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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150516/drna-seq-implicates-sulfide-as-master-regulator-of-s-0-metabolism-in-chlorobaculum-tepidum-and-other-green-sulfur-bacteria
#1
Jacob M Hilzinger, Vidhyavathi Raman, Kevin E Shuman, Brian J Eddie, Thomas E Hanson
The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are anaerobes that use electrons from reduced sulfur compounds (sulfide, S(0), and thiosulfate) as electron donors for photoautotrophic growth. Chlorobaculum tepidum, the model system for the Chlorobiaceae, both produces and consumes extracellular S(0) globules depending on the availability of sulfide in the environment. These physiological changes imply significant changes in gene regulation, which has been observed when sulfide is added to Cba. tepidum growing on thiosulfate...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150512/a-genetic-system-for-the-thermophilic-acetogenic-bacterium-thermoanaerobacter-kivui
#2
Mirko Basen, Irina Geiger, Laura Henke, Volker Müller
Thermoanaerobacter kivui is one of the very few thermophilic acetogenic microorganisms. It grows optimally at 66°C on sugars but also lithotrophically with H2 + CO2 or with CO, producing acetate as major product. While a genome-derived model of acetogenesis has been developed, only few physiological or biochemical experiments towards the function of important enzymes in carbon and energy metabolism have been carried out. To address this issue, we developed a method for targeted, markerless gene deletions and for integration of genes into the genome of T...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150447/the-prototypical-proton-coupled-oligopeptide-transporter-ydgr-from-escherichia-coli-facilitates-chloramphenicol-uptake-into-bacterial-cells
#3
Bala K Prabhala, Nanda G Aduri, Neha Sharma, Aqsa Shaheen, Arpan Sharma, Mazhar Iqbal, Paul R Hansen, Christoffer Brasen, Michael Gajhede, Moazur Rahman, Osman Mirza
Chloramphenicol (Cam) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to combat bacterial infections in humans and animals. Cam export from bacterial cells is one of the mechanisms by which pathogens resist Cam's antibacterial effects, and several different proteins are known to facilitate this process. However, to date no report exists on any specific transport protein that facilitates Cam uptake. The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter (POT) YdgR from Escherichia coli is a prototypical member of the POT family, functioning in proton-coupled uptake of di- and tripeptides...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150289/the-cause-of-multiple-sclerosis-is-autoimmune-attack-of-adenosyltransferase-thereby-limiting-adenosylcobalamin-production
#4
J L Boucher
The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) begins with an infection by a bacterium from the class of bacteria that produce and utilize adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and possess an adenosyl transferase enzyme (ATR); these bacteria are the exogenous antigens that cause MS. Human ATR is homologous to bacterial ATR and B cells produce anti-ATR antibodies as an autoimmune response thereby reducing the concentration of ATR and thus limiting production of AdoCbl, one of the two bioactive forms of vitamin B12. The next step in MS pathogenesis is a period of subclinical AdoCbl deficiency over a period of many years resulting in production of odd-carbon-number fatty acids that are incorporated into myelin rendering it antigenic...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149813/structural-analysis-of-cd59-of-chinese-tree-shrew-a-new-reference-molecule-for-human-immune-system-specific-cd59-drug-discovery
#5
Subhamay Panda, Leena Kumari, Santamay Panda
BACKGROUND: Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) bear several characteristics that are considered to be very crucial for utilizing in animal experimental models in biomedical research. Subsequent to the identification of key aspects and signaling pathways in nervous and immune systems, it is revealed that tree shrews acquires shared common as well as unique characteristics, and hence offers a genetic basis for employing this animal as a prospective model for biomedical research...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146373/development-and-validation-of-a-fallow-deer-dama-dama-specific-taqman-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-food-adulteration
#6
Maria Kaltenbrunner, Rupert Hochegger, Margit Cichna-Markl
The aim of the present study was to develop a real-time PCR assay for the identification and quantification of fallow deer (Dama dama) in food to detect food adulteration. Despite high sequence homology among different deer species, a fallow deer-specific primer/probe system targeting a fragment of the nuclear MC1-R gene was designed. This primer/probe system did not amplify DNA from 19 other animals and 50 edible plant species. Moderate cross-reactivity was observed for sika deer, red deer, roe deer, reindeer and wild boar...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145886/are-mice-good-models-for-human-neuromuscular-disease-comparing-muscle-excursions-in-walking-between-mice-and-humans
#7
Xiao Hu, James P Charles, Turgay Akay, John R Hutchinson, Silvia S Blemker
BACKGROUND: The mouse is one of the most widely used animal models to study neuromuscular diseases and test new therapeutic strategies. However, findings from successful pre-clinical studies using mouse models frequently fail to translate to humans due to various factors. Differences in muscle function between the two species could be crucial but often have been overlooked. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare muscle excursions in walking between mice and humans. METHODS: Recently published musculoskeletal models of the mouse hindlimb and human lower limb were used to simulate muscle-tendon dynamics during mouse and human walking, a key daily activity...
