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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429185/high-content-assessment-of-cardiac-function-using-heart-on-a-chip-devices-as-drug-screening-model
#1
Genevieve Conant, Benjamin Fook Lun Lai, Rick Xing Ze Lu, Anastasia Korolj, Erika Yan Wang, Milica Radisic
Drug discovery and development continues to be a challenge to the pharmaceutical industry despite great advances in cell and molecular biology that allow for the design of better targeted therapeutics. Many potential drug compounds fail during the clinical trial due to inefficacy and toxicity that were not predicted during preclinical stages. The fundamental problem lies with the use of traditional drug screening models that still largely rely on the use of cell lines or animal cell monolayers, which leads to lack of predictive power of human tissue and organ response to the drug candidates...
April 20, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419458/therapeutic-potential-of-novel-formulated-forms-of-curcumin-in-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer-by-the-targeting-of-cellular-and-physiological-dysregulated-pathways
#2
REVIEW
Amir Tajbakhsh, Malihe Hasanzadeh, Mehdi Rezaee, Mostafa Khedri, Majid Khazaei, Soodabeh Shahid Sales, Gordon A Ferns, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Amir Avan
Breast cancer is among the most important causes of cancer related death in women. There is a need for novel agents for targeting key signaling pathways to either improve the efficacy of the current therapy, or reduce toxicity. There is some evidence that curcumin may have antitumor activity in breast cancer. Several clinical trials have investigated its activity in patients with breast cancer, including a recent trial in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, in whom it was shown that curcumin reduced the severity of radiation dermatitis, although it is associated with low bioavailability...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417928/potential-coagulation-factor-driven-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-ovarian-cancer-tissues-associated-with-insufficient-o%C3%A2-and-plasma-supply
#3
REVIEW
Shiro Koizume, Yohei Miyagi
Tissue factor (TF) is a cell surface receptor for coagulation factor VII (fVII). The TF-activated fVII (fVIIa) complex is an essential initiator of the extrinsic blood coagulation process. Interactions between cancer cells and immune cells via coagulation factors and adhesion molecules can promote progression of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This process is not necessarily advantageous, as tumor tissues generally undergo hypoxia due to aberrant vasculature, followed by reduced access to plasma components such as coagulation factors...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404738/microbiotal-host-interactions-and-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Galla, Saroj Chakraborty, Blair Mell, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Bina Joe
Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure (BP), has been extensively researched over decades and clearly demonstrated to be caused due to a combination of host genetic and environmental factors. Although much research remains to be conducted to pin-point the precise genetic elements on the host genome that control BP, new lines of evidence are emerging to indicate that, besides the host genome, the genomes of all indigenous commensal micro-organisms, collectively referred to as the microbial metagenome or microbiome, are important, but largely understudied, determinants of BP...
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402936/lysophosphatidic-acid-lpa-as-a-pro-fibrotic-and-pro-oncogenic-factor-a-pivotal-target-to-improve-the-radiotherapy-therapeutic-index
#5
REVIEW
Chloé Rancoule, Sophie Espenel, Jane-Chloé Trone, Julien Langrand-Escure, Alexis Vallard, Amel Rehailia-Blanchard, Anis El Meddeb Hamrouni, Yaxiong Xia, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Majed Ben-Mrad, Nicolas Magné
Radiation-induced fibrosis is widely considered as a common but forsaken phenomenon that can lead to clinical sequela and possibly vital impairments. Lysophosphatidic acid is a bioactive lipid involved in fibrosis and probably in radiation-induced fibrosis as suggested in recent studies. Lysophosphatidic acid is also a well-described pro-oncogenic factor, involved in carcinogenesis processes (proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, migration). The present review highlights and summarizes the links between lysophosphatidic acid and radiation-induced fibrosis, lysophosphatidic acid and radioresistance, and proposes lysophosphatidic acid as a potential central actor of the radiotherapy therapeutic index...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398001/an-update-on-carbon-nanotube-enabled-x-ray-sources-for-biomedical-imaging
#6
REVIEW
Connor Puett, Christina Inscoe, Allison Hartman, Jabari Calliste, Dora K Franceschi, Jianping Lu, Otto Zhou, Yueh Z Lee
A new imaging technology has emerged that uses carbon nanotubes (CNT) as the electron emitter (cathode) for the X-ray tube. Since the performance of the CNT cathode is controlled by simple voltage manipulation, CNT-enabled X-ray sources are ideal for the repetitive imaging steps needed to capture three-dimensional information. As such, they have allowed the development of a gated micro-computed tomography (CT) scanner for small animal research as well as stationary tomosynthesis, an experimental technology for large field-of-view human imaging...
