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Mitochondria cell differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919754/preparation-of-coffee-oil-algae-oil-based-nanoemulsions-and-the-study-of-their-inhibition-effect-on-uva-induced-skin-damage-in-mice-and-melanoma-cell-growth
#1
Chu-Ching Yang, Chi-Feng Hung, Bing-Huei Chen
Coffee grounds, a waste by-product generated after making coffee, contains approximately 15% coffee oil which can be used as a raw material in cosmetics. Algae oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been demonstrated to possess anticancer and anti-inflammation functions. The objectives of this study were to develop a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of fatty acids in coffee oil and algae oil and prepare a nanoemulsion for studying its inhibition effect on ultraviolet A-induced skin damage in mice and growth of melanoma cells B16-F10...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918113/regulation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-by-the-non-canonical-roles-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-proteins-in-the-heart
#2
REVIEW
Wang Wang, Celia Fernandez-Sanz, Shey-Shing Sheu
Recent advancement in mitochondrial research has significantly extended our knowledge on the role and regulation of mitochondria in health and disease. One important breakthrough is the delineation of how mitochondrial morphological changes, termed mitochondrial dynamics, are coupled to the bioenergetics and signaling functions of mitochondria. In general, it is believed that fusion leads to an increased mitochondrial respiration efficiency and resistance to stress-induced dysfunction while fission does the contrary...
September 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915639/heptamethine-carbocyanine-dz-1-dye-for-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Jiaze An, Ningning Zhao, Caiqin Zhang, Yong Zhao, Dengxu Tan, Ya Zhao, Bing Bai, Hai Zhang, Boyang Jason Wu, Changhong Shi
Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dyes have recently emerged as promising tools for non-invasive imaging of different types of cancers. Here, we explored the potential utility of a NIRF DZ-1 dye, with dual imaging and tumour targeting functions, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We showed the preferential uptake of DZ-1 by HCC cells in vitro and in derived subcutaneous/orthotopic tumour xenografts, accompanied by a minimal effect on normal cells. DZ-1 simplified tumour growth profiling as well, since we were able to correlate NIRF signals with tumour volume and/or tumour-emitting luminescence in mice...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#4
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914882/sirt3-sod2-maintains-osteoblast-differentiation-and-bone-formation-by-regulating-mitochondrial-stress
#5
Jing Gao, Zhihui Feng, Xueqiang Wang, Mengqi Zeng, Jing Liu, Shujun Han, Jie Xu, Lei Chen, Ke Cao, Jiangang Long, Zongfang Li, Weili Shen, Jiankang Liu
Recent studies have revealed robust metabolic changes during cell differentiation. Mitochondria, the organelles where many vital metabolic reactions occur, may play an important role. Here, we report the involvement of SIRT3-regulated mitochondrial stress in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. In both the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and primary calvarial osteoblasts, robust mitochondrial biogenesis and supercomplex formation were observed during differentiation, accompanied by increased ATP production and decreased mitochondrial stress...
September 15, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904018/dyslipidemia-impairs-mitochondrial-trafficking-and-function-in-sensory-neurons
#6
Amy E Rumora, Stephen I Lentz, Lucy M Hinder, Samuel W Jackson, Andrew Valesano, Gideon E Levinson, Eva L Feldman
Mitochondrial trafficking plays a central role in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cell survival and neurotransmission by transporting mitochondria from the neuronal cell body throughout the bundles of DRG axons. In type 2 diabetes (T2DM), dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia damage DRG neurons and induce mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the impact of free fatty acids and glucose on mitochondrial trafficking in DRG neurons remains unknown. To evaluate the impact of free fatty acids compared to hyperglycemia on mitochondrial transport, primary adult mouse DRG neuron cultures were treated with physiologic concentrations of palmitate and glucose and assessed for alterations in mitochondrial trafficking, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial bioenergetics...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895584/effects-of-lobeglitazone-a-novel-thiazolidinedione-on-adipose-tissue-remodeling-and-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissue-development-in-db-db-mice
#7
G Kim, Y-H Lee, M R Yun, J-Y Lee, E G Shin, B-W Lee, E S Kang, B-S Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of long-term treatment with lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione-based activator of PPARγ, on adipose tissue (AT), focusing on its effects on insulin resistance in obese db/db mice. METHODS: Seven-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated (n=8) or lobeglitazone-treated (n=8) group. Lobeglitazone (1 mg/kg daily) was injected intraperitoneally for 20 weeks. RESULTS: Lobeglitazone treatment for 20 weeks resulted in a remarkably improved glycemic index, including significantly decreased glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and preserved pancreatic beta cells...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877835/pathological-changes-in-app-ps-1-transgenic-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-treated-with-ganoderma-lucidum-preparation
#8
Chuan Qin, Shan-Qiu Wu, Bao-Sheng Chen, Xiao-Xian Wu, Kun-Yao Qu, Jun-Min Liu, Gui-Fang Zhang, Yan-Feng Xu, Shunli Shu, Lihua Sun, Yan-Yong Li, Hua Zhu, Lan Huang, Chun-Mei Ma, Yu-Huan Xu, Yun-Lin Han, Yao-Zeng Lu
Objective To explore the efficacy of ganoderma lucidum preparation(Ling Zhi) in treating APP/PS-1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease(AD).Methods APP/PS-1 transgenic mice of 4 months were randomly divided into model group,ganoderma lucidum treatment groups,including high [2250 mg/(kg·d)] and middle [750 mg/(kg·d)] dose groups,i.e.LZ-H and LZ-M groups,and the positive control group(treated with donepezil hydrochloride [2 mg/(kg·d)]).In addition,C57BL/6J wild mice were selected as normal group.The animals were administered for 4 months...
