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zimbabwe malnutrition

Derick Nii Mensah Osakunor, Takafira Mduluza, Nicholas Midzi, Margo Chase-Topping, Masceline Jenipher Mutsaka-Makuvaza, Theresa Chimponda, Enwono Eyoh, Tariro Mduluza, Lorraine Tsitsi Pfavayi, Welcome Mkululi Wami, Seth Appiah Amanfo, Janice Murray, Clement Tshuma, Mark Edward John Woolhouse, Francisca Mutapi
Background: Recent research has shown that in schistosome-endemic areas preschool-aged children (PSAC), that is, ≤5 years, are at risk of infection. However, there exists a knowledge gap on the dynamics of infection and morbidity in this age group. In this study, we determined the incidence and dynamics of the first urogenital schistosome infections, morbidity and treatment in PSAC. Methods: Children (6 months to 5 years) were recruited and followed up for 12 months...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Ethan K Gough, Erica Em Moodie, Andrew J Prendergast, Robert Ntozini, Lawrence H Moulton, Jean H Humphrey, Amee R Manges
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition in early life underlies 45% of child deaths globally. Stunting malnutrition (suboptimal linear growth) also has long-term negative effects on childhood development. Linear growth deficits accrue in the first 1000 d of life. Understanding the patterns and timing of linear growth faltering or recovery during this period is critical to inform interventions to improve infant nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the pattern and determinants of linear growth trajectories from birth through 24 mo of age in a cohort of Zimbabwean infants...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ceri Evans, Jean H Humphrey, Robert Ntozini, Andrew J Prendergast
The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14,110 mother-infant pairs to a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997 and 2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterized through 1-2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants (n = 3135), with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n = 9510). Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Pascal Obong Bessong, Emanuel Nyathi, Tjale Cloupas Mahopo, Vhonani Netshandama
The Dzimauli community is located in the Vhembe district in the northern part of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The district is bordered by Botswana and Zimbabwe to the north and Mozambique to the East. The study site population is entirely blacks and 53% female, with a mean household size of 6 persons. Through a consultative process, we engaged and prepared the Dzimauli, a community of low socioeconomic status, to participate in a longitudinal, observational study. In addition to contributing to the objectives of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we established a high degree of public trust and understanding of scientific research within the community and its leaders...
November 1, 2014: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Helen Owen Nee Watts, Constance Nyamukapa, Michael Beasley, Mainford Wambe, Matthew Jukes, Peter Mason, Simon Gregson
Orphaned children have been found to be at greater risk of poor health and malnutrition compared to non-orphans in sub-Saharan African countries. However, levels of disadvantage vary by location and little is known about the causal pathways that lead from orphanhood to poorer health and malnutrition. Aggregate data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys in 22 countries were used to compare overall levels of ill-health and malnutrition by orphan status. Data from the Manicaland Child Cohort Study in Zimbabwe - a closed cohort study with detailed longitudinal information on orphan's experience - were used to describe how patterns of ill-health and malnutrition alter over the child's life-course and to test causal pathways between orphanhood and ill-health and malnutrition, hypothesized in a previously published theoretical frame-work...
November 16, 2009: Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies
Pauline Gwatirisa, Lenore Manderson
In Zimbabwe, unpredictable conditions associated with structural and institutional factors exacerbated the combined effects of structural violence, economic and political instability, and climate change in the mid 2000s, contributing to widespread food insecurity. Drought, food shortages, and government settlement policy affecting both rural and urban populations has yielded a national human rights crisis. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Mutare, southeast Zimbabwe, in 2005-2006, the authors illustrate the flow-on effects of drought and government policy on the livelihoods of households already suffering as a result of the social impacts of AIDS, and how people in a regional city responded to these factors, defining and meeting their basic food needs in diverse ways...
