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clinical micro review

Yuee Liang, Zilong Deng, Xingzhu Dai, Jinhui Tian, Wanghong Zhao
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to further evaluate the caries-arresting effectiveness of micro-invasive interventions for non-cavitated proximal caries and analyze their efficacy for caries lesions of different depths. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of micro-invasive interventions for non-cavitated proximal caries were included in this study. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science on May 25, 2017, without restrictions...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Chamith S Rajapakse, Gregory Chang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hip fractures have catastrophic consequences. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided finite element analysis (FEA) of the hip as a means to determine subject-specific bone strength. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the ability of DXA to predict hip fracture, the majority of fractures occur in patients who do not have BMD T scores less than - 2.5. Therefore, without other detection methods, these individuals go undetected and untreated...
September 19, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Sanchita Mitra, Tapas Ranjan Padhi, Soumyava Basu, Smruti Rekha Priyadarshini, Savitri Sharma
PURPOSE: To report the clinical course, microbiological spectrum and visual outcomes of three cases of post-operative endophthalmitis caused by unusual combination of micro-organisms. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical charts at a tertiary eye care centre over a period of 1 year, of subjects with post-operative endophthalmitis and more than one microbiological isolate. RESULTS: We report 3 cases with unusual combination of microorganisms...
September 17, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Manuela De Gregori, Inna Belfer, Roberto De Giorgio, Maurizio Marchesini, Carolina Muscoli, Mariangela Rondanelli, Daniela Martini, Pedro Mena, Laura Isabel Arranz, Silvia Lorente-Cebrián, Simone Perna, Anna Villarini, Maurizio Salamone, Massimo Allegri, Michael E Schatman
This review is aimed to summarize the latest data regarding pain and nutrition, which have emerged during the second edition of Feed Your Destiny (FYD). Theme presentations and interactive discussions were held at a workshop on March 30, 2017, in Florence, Italy, during the 9th Annual Meeting of Study in Multidisciplinary Pain Research, where an international faculty, including recognized experts in nutrition and pain, reported the scientific evidence on this topic from various perspectives. Presentations were divided into two sections...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Ting Huang, Yanan Liu, Chengliang Zhang
Baicalin is one of the major bioactive components of Scutellaria radix, a Chinese herb that has been used since ancient times. Baicalin has various pharmacological activities, including antitumor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant, and has wide clinical applications. Baicalin displays a distinct pharmacokinetic profile including gastrointestinal hydrolysis, enterohepatic recycling, carrier-mediated transport, and complicated metabolism. The in vivo disposition of baicalin is affected by combinations of other herbs and baicalin can interact with other co-administered drugs due to competition between metabolic enzymes and protein binding...
September 12, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Michael W Graner
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano- to micro-scale membrane-enclosed vesicles that are released from presumably all cell types. Tumor cells and immune cells are prodigious generators of EVs often with competing phenotypes in terms of immune suppression versus immune stimulation. Purinergic receptors, proteins that bind diverse purine nucleotides and nucleosides (ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine), are widely expressed across tissues and cell types, and are prominent players in immune and tumor cell nucleotide metabolism...
September 12, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Anukriti Sharma, Jack A Gilbert
The human body comprises of micro-ecosystem made up of trillions of microbes (i.e. bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses). The total microbial gene content, which is referred to as the human microbiome, is fundamental to human physiology and immunity. There exists an intricate relationship between the surrounding microbial world (i.e. the environment) and the endogenous human microbiome, mediated by the immune system. Disrupting this relationship can a profound effect on human health and disease. Understanding how microbial exposure influences immune response and the feedback on endogenous microbial metabolic activity could have profound implications for the development of novel microbial therapeutics...
September 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Henry T Marshall, Mustafa B A Djamgoz
Host immunity recognizes and eliminates most early tumor cells, yet immunological checkpoints, exemplified by CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, pose a significant obstacle to effective antitumor immune responses. T-lymphocyte co-inhibitory pathways influence intensity, inflammation and duration of antitumor immunity. However, tumors and their immunosuppressive microenvironments exploit them to evade immune destruction. Recent PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors yielded unprecedented efficacies and durable responses across advanced-stage melanoma, showcasing potential to replace conventional radiotherapy regimens...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Xingying Qi, Yuli Shang, Lei Sui
Titanium is a primary metallic biomaterial widely used in dental implants because of its favorable mechanical properties and osseointegration capability. Currently, increasing interests have been taken in the interaction between titanium implant surface and surrounding bone tissue, particularly in surface topographical aspect. There are currently several techniques developed to modify surface topographies in the world market of dental implant. In this review, state of titanium implant surfaces in topographical aspect is presented from relatively smooth surfaces to rougher ones with microtopographies and/or nanotopographies...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Dawei Ding, Qingdi Zhu
Recent advancements in biopharmaceutical industry have facilitated the development of novel bioactive macromolecular therapeutics. One of the challenges towards the clinical use of these biomacromolecules lies in the selection of appropriate carriers to protect, deliver and release them in vivo to maximize their pharmacological effects. Micro/nanoparticles made from biodegradable poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) have been explored as delivery vehicles for therapeutics. Due to their excellent biocompatibility and controllable biodegradability, PLGA micro/nanoparticles could protect macromolecules from instant degradation in vivo while allowing tunable release rate and profile...