April 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379559/sperm-recovery-and-icsi-outcomes-in-klinefelter-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Giovanni Corona, Alessandro Pizzocaro, Fabio Lanfranco, Andrea Garolla, Fiore Pelliccione, Linda Vignozzi, Alberto Ferlin, Carlo Foresta, Emmanuele A Jannini, Mario Maggi, Andrea Lenzi, Daniela Pasquali, Sandro Francavilla
BACKGROUND: Specific factors underlying successful surgical sperm retrieval rates (SRR) or pregnancy rates (PR) after testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in adult patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) have not been completely clarified. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this review was to meta-analyse the currently available data from subjects with KS regarding SRRs as the primary outcome. In addition, when available, PRs and live birth rates (LBRs) after the ICSI technique were also investigated as secondary outcomes...
April 4, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368658/early-clinical-applications-for-imaging-at-microscopic-detail-microfocus-computed-tomography-micro-ct
#8
J Ciaran Hutchinson, Susan C Shelmerdine, Ian C Simcock, Neil J Sebire, Owen J Arthurs
Microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) has traditionally been used in industry and preclinical studies, although it may find new applicability in the routine clinical setting. It can provide high resolution three dimensional (3D) digital imaging datasets to the same level of detail as microscopic examination without the need for tissue dissection. Micro-CT is already enabling non-invasive detailed internal assessment of various tissue specimens, particularly in breast imaging and early gestational fetal autopsy, not previously possible from more conventional modalities such as MRI or CT...
April 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358664/hif-1-in-cancer-therapy-two-decade-long-story-of-a-transcription-factor
#9
Sourabh Soni, Yogendra S Padwad
BACKGROUND: Oxygen (O2) homeostasis is an indispensable requirement of eukaryotes. O2 concentration in cellular milieu is defined as normoxia (∼21% O2), physoxia (∼1-13% O2) or hypoxia (∼0.1-1% O2). Hypoxia, a striking micro-environmental feature in tumorigenesis, is countered by tumor cells via induction of O2 governed transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Post discovery, HIF-1 has emerged as a promising anticancer therapeutic target during the last two decades...
April 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355471/moving-from-static-to-dynamic-models-of-the-onset-of-mental-disorder-a-review
#10
Barnaby Nelson, Patrick D McGorry, Marieke Wichers, Johanna T W Wigman, Jessica A Hartmann
Importance: In recent years, there has been increased focus on subthreshold stages of mental disorders, with attempts to model and predict which individuals will progress to full-threshold disorder. Given this research attention and the clinical significance of the issue, this article analyzes the assumptions of the theoretical models in the field. Observations: Psychiatric research into predicting the onset of mental disorder has shown an overreliance on one-off sampling of cross-sectional data (ie, a snapshot of clinical state and other risk markers) and may benefit from taking dynamic changes into account in predictive modeling...
March 29, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335262/nanomaterials-for-tissue-engineering-in-dentistry
#11
REVIEW
Manila Chieruzzi, Stefano Pagano, Silvia Moretti, Roberto Pinna, Egle Milia, Luigi Torre, Stefano Eramo
The tissue engineering (TE) of dental oral tissue is facing significant changes in clinical treatments in dentistry. TE is based on a stem cell, signaling molecule, and scaffold triad that must be known and calibrated with attention to specific sectors in dentistry. This review article shows a summary of micro- and nanomorphological characteristics of dental tissues, of stem cells available in the oral region, of signaling molecules usable in TE, and of scaffolds available to guide partial or total reconstruction of hard, soft, periodontal, and bone tissues...
July 21, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331619/processing-and-selection-of-surgically-retrieved-sperm-for-icsi-a-review
#12
Greta Verheyen, Biljana Popovic-Todorovic, Herman Tournaye
Although the technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been a revolution in the alleviation of male infertility, the use of testicular sperm for ICSI was a formerly unseen breakthrough in the treatment of the azoospermic man with primary testicular failure. At the clinical level, different procedures of testicular sperm retrieval (conventional TESE, micro-TESE, FNA/TESA, MESA, PESA) are being performed, the choice is mainly based on the cause of azoospermia (obstructive versus non-obstructive) and the surgeon's skills...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299645/new-concepts-in-embolotherapy-of-hcc
#13
REVIEW
F Pesapane, N Nezami, F Patella, J F Geschwind
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with rapidly growing incidence rates in the USA and Europe. Despite improving surveillance programs, most patients are diagnosed at intermediate to advanced stages and are no longer amenable to curative therapies, such as ablation, surgical resection and liver transplantation. For such patients, catheter-based image-guided embolotherapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) represent the standard of care and mainstay therapy, as recommended and endorsed by a variety of national guidelines and staging systems...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289965/novel-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-and-clinical-aspects-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#14
REVIEW
Zubair Ilyas, Joumana T Chaiban, Armand Krikorian
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a well-described complication of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Although increased albuminuria has been the gold standard for screening, data suggests that renal damage starts long before the onset of clinically apparent increases in macro and even micro-albuminuria. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention of DN have been traditionally focused on the control of serum glucose, blood pressure and dyslipidemia, with some focus on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) as a main target for successful therapy...