August 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866057/mitochondrial-disruption-in-peroxisome-deficient-cells-is-hepatocyte-selective-but-is-not-mediated-by-common-hepatic-peroxisomal-metabolites
#9
Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Simone Denis, Ursula Loizides-Mangold, Annelies Peeters, Marc Espeel, Ana Rita Malheiro, Howard Riezman, Stefan Vinckier, Frédéric M Vaz, Pedro Brites, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Myriam Baes
The structural disruption of the mitochondrial inner membrane in hepatocytes lacking functional peroxisomes along with selective impairment of respiratory complexes and depletion of mitochondrial DNA was previously reported. In search for the molecular origin of these mitochondrial alterations, we here show that these are tissue selective as they do neither occur in peroxisome deficient brain nor in peroxisome deficient striated muscle. Given the hepatocyte selectivity, we investigated the potential involvement of metabolites that are primarily handled by hepatic peroxisomes...
August 30, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861940/mapping-the-spatial-proteome-of-metastatic-cells-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Marta Mendes, Alberto Peláez-García, María López-Lucendo, Rubén A Bartolomé, Eva Calviño, Rodrigo Barderas, J Ignacio Casal
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second deadliest cancer worldwide. Here, we aimed to study metastasis mechanisms using spatial proteomics in the KM12 cell model. Cells were SILAC-labeled and fractionated into five subcellular fractions corresponding to: cytoplasm, plasma, mitochondria and ER/golgi membranes, nuclear, chromatin-bound and cytoskeletal proteins and analyzed with high resolution mass spectrometry. We provide localization data of 4863 quantified proteins in the different subcellular fractions. A total of 1318 proteins with at least 1...
August 31, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855911/plant-glyoxylate-succinic-semialdehyde-reductases-comparative-biochemical-properties-function-during-chilling-stress-and-subcellular-localization
#11
Adel Zarei, Carolyne J Brikis, Vikramjit S Bajwa, Greta Z Chiu, Jeffrey P Simpson, Jennifer R DeEll, Gale G Bozzo, Barry J Shelp
Plant NADPH-dependent glyoxylate/succinic semialdehyde reductases 1 and 2 (cytosolic GLYR1 and plastidial/mitochondrial GLYR2) are considered to be of particular importance under abiotic stress conditions. Here, the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) GLYR1s and GLYR2s were characterized and their kinetic properties were compared to those of previously characterized GLYRs from Arabidopsis thaliana [L.] Heynh. The purified recombinant GLYRs had an affinity for glyoxylate and succinic semialdehyde, respectively, in the low micromolar and millimolar ranges, and were inhibited by NADP(+)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854218/honokiol-induces-superoxide-production-by-targeting-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-complex-i-in-candida-albicans
#12
Lingmei Sun, Kai Liao, Dayong Wang
BACKGROUND: Honokiol, a compound extracted from Magnolia officinalis, has antifungal activities by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and triggering apoptosis in Candida albicans. However, the mechanism of honokiol-induced oxidative stress is poorly understood. The present investigation was designed to determine the specific mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generation component. METHODS/RESULTS: We found that honokiol induced mitochondrial ROS accumulation, mainly superoxide anions (O2•-) measured by fluorescent staining method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846746/ctcf-counter-regulates-cardiomyocyte-development-and-maturation-programs-in-the-embryonic-heart
#13
Melisa Gomez-Velazquez, Claudio Badia-Careaga, Ana Victoria Lechuga-Vieco, Rocio Nieto-Arellano, Juan J Tena, Isabel Rollan, Alba Alvarez, Carlos Torroja, Eva F Caceres, Anna R Roy, Niels Galjart, Paul Delgado-Olguin, Fatima Sanchez-Cabo, Jose Antonio Enriquez, Jose Luis Gomez-Skarmeta, Miguel Manzanares
Cardiac progenitors are specified early in development and progressively differentiate and mature into fully functional cardiomyocytes. This process is controlled by an extensively studied transcriptional program. However, the regulatory events coordinating the progression of such program from development to maturation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the genome organizer CTCF is essential for cardiogenesis and that it mediates genomic interactions to coordinate cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation in the developing heart...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842646/a-missense-mt-nd5-mutation-in-differentiated-parkinson-disease-cytoplasmic-hybrid-induces-ros-dependent-dna-damage-response-amplified-by-drosha
#14
Daniela Pignataro, Sofia Francia, Francesca Zanetta, Giulia Brenna, Stefania Brandini, Anna Olivieri, Antonio Torroni, Giuseppe Biamonti, Alessandra Montecucco