November 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Samantha V Wilkinson, Laurie A Tomlinson, Masao Iwagami, Heide A Stirnadel-Farrant, Liam Smeeth, Ian Douglas
Background : The development of kidney disease is a serious complication among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, associated with substantially increased morbidity and mortality.  We aimed to summarise the current evidence for the relationship between treatments for type 2 diabetes and long-term kidney outcomes, by conducting a systematic search and review of relevant studies. Methods : We searched Medline, Embase and Web of Science, between 1st January 1980 and 15th May 2018 for published clinical trials and observational studies comparing two or more classes of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Kennichi Kakudo
Thyroid carcinomas originating from follicular cells have the prognosis of heterogeneous diseases, but pathologists classify them all as malignant disease. Epidemiologists have issued a stern warning regarding over-diagnosis and overtreatment of patients with indolent thyroid tumors that cause no harm to the patients. Review of the literature revealed that there were several proposals of borderline/precursor tumors to some indolent thyroid carcinomas. Thyroid tumor of uncertain malignant potential (UMP) was first proposed by Williams for encapsulated follicular pattern thyroid tumors to solve problems due to observer variation...
August 2018: Gland Surgery
Raminderjit Kaur, Manpreet Kaur, Jatinder Singh
The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most prevalent form of diabetes, accounting for approximately 90-95% of the total diabetes cases worldwide. Besides affecting the ability of body to use glucose, it is associated with micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Augmented atherosclerosis is documented to be the key factor leading to vascular complications in T2DM patients. The metabolic milieu of T2DM, including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and release of excess free fatty acids, along with other metabolic abnormalities affects vascular wall by a series of events including endothelial dysfunction, platelet hyperactivity, oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation...
August 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Noufa A Alonazi, Abdulrahman Alnemri, Ebtessam El Melegy, Noon Mohamed, Iman Talaat, Amany Hosny, Aisha Alonazi, Sarar Mohamed
Seizures in children and neonatal period have variety of causes; however, most of childhood seizures are idiopathic. The aim of this study was to review the causes of epilepsy in children presenting in the first 2 years of life using the International League Against Epilepsy classification released in 2010. This was a retrospective chart review study that was conducted at a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia. Two hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the study, 31 with conditions mimic epilepsy were excluded...
2018: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
Cheng Cheng, Zhi-Long Dong, Zhi-Ping Wang
The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) is increasing, especially among men over 40 years old, and is positively correlated with age. It is predicted that there will be as many as 300 million ED patients around the world by the year 2025. Recent years has witnessed deeper insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of ED and significant breakthroughs in its treatment. However, few achievements have been made in the studies of its pathological change at the molecular level and the measures for its management and rehabilitation...
2018: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
Graham Treece, Andrew Gee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cortical bone mapping (CBM) is a technique for measuring localised skeletal changes from computed tomography (CT) images. It can provide measurements with accuracy surpassing the underlying imaging resolution. CBM can detect changes in several properties of the cortex, with no prior assumptions about the likely location of said changes. This paper summarises the theory behind CBM, discusses its strengths and limitations, and reviews some studies in which it has been applied...
August 28, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Maxie Blasini, Nathalie Peiris, Thelma Wright, Luana Colloca
INTRODUCTION: Placebo and nocebo effects form part of all therapeutic environments and play a significant role in the effectiveness of treatment outcomes. Patient expectancies drive these phenomena, which can be shaped through contextual factors including verbal suggestions, conditioning, and social observation. OBJECTIVES: This review seeks to identify the biopsychosocial factors of the patient-practitioner interaction that play a role in the development of placebo and nocebo effects, as well as the anthropological elements of the biodynamic process of relating that are meaningful in the development of expectancies...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Abraham Majak Gut, Todor Vasiljevic, Thomas Yeager, Osaana N Donkor
Global Salmonella infection, especially in developing countries, is a health and economic burden. The use of antibiotic drugs in treating the infection is proving less effective due to the alarming rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella, the effects of antibiotics on normal gut microflora and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, all of which bring a growing need for alternative treatments, including the use of probiotic micro-organisms. However, there are issues with probiotics, including their potential to be opportunistic pathogens and antibiotic-resistant carriers, and their antibiotic susceptibility if used as complementary therapy...
August 23, 2018: Microbiology
M S Zinchuk, A S Avedisova, M O Zhabin, A B Guekht
Advanced age is a significant risk factor for a completed suicide. The review considers the patterns of suicidal behavior of older adults in the context of their gender, ethnicity as well as social and cultural factors. In terms of pro- and antisuicidal variables, special emphasis is made on the role of somatic and psychic disorders. The article looks at the features of committing a suicide peculiar to the older people and debates some specific issues of self-inflicted death by elderly people. The obtained data indicate the involvement of multilevel factors (biological, clinical, cultural, micro- and microsocial) in suicidal behavior in later life...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Patrick M Kochanek, C Edward Dixon, Stefania Mondello, Kevin K K Wang, Audrey Lafrenaye, Helen M Bramlett, W Dalton Dietrich, Ronald L Hayes, Deborah A Shear, Janice S Gilsdorf, Michael Catania, Samuel M Poloyac, Philip E Empey, Travis C Jackson, John T Povlishock
Current approaches have failed to yield success in the translation of neuroprotective therapies from the pre-clinical to the clinical arena for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Numerous explanations have been put forth in both the pre-clinical and clinical arenas. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT), a pre-clinical therapy and biomarker screening consortium has, to date, evaluated 10 therapies and assessed three serum biomarkers in nearly 1,500 animals across three rat models and a micro pig model of TBI. OBTT provides a unique platform to exploit heterogeneity of TBI and execute the research needed to identify effective injury specific therapies toward precision medicine...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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