March 13, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276640/prospective-review-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-differentiation-into-osteoblasts
#15
REVIEW
Priyanka Garg, Matthew M Mazur, Amy C Buck, Meghan E Wandtke, Jiayong Liu, Nabil A Ebraheim
Stem cell research has been a popular topic in the past few decades. This review aims to discuss factors that help regulate, induce, and enhance mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into osteoblasts for bone regeneration. The factors analyzed include bone morphogenic protein (BMP), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), histone demethylase JMJD3, cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), fucoidan, Runx2 transcription factor, and TAZ transcriptional coactivator...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273634/dynamic-changes-of-epigenetic-signatures-during-chondrogenic-and-adipogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Navid Saidi, Majdedin Ghalavand, Mohammad Sadegh Hashemzadeh, Ruhollah Dorostkar, Hamed Mohammadi, Ahmad Mahdian-Shakib
Extensive studies have been performed to clarify the processes during which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into their lineage fates. In vitro differentiation of MSCs into distinct lineages have attracted the focus of a large number of clinical investigations. Although the gene expression profiling during differentiation of MSC toward bone, cartilage, and adipocytes is well established, the master regulators by which MSC fate can be controlled are not entirely determined. During differentiation of MSCs into a special cell fate, epigenetic mechanisms considered as the primary mediators that suppress the irrelevant genes and activate the genes required for a specific cell lineage...
March 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271003/optical-coherence-tomography-based-angiography-invited
#17
REVIEW
Chieh-Li Chen, Ruikang K Wang
Optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based angiography (OCTA) provides in vivo, three-dimensional vascular information by the use of flowing red blood cells as intrinsic contrast agents, enabling the visualization of functional vessel networks within microcirculatory tissue beds non-invasively, without a need of dye injection. Because of these attributes, OCTA has been rapidly translated to clinical ophthalmology within a short period of time in the development. Various OCTA algorithms have been developed to detect the functional micro-vasculatures in vivo by utilizing different components of OCT signals, including phase-signal-based OCTA, intensity-signal-based OCTA and complex-signal-based OCTA...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265841/surgical-outcomes-in-patients-with-cushing-s-disease-the-cleveland-clinic-experience
#18
Philip C Johnston, Laurence Kennedy, Amir H Hamrahian, Zahrae Sandouk, James Bena, Betul Hatipoglu, Robert J Weil
CONTEXT: Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) to resect a pituitary adenoma is considered first-line treatment for patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Early, post-operative remission rates >80% are expected for patients with a microadenoma (≤ 10 mm) visible on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. OBJECTIVE: To report surgical outcomes and predictors of remission in a specialist center for patients with CD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data was obtained from a prospective CD database in addition to review of all electronic medical, laboratory and surgical patient records...
March 6, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260413/the-institutional-logic-of-integrated-care-an-ethnography-of-patient-transitions
#19
James A Shaw, Pia Kontos, Wendy Martin, Christina Victor
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use theories of institutional logics and institutional entrepreneurship to examine how and why macro-, meso-, and micro-level influences inter-relate in the implementation of integrated transitional care out of hospital in the English National Health Service. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted an ethnographic case study of a hospital and surrounding services within a large urban centre in England. Specific methods included qualitative interviews with patients/caregivers, health/social care providers, and organizational leaders; observations of hospital transition planning meetings, community "hub" meetings, and other instances of transition planning; reviews of patient records; and analysis of key policy documents...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259701/-long-term-blood-pressure-outcome-after-unilateral-adrenalectomy-for-primary-hyperaldosteronism
#20
F Saint, R Prader, C Cordonnier, G Choukroun, N Elesper, R Desailloud
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term results of adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism (PA) and to identify prognostic factors associated. METHODS: Exhaustive retrospective review of all consecutive patients undergoing adrenalectomy for PA between 2002 and 2013 in our department. All patients underwent preoperative: clinical evaluation (age, sex, height, weight, systolic and diastolic BP under treatment, identification of anti-hypertension treatment), biological evaluation (potassium, renin, aldosterone) and radiological evaluation (CT and/or MRI)...
March 1, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
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