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clinical micro review

Sobia Aleem
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an advanced and chronic endocrine disorder characterized by an insufficiency of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and liver, adipose tissues, and skeletal muscles. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to understand the mechanism and genes which are responsible for the prevalence of diabetes. The study also covers various types of diabetic complications with special reference to insulin role and defects. METHODS: The scientific literature and patents were reviewed and analyzed based on their suitability and relevance to the theme of the study...
July 17, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Rituraj Niranjan
Neuroinflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington disease. Current studies in this area have advanced the mechanism of neuroinflammation and its role in neurodegeneration. Studies from epidemiologic, clinical and animal models also contributed in the various new mechanisms of neuroinflammation. In this line, activation of monocytes is an important emerging mechanism that has a, profound role in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration...
July 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
A Kehrer, S Engelmann, M Ruewe, S Geis, C Taeger, M Kehrer, E R Tamm, R L A W Bleys, L Prantl, V Mandlik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early persistent facial paralysis is characterized by intact muscles of facial expression through maintained perfusion but lacking nerve supply. In facial reanimation procedures aiming at restoration of facial tone and dynamics, neurotization through a donor nerve is performed. Critical for reanimating target muscles is axonal capacity of both donor and recipient nerves. In cases of complete paralysis, the proximal stump of the extratemporal facial nerve trunk may be selected as a recipient site for coaptation...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Catarina Ferreira, João Lobo, Luís Antunes, Paula Lopes, Carmen Jerónimo, Rui Henrique
Cadherins seem to play and important role in prostate cancer (PCa) progression. E-cadherin loss of expression has been associated with poor prognosis; P-cadherin's role is still elusive. Although pT3 PCa is often considered "high-risk cancer," it does not exhibit an uniformly poor prognosis. Herein, we assessed the prognostic value and survival impact of E-cadherin and P-cadherin immunoexpression in pT3 PCa. Radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens from 102 pT3 PCa patients treated between 1991 and 2014 in a single institution were designated for E-cadherin and P-cadherin immunoexpression analysis...
July 13, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Morgan Gallazzini, Nicolas Pallet
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects millions of persons worldwide and constitutes a major public health problem. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of CKD is a key challenge for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. A major contributor to chronic histological damage associated with CKD is acute kidney injury (AKI). At the cellular level, kidney injuries are associated with micro environmental alterations, forcing cells to activate adaptive biological processes that eliminate the stressor and generate alarm signals...
July 10, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Gina Sizemore, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Charles Rosen, James W Simpkins, Sanjay Bhatia, Dandan Sun
The brain is an integrated network of multiple variables that when compromised create a diseased state. The neuropathology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) demonstrate both similarity and complexity that reflects this integrated variability; TLE with its live human tissue resection provides opportunity for translational science to demonstrate scale equivalent experimentation between the macroscopic world of clinical disease and the microscopic world of basic science...
2018: OBM neurobiology
M Y Thanuja, C Anupama, Sudhir H Ranganath
Cellular carriers for drug delivery are attractive alternatives to synthetic nanoparticles owing to their innate homing/targeting abilities. Here, we review molecular interactions involved in the homing of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and other cell types to understand the process of designing and engineering highly efficient, actively targeting cellular vehicles. In addition, we comprehensively discuss various genetic and non-genetic strategies and propose a few futuristic approaches of engineering MSC homing using micro/nanotechnology and high throughput small molecule screening...
June 21, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Pierre Raeven, Johannes Zipperle, Susanne Drechsler
Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. It remains a highly lethal condition in which current tools for early diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making are far from ideal. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), 30 nm to several micrometers in size, are released from cells upon activation and apoptosis and express membrane epitopes specific for their parental cells. Since their discovery two decades ago, their role as biomarkers and mediators in various diseases has been intensively studied...
2018: Theranostics
Marjan Sabbaghian, Anahita Mohseni Meybodi, Alemeh Rafaee, Sadaf Saba, Mohammadreza Zamanian, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani
To evaluate the success rate in sperm retrieval (SR) through microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in infertile azoospermia factor c (AZFc)-deleted men and determining their reproductive outcomes following ICSI, medical records of couples with AZFc-deleted male partners were reviewed on patient's age, serum hormone levels, karyotype, testicular pathology and pregnancy outcomes. A comparison on age and serum hormone level was conducted between groups with positive and negative sperm retrieval in both azoospermic and oligozoospermic AZFc-deleted men...
June 19, 2018: Andrologia
Michael I Koukourakis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki
PURPOSE: The anaerobic metabolism of glucose by cancer cells, even under well oxygenated conditions, has been documented by Otto Warburg as early as 1927. Micro-environmental hypoxia and intracellular pathways activating the hypoxia-related gene response, shift cancer cell metabolism to anaerobic pathways. In the current review we focus on a major enzyme involved in anaerobic transformation of pyruvate to lactate, namely lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5). CONCLUSIONS: The value of LDH5 as a marker of prognosis of cancer patients, as a predictor of response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and, finally, as a major target for cancer treatment and radio-sensitization is reported and discussed...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Troy Morrison, Sara Jones, Ryan S Causby, Kerry Thoirs
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with hyperglycaemia and advanced glycosylation end-products. In the foot, the consequences of chronic or uncontrolled diabetes are micro and macrovascular disease, neuropathy, reduced joint mobility and structural and soft tissue changes that increase the risk of ulcer development and amputation. Diabetes foot assessment currently includes a comprehensive history, neurological and vascular assessments and examination focussed on dermatological and musculoskeletal abnormalities...