2012: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Keriann H Paul, Monica Muti, Sabra S Khalfan, Jean H Humphrey, Rosemary Caffarella, Rebecca J Stoltzfus
BACKGROUND: The role of context has not been elaborated with respect to current recommendations for complementary feeding interventions, apart from a gross distinction based on food security. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare two food-insecure settings in sub-Saharan Africa to determine how context (i.e., the set of local social, cultural, and physical circumstances) influences complementary feeding practices and nutrient intakes and how the results can help in the design of a suitable intervention strategy...
September 2011: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Andrew Prendergast, Mutsa F Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Adrian D Cook, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Eva Natukunda, Patricia Nahirya Ntege, Kusum J Nathoo, Christine Karungi, Joseph Lutaakome, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Diana M Gibb
OBJECTIVE: To describe early hospitalization for severe malnutrition in HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: Randomized trial of induction-maintenance and monitoring strategies in HIV-infected children. SETTING: Three tertiary hospitals in Uganda and one in Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS: 1207 HIV-infected children, median age 6 years (range, 3 months to 17 years). INTERVENTION: Abacavir, lamivudine and nevirapine or efavirenz were given; children in induction-maintenance arms also received zidovudine to week 36...
April 24, 2011: AIDS
Andrew Prendergast, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Adrian Cook, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Eva Natukunda, Patricia Nahirya, Kusum Nathoo, Christine Karungi, Joseph Lutaakome, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Diana M Gibb
OBJECTIVE:: To describe early hospitalisation for severe malnutrition (SM) in HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN:: Randomised trial of induction-maintenance and monitoring strategies in HIV-infected children. SETTING:: Three tertiary hospitals in Uganda; one in Zimbabwe. SUBJECTS, PARTICIPANTS:: 1207 HIV-infected children, median age 6 years (range 3 months -17 years). INTERVENTION:: Abacavir, lamivudine and nevirapine or efavirenz; children in induction-maintenance arms also received zidovudine to week 36...
February 22, 2011: AIDS
Ai Koyanagi, Jean H Humphrey, Robert Ntozini, Kusum Nathoo, Lawrence H Moulton, Peter Iliff, Kuda Mutasa, Andrea Ruff, Brian Ward et al.
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major cause of pediatric morbidity in Africa. In addition, HIV-exposed, but uninfected (HEU) infants can comprise a substantial proportion of all infants born in high prevalence countries and may also be a vulnerable group with special health problems. METHODS: A total of 14,110 infants were recruited within 96 hours of birth between November 1996 and January 2000. Rates and causes of sick clinic visits and hospitalizations during infancy were investigated according to infant HIV infection group: infected-intrauterine, infected-intrapartum, postnatally-infected, HEU, and not-exposed (born to HIV-negative mother)...
January 2011: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
John B Mason, Sophie Chotard, Adam Bailes, Saba Mebrahtu, Peter Hailey
BACKGROUND: Intermittent food insecurity due to drought and the effects of HIV/AIDS affect child nutritional status in sub-Saharan Africa. In Southern Africa in 2001-3 drought and HIV were previously shown to interact to cause substantial deterioration in child nutrition. With additional data available from Southern and Eastern Africa, the size of the effects of drought and HIV on child underweight up to 2006 were estimated. OBJECTIVE: To determine short- and long-term trends in child malnutrition in Eastern and Southern Africa and how these are affected by drought and HIV...
September 2010: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Rashida Ferrand, Sara Lowe, Barbra Whande, Lucia Munaiwa, Lisa Langhaug, Frances Cowan, Owen Mugurungi, Diana Gibb, Shungu Munyati, Brian G Williams, Elizabeth L Corbett
OBJECTIVE: To establish the proportion of adolescents among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Zimbabwe who receive HIV care and support, and what clinic staff perceives to be the main problems faced by HIV-infected children and adolescents. METHODS: In July 2008, we sent a questionnaire to all 131 facilities providing HIV care in Zimbabwe. In it we requested an age breakdown of the children (aged 0-19 years) registered for care and asked what were the two major problems faced by younger children (0-5 years) and adolescents (10-19 years)...