November 16, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145823/dbmdega-a-database-for-meta-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Shuyun Zhang, Libin Deng, Qiyue Jia, Shaoting Huang, Junwang Gu, Fankun Zhou, Meng Gao, Xinyi Sun, Chang Feng, Guangqin Fan
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are hereditary, heterogeneous and biologically complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Individual studies on gene expression in ASD cannot provide clear consensus conclusions. Therefore, a systematic review to synthesize the current findings from brain tissues and a search tool to share the meta-analysis results are urgently needed. METHODS: Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain gene expression profiles in the current reported human ASD expression datasets (with 84 frozen male cortex samples, 17 female cortex samples, 32 cerebellum samples and 4 formalin fixed samples) and knock-out mouse ASD model expression datasets (with 80 collective brain samples)...
November 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143004/adsorption-parameters-and-phase-behaviour-of-non-ionic-surfactants-at-liquid-interfaces
#9
Radomir Iliev Slavchov, Ivan Boyanov Ivanov
A reasonable adsorption model is one that allows all adsorption parameters (adsorption constant, hard-disc area α, attraction parameter β) of a surfactant at a liquid interface to be predicted accurately as a function of the molecular structure and medium conditions. However, the established adsorption models of van der Waals and Frumkin lead to inconsistencies, such as negative β at water|oil, α significantly larger than the crystallographic area of the molecule, and phase behaviour that contradicts the experimental observations...
November 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142437/docking-based-screening-of-ficus-religiosa-phytochemicals-as-inhibitors-of-human-histamine-h2-receptor
#10
Amit Chaudhary, Birendra Singh Yadav, Swati Singh, Pramod Kumar Maurya, Alok Mishra, Shweta Srivastva, Pritish Kumar Varadwaj, Nand Kumar Singh, Ashutosh Mani
Background: Ficus religiosa L. is generally known as Peepal and belongs to family Moraceae. The tree is a source of many compounds having high medicinal value. In gastrointestinal tract, histamine H2 receptors have key role in histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Their over stimulation causes its excessive production which is responsible for gastric ulcer. Objective: This study aims to screen the range of phytochemicals present in F. religiosa for binding with human histamine H2 and identify therapeutics for a gastric ulcer from the plant...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142196/dj-1-controls-bone-homeostasis-through-the-regulation-of-osteoclast-differentiation
#11
Hyuk Soon Kim, Seung Taek Nam, Se Hwan Mun, Sun-Kyeong Lee, Hyun Woo Kim, Young Hwan Park, Bokyung Kim, Kyung-Jong Won, Hae-Rim Kim, Yeong-Min Park, Hyung Sik Kim, Michael A Beaven, Young Mi Kim, Wahn Soo Choi
Receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) generates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which increase RANKL-mediated signaling in osteoclast (OC) precursor bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). Here we show that a ROS scavenging protein DJ-1 negatively regulates RANKL-driven OC differentiation, also called osteoclastogenesis. DJ-1 ablation in mice leads to a decreased bone volume and an increase in OC numbers. In vitro, the activation of RANK-dependent signals is enhanced in DJ-1-deficient BMMs as compared to wild-type BMMs...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142022/balance-between-cytosolic-and-chloroplast-translation-affects-leaf-variegation
#12
Ruijuan Wang, Jun Zhao, Min Jia, Ni Xu, Shuang Liang, Jingxia Shao, Yafei Qi, Xiayan Liu, Lijun An, Fei Yu
The development of functional chloroplasts relies on the fine coordination of expressions of both nuclear and chloroplast genomes. We have been using the Arabidopsis yellow variegated (var2) leaf variegation mutant as a tool to dissect the regulation of chloroplast development. In this work, we screened for var2 genetic enhancer modifiers termed enhancer of variegation (evr) mutants and report the characterization of the first EVR locus, EVR1. We showed that EVR1 encodes the cytosolic 80S ribosome 40S small subunit protein RPS21B and the loss of EVR1 causes the enhancement of var2 leaf variegation...