2018: PloS One
Ye Yuan, Weijie Du, Jiaqi Liu, Wenya Ma, Lai Zhang, Zhimin Du, Benzhi Cai
The stem cell-based therapy has emerged as the promising therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Recently, increasing evidence suggest stem cell-derived active exosomes are important communicators among cells in the heart via delivering specific substances to the adjacent/distant target cells. These exosomes and their contents such as certain proteins, miRNAs and lncRNAs exhibit huge beneficial effects on preventing heart damage and promoting cardiac repair. More importantly, stem cell-derived exosomes are more effective and safer than stem cell transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Konstantinos C Fragkos, John Barragry, Charisma Shahi Fernando, Marco Novelli, Joanna Begent, Natalia Zárate-Lopez
Eosinophilic colitis is a rare clinical condition that belongs to the group of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Its occurrence can be primary or secondary to infection, medications, or autoimmune/hematological conditions. We present a case of a young female adult with severe chronic fatigue syndrome, widespread chronic pain, including functional abdominal pain, who developed severe eosinophilic colitis following successive treatments with gabapentin and pregabalin. On both occasions, symptoms manifested as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia and improved upon discontinuation of the medications...
June 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Juan A Sanchis-Gimeno, Susanna Llido, David Guede, Shahed Nalla, Francisco Martinez-Soriano, Esther Blanco-Perez, Jose R Caeiro
BACKGROUND: To date, no information about the cortical bone microstructural properties in atlas vertebrae with arcuate foramen has been reported. As a result, we aimed to test in an experimental model if there is a cortical bone thickening in an atlas vertebra which has an arcuate foramen that may play a protective role against bone fracture. METHODS: We analyzed by means of micro-computed tomography the cortical bone thickness, the cortical volume, and the medullary volume (SkyScan 1172 Bruker micro-CT NV, Kontich, Belgium) in cadaveric dry atlas vertebrae with arcuate foramen and without arcuate foramen...
June 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Davoud Sanajou, Amir Ghorbani Haghjo, Hassan Argani, Somayeh Aslani
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent micro-vascular complications both in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Although disparate mechanisms give rise to the development of diabetic nephropathy, prevailing evidence accentuates that hyperglycemia-associated generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) plays a central role in the disease pathophysiology. Engagement of the receptor for AGE (RAGE) with its ligands provokes oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in renal tissues, ending up with losses in kidney function...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
Leptin, an adipokine that is implicated in the control of food intake via appetite suppression, may also stimulate oxidative stress, inflammation, thrombosis, arterial stiffness, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. These leptin-induced effects may predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. In the present review we discuss the evidence linking leptin levels with the presence, severity and/or prognosis of both coronary artery disease and non-cardiac vascular diseases such as stroke, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) as well as with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
June 7, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Kathryn S Nevel, Jessica A Wilcox, Lindsay J Robell, Yoshie Umemura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Liquid biopsy is a sampling of tumor cells or tumor nucleotides from biofluids. This review explores the roles of liquid biopsy for evaluation and management of patients with primary and metastatic CNS malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection has emerged as a relatively sensitive and specific tool for diagnosing leptomeningeal metastases. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection can effectively demonstrate genetic markup of CNS tumors in the cerebrospinal fluid, though its role in managing CNS malignancies is less well-defined...
June 6, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Catarina M Abreu, Ricardo Soares-Dos-Reis, Pedro N Melo, João B Relvas, Joana Guimarães, Maria José Sá, Andrea P Cruz, Inês Mendes Pinto
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the onset and progression of many neurological disorders, including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In these clinical conditions the underlying neuroinflammatory processes are significantly heterogeneous. Nevertheless, a common link is the chronic activation of innate immune responses and imbalanced secretion of pro and anti-inflammatory mediators. In light of this, the discovery of robust biomarkers is crucial for screening, early diagnosis, and monitoring of neurological diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Cheri Hotu, Marc Rémond, Graeme Maguire, Elif Ekinci, Neale Cohen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of an integrated diabetes service involving specialist outreach and primary health care teams on risk factors for micro- and macrovascular diabetes complications in three remote Indigenous Australian communities over a 12-month period. DESIGN: Quantitative, retrospective evaluation. SETTING: Primary health care clinics in remote Indigenous communities in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: One-hundred-and-twenty-four adults (including 123 Indigenous Australians; 76...
June 4, 2018: Australian Journal of Rural Health
Johanna Fritz, Maja Söderbäck, Anne Söderlund, Maria Sandborgh
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The implementation of a behavioral medicine (BM) approach in physiotherapy is challenging, and studies regarding the determinants are sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore determinants of applying a BM approach in physiotherapy for patients with persistent pain across the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels. METHODS: A qualitative multiple-case study design was used. Data were collected from four cases through semi-structured interviews with physiotherapists (PTs), patients, and managers; observations of video-recorded treatment sessions; and reviews of local directives and regulations...
May 30, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
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