June 2010: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
S Chimhuya, R A Kambarami, H Mujuru
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition, and identify risk factors associated with mortality in acute severe malnutrition in a major referral hospital in Harare. DESIGN: Cross sectional analytical study. SETTING: Harare Central Hospital, paediatric wards. SUBJECTS: All children admitted to the general paediatric medical wards between 12 October 2003 and 19 January 2004 were surveyed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and mortality in hospitalized children with acute severe malnutrition...
May 2007: Central African Journal of Medicine
P Thistle, J Wight, H Saeed, D Schwarz
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this audit was to review treatment outcomes of participants in the Cooperazione e sviluppo/Cooperation and Development (CESVI), Therapeutic Feeding Programme (TFP) (i.e., death vs cure vs absconded) and to make recommendations for improving this and other similar programmes. DESIGN: This study was a retrospective chart review. The charts of all patients admitted to the TFP from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2005 were analyzed. SETTING: The Salvation Army Howard Hospital is a district hospital in rural Zimbabwe...
September 2007: Central African Journal of Medicine
Jocelyn Alexander
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2009: Lancet
F Olivieri, S Semproli, D Pettener, S Toselli
The rural environment is an important factor in delayed growth in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of poor rural living conditions on the growth of a Shona sample in Zimbabwe. In total, 982 subjects aged 6-17 years were analyzed. Mean values of height, weight, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, biceps, medial calf), cormic index, body mass index (BMI), arm composition (total upper arm area, upper arm muscle area, arm fat area, and arm fat index), fat percentage (%F), centripetal fat ratio (CFR), and the contribution of each skinfold to the adiposity of the trunk and upper limbs are presented...
June 2008: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
T Marufu, S Siziya, K S T Mudambo
A retrospective study conducted in Gweru, Zimbabwe, investigated the trend and its associated factors in measles mortality between 1967 and 1989. Measles and malnutrition surveillance data were analysed in SPSS version 8.0 using the Forward Stepwise Linear Regression method. Measles case fatality rates ranged from zero to 48.2% (median: 4.2, Q(1) = 1.2, Q(3) = 12.9) and they significantly linearly declined [slope = -1.686; 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.327, -1.044; R(2) = 59%]. Rates of mortality among complicated measles cases (slope = 0...
April 2008: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
(no author information available yet)
The government of Zimbabwe has been accused in the media over the last few years of using food as a political weapon. This paper reviews the evidence and provides data from two villages in Matabeleland describing food insecurity at a personal level. The data supports the view that food has been used for political ends, and poses challenges to the international community about its responsibility to intervene.
July 2007: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
T Djarova, N Dube
The study focuses on the effects of different psychosocial stress on the onset of Type 1 diabetes in Zimbabwe. Type 1 diabetic children were compared with healthy control group. A set of relevant anthropometric indices was used to asses their physical development and fitness. Diabetic children were admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidoses, high blood glucose levels and severe dehydration. It was difficult to achieve stable long-term metabolic control because of acute infections , diatery lapses, frequent hypoglycemic attacks due to poverty and malnutrition, lack of intensive insulin therapy and glucose monitoring...
July 1998: African Journal of Health Sciences
Helen Watts, Simon Gregson, Suzue Saito, Ben Lopman, Michael Beasley, Roeland Monasch
OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of association between different groups of young orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) and their nutritional and health outcomes; and to develop a theoretical framework to analyse the determinants of child malnutrition and ill-health, and identify the different mechanisms which contribute to these outcomes in such children. METHODS: We developed and tested a theoretical framework to explain why orphans and vulnerable children experience more ill-health and malnutrition based on statistical analysis of data on 31 672 children aged 0-17 years (6753 aged under 5 years) selected from the Zimbabwe OVC Baseline Survey 2004...
May 2007: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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