, and other developments in predicting risk. Further improvements in risk stratification are expected with the addition of genetic risk scores. In addition to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), recent advances in epigenetics offer DNA methylation profiles, histone chemical modifications, and micro-RNAs as other promising indicators of atherosclerosis...
September 29, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Vasilios G Athyros, Niki Katsiki, Aikaterini Dimakopoulou, Dimitrios Patoulias, Sofia Alataki, Michael Doumas
BACKGROUND: Drugs mimicking natural beneficial mutations, including that for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), might represent the future of hypolipidemic drug treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to review the properties and the effects of these drugs, which are either already commercially available or are in the process to be approved for the treatment of dyslipidemia. RESULTS: More than a decade ago, it was accidentally discovered that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) loss-of-function mutations resulted in marked lifelong reduction of LDL-C and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
October 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Theresa Meldgaard, Søren Schou Olesen, Adam D Farmer, Klaus Krogh, Anne Astrid Wendel, Birgitte Brock, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Christina Brock
The incidence of the micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes is rising, mirroring the increase in the worldwide prevalence. Arguably, the most common microvascular complication is neuropathy, leading to deleterious changes in both the structure and function of neurons. Amongst the various neuropathies with the highest symptom burden are those associated with alterations in the enteric nervous system, referred to as diabetic enteropathy. The primary aim of this review is to provide a contemporaneous summary of pathophysiology of diabetic enteropathy thereby allowing a "molecule to mechanism" approach to treatment, which will include 4 distinct aspects...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Hiddo J L Heerspink, James List, Vlado Perkovic
Despite advances in pharmacotherapy, diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains associated with a high burden of micro- and macrovascular complications often leading to premature mortality. New therapies are highly desirable to mitigate the burden of this disease. However, there are a number of barriers that hamper drug development in DKD. These include, amongst others, the lengthy and complex clinical trials required to prove drug efficacy and safety, inefficiencies in clinical trial conduct, and the high costs associated with these development programs...
October 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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