November 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141910/munc13-proteins-control-regulated-exocytosis-in-mast-cells
#13
Elsa M Rodarte, Marco A Ramos, Alfredo J Davalos, Daniel C Moreira, David S Moreno, Eduardo I Cardenas, Alejandro I Rodarte, Youlia Petrova, Sofia Molina, Luis E Rendon, Elizabeth Sanchez, Keegan Breaux, Alejandro Tortoriello, John Manllo, Erika A Gonzalez, Michael J Tuvim, Burton F Dickey, Alan R Burns, Ruth Heidelberger, Roberto Adachi
Mast cells (MCs) are involved in host defenses against pathogen and inflammation. Stimulated MCs release substances stored in their granules via regulated exocytosis. In other cell types, Munc13 (mammalian homolog of C. elegans uncoordinated gene 13) proteins play essential roles in regulated exocytosis. Here, we found that MCs express Munc13-2 and -4, and studied their roles using global and conditional knockout (KO) mice. In a model of systemic anaphylaxis, we found no difference between WT and Munc13-2 KO mice, but global and MC-specific Munc13-4 KO mice developed less hypothermia...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140084/characterization-of-a-ugt84-family-glycosyltransferase-provides-new-insights-into-substrate-binding-and-reactivity-of-galloylglucose-ester-forming-ugts
#14
Alexander E Wilson, Xiaoxue Feng, Nadia N Ono, Doron Holland, Rachel Amir, Li Tian
Galloylated plant specialized metabolites play important roles in plant-environment interactions as well as the promotion of human and animal health. The galloylation reactions are mediated by the formation of galloylglucose esters from gallic acid and UDP-glucose, catalyzed by the plant UGT84 family glycosyltransferases. To explore and exploit the structural determinants of UGT84 activities, we performed homology modeling and substrate docking of PgUGT84A23, a galloylglucose ester-forming family 84 UGT, as well as sequence comparisons of PgUGT84A23 with other functionally characterized plant UGTs...