Genome integrity is continuously threatened by endogenous sources of DNA damage including reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cell metabolism. Factors of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery have been recently involved in the cellular response to DNA damage (DDR) in proliferating cells. To investigate the impact of component of RNAi machinery on DDR activation in terminally differentiated cells, we exploited cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell lines in which mitochondria of sporadic Parkinson's disease patients repopulate neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y-Rho(0) cells...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836406/subcellular-distribution-of-s-nitrosylated-h-ras-in-differentiated-and-undifferentiated-pc12-cells-during-hypoxia
#15
Tamar Barbakadze, Galina Goloshvili, Nana Narmania, Elene Zhuravliova, David Mikeladze
OBJECTIVES: Hypoxia or exposure to excessive reactive oxygen or nitrogen species could induce S-nitrosylation of various target proteins, including GTPases of the Ras-superfamily. Under hypoxic conditions, the Ras-protein is translocated to the cytosol and interacts with the Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria. The mobility/translocation of Ras depend on the cells oxidative status. However, the importance of relocated Snitrosylated- H-Ras (NO-H-Ras) in proliferation/differentiation processes is not completely understood...
October 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835707/fusion-or-fission-the-destiny-of-mitochondria-in-traumatic-brain-injury-of-different-severities
#16
Valentina Di Pietro, Giacomo Lazzarino, Angela Maria Amorini, Stefano Signoretti, Lisa J Hill, Edoardo Porto, Barbara Tavazzi, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Antonio Belli
Mitochondrial dynamics are regulated by a complex system of proteins representing the mitochondrial quality control (MQC). MQC balances antagonistic forces of fusion and fission determining mitochondrial and cell fates. In several neurological disorders, dysfunctional mitochondria show significant changes in gene and protein expression of the MQC and contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms of cell damage. In this study, we evaluated the main gene and protein expression involved in the MQC in rats receiving traumatic brain injury (TBI) of different severities...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835669/nevirapine-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-hepg2-cells
#17
Atchara Paemanee, Wannapa Sornjai, Suthathip Kittisenachai, Naraporn Sirinonthanawech, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Jeerang Wongtrakul, Duncan R Smith
Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor frequently used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However NVP can cause serious, life-threatening complications. Hepatotoxicity is one of the most severe adverse effects, particularly in HIV patients with chronic hepatitis C virus co-infection as these patients can develop liver toxicity after a relatively short course of treatment...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833658/valproic-acid-functionalized-cyclometalated-iridium-iii-complexes-as-mitochondria-targeting-anticancer-agents
#18
Rui-Rong Ye, Jian-Jun Cao, Cai-Ping Tan, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
Valproic acid (VPA) is a short-chain fatty acid type histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), which can cause growth arrest and induce differentiation of transformed cells. Phosphorescent cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes have emerged as potential anticancer agents. Conjugation of VPA to Ir(III) complexes by ester bond, we designed and synthesized three VPA-functionalized cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes (1a-3a). These complexes display excellent two-photon properties, which is favorable for live cell imaging...
August 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830888/nox5-and-p22phox-are-two-novel-regulators-of-human-monocytic-differentiation-into-dendritic-cells
#19
Viviana Marzaioli, Margarita Hurtado-Nedelec, Coralie Pintard, Asma Tlili, Jean-Claude Marie, Renato Monteiro, Marie-Anne Gougerot-Pocidalo, Pham My-Chan Dang, Jamel El-Benna
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population of professional antigen-presenting cells and are key cells of the immune system, acquiring different phenotypes in accordance with their localization during the immune response. A subset of inflammatory DCs is derived from circulating monocytes (Mo), and has a key role in inflammation and infection. The pathways controlling Mo-DC differentiation are not fully understood. Our objective was to investigate the possible role of NADPH oxidases (NOXs) in Mo-DC differentiation...
August 22, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823142/oncogenes-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-quality-control-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, Koon Soon Kim, Minho Shong
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common malignancies of endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has increased steadily over the past several decades. Most differentiated thyroid tumors derived from thyroid epithelial cells exhibit slow-growing cancers, and patients with these tumors can achieve a good prognosis with surgical removal and radioiodine treatment. However, a small proportion of patients present with advanced thyroid cancer and are unusually resistant to current drug treatment modalities. Thyroid tumorigenesis is a complex process that is regulated by the activation of oncogenes, inactivation of tumor suppressors, and alterations in programmed cell death...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
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