November 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138588/rai1-gene-mutations-mechanisms-of-smith-magenis-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Mariateresa Falco, Sonia Amabile, Fabio Acquaviva
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM #182290) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by distinctive physical features, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and a typical behavioral phenotype. SMS is caused by interstitial 17p11.2 deletions, encompassing multiple genes and including the retinoic acid-induced 1 gene (RAI1), or by mutations in RAI1 itself. About 10% of all the SMS patients, in fact, carry an RAI1 mutation responsible for the phenotype. RAI1 (OMIM *607642) is a dosage-sensitive gene expressed in many tissues and highly conserved among species...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138419/ivig-activates-fc%C3%AE-riib-ship1-pip3-pathway-to-stabilize-mast-cells-and-suppress-inflammation-after-ich-in-mice
#16
Gokce Yilmaz Akyol, Anatol Manaenko, Onat Akyol, Ihsan Solaroglu, Wing Mann Ho, Yan Ding, Jerry Flores, John H Zhang, Jiping Tang
Following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the activation of mast cell contributes to brain inflammation and brain injury. The mast cell activation is negatively regulated by an inhibitory IgG-receptor. It's signals are mediated by SHIP (Src homology 2-containing inositol 5' phosphatase), in particular SHIP1, which activation leads to hydrolyzation of PIP3 (Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, leading to the inhibition of calcium mobilization and to the attenuation of mast cell activation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138255/complex-history-and-differentiation-patterns-of-the-t-haplotype-a-mouse-meiotic-driver
#17
Reka K Kelemen, Beatriz Vicoso
The t-haplotype, a mouse meiotic driver found on chromosome 17, has been a model for autosomal segregation distortion for close to a century, but several questions remain regarding its biology and evolutionary history. A recently published set of population genomics resources for wild mice includes several individuals heterozygous for the t-haplotype, which we use to characterize this selfish element at the genomic and transcriptomic level. Our results show that large sections of the t-haplotype have been replaced by standard homologous sequences, possibly due to occasional events of recombination, and that this complicates the inference of its history...
November 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138086/eugenol-derivatives-prospectively-inhibit-l-asparaginase-a-heady-target-protein-of%C3%A2-salmonella-typhimurium
#18
Archana Vimal, Anubhuti Jha, Awanish Kumar
Salmonella typhimurium is the causative agent of severe human infections and mortality throughout the world. Pacing advent of new resistance mechanisms in this microorganism exists, rendering treatment of infectious disease difficult. Ciprofloxacin is no longer considered the first choice of antimicrobial agent due to the emergence of resistance. Therefore, the need for scenario is to find out novel drug target and its potential inhibitor to fight against this pathogen. The present study was undertaken to find out a novel drug target and its inhibitor for improving the current therapeutic methods for treating Salmonella infections...
November 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137329/development-of-a-radiolabeled-caninized-anti-egfr-antibody-for-comparative-oncology-trials
#19
Judit Fazekas-Singer, Neydher Berroterán-Infante, Christina Rami-Mark, Monika Dumanic, Miroslawa Matz, Michael Willmann, Fritz Andreae, Josef Singer, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
Due to large homology of human and canine EGFR, dogs suffering from spontaneous EGFR+ cancer can be considered as ideal translational models. Thereby, novel immunotherapeutic compounds can be developed for both human and veterinary patients. This study describes the radiolabeling of a canine anti-EGFR IgG antibody (can225IgG) with potential diagnostic and therapeutic value in comparative clinical settings. Can225IgG was functionalized with DTPA for subsequent chelation with the radionuclide (99m)Tc. Successful coupling of 10 DTPA molecules per antibody on average was proven by significant mass increase in MALDI-TOF spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and immunoblots...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137311/crenolanib-is-a-type-i-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-that-inhibits-mutant-kit-d816-isoforms-prevalent-in-systemic-mastocytosis-and-core-binding-factor-leukemia
#20
Kerstin Maria Kampa-Schittenhelm, Julia Frey, Lara A Haeusser, Barbara Illing, Ashly A Pavlovsky, Gunnar Blumenstock, Marcus Matthias Schittenhelm
Activating D816 mutations of the class III receptor tyrosine kinase KIT are associated with the majority of patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), but also core binding factor (CBF) AML, making KIT mutations attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of these cancers. Crenolanib is a potent and selective inhibitor of wild-type as well as mutant isoforms of the class III receptor tyrosine kinases FLT3 and PDGFRα/β. Notably, crenolanib inhibits constitutively active mutant-FLT3 isoforms resulting from amino acid substitutions of aspartic acid at codon 835, which is homologous to codon 816 in the KIT gene - suggesting sensitivity against mutant-KIT D816 isoforms as well...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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