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Mitochondria cell differentiation

Francesca Forini, Giuseppina Nicolini, Claudia Kusmic, Romina D'Aurizio, Milena Rizzo, Mario Baumgart, Marco Groth, Stefano Doccini, Giorgio Iervasi, Letizia Pitto
Thyroid hormone (T3) dyshomeostasis in the cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) setting negatively impacts on mitochondria function and extracellular matrix remodeling. The modulation of cardiac miRNAs may represent the underlying molecular mechanisms, but a systems biology perspective investigating this critical issue in depth is still lacking. A rat model of myocardial IR, with or without an early short-term T3-replacement, was used to predict putative T3-dependent miRNA-gene interactions targeted to mitochondria quality control and wound healing repair...
September 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Macarena S Arrázola, Trinovita Andraini, Marion Szelechowski, Lionel Mouledous, Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin, Noélie Davezac, Pascale Belenguer, Claire Rampon, Marie-Christine Miquel
Generation of new neurons is a tightly regulated process that involves several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among them, a metabolic switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, together with mitochondrial remodeling, has emerged as crucial actors of neurogenesis. However, although accumulating data raise the importance of mitochondrial morphology and function in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation during development, information regarding the contribution of mitochondria to adult neurogenesis processes remains limited...
September 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Bhupesh K Prusty, Nitish Gulve, Suvagata Roy Chowdhury, Michael Schuster, Sebastian Strempel, Vincent Descamps, Thomas Rudel
Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B frequently acquires latency. HHV-6 activation has been associated with various human diseases. Germ line inheritance of chromosomally integrated HHV-6 makes viral DNA-based analysis difficult for determination of early stages of viral activation. We characterized early stages of HHV-6 activation using high throughput transcriptomics studies and applied the results to understand virus activation under clinical conditions. Using a latent HHV-6A cell culture model in U2OS cells, we identified an early stage of viral reactivation, which we define as transactivation that is marked by transcription of several viral small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) in the absence of detectable increase in viral replication and proteome...
2018: NPJ Genomic Medicine
Wei Li, Wei Zhang, Wenjing Deng, Yujie Zhong, Yonghong Zhang, Zhuo Peng, Haijuan Chen, Ruiying Sun, Xuemei Zhang, Shuanying Yang
BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is highly aggressive and is associated with a dismal prognosis. However, there are no clinically recognized biomarkers for early diagnosis. In this study, we used quantitative proteomics to build differential mitochondrial protein profiles that may be used for early diagnosis and investigated the pathogenesis of lung cancer. METHODS: We cultured SCLC cells (NCI-H446) and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE); mitochondria were extracted and purified using differential and Percoll density gradient centrifugation...
September 9, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Joana Tulha, Cândida Lucas
GUP1 is the yeast counterpart of the high eukaryotes HHATL. This and the close homologue Gup2/HHAT regulate the Hedgehog morphogenic, developmental pathway. In yeasts, a similar paracrine pathway is not known though the Δgup1 mutant is associated with morphology and proliferation/death processes. As a first step towards identifying the actual molecular/enzymatic function of Gup1, this work identified by co-immunoprecipitation the yeast mitochondria membrane VDAC1/Por1 as a physical partner of Gup1. Gup1 locates in the ER and plasma membrane...
September 3, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Michael J Houghton, Asimina Kerimi, Vincent Mouly, Sarka Tumova, Gary Williamson
The gut microbiome supplies essential metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids to skeletal muscle mitochondria, and the composition and activity of the microbiota is in turn affected by muscle fitness. To further our understanding of the complex interactions between the gut microbiome and muscle, we examined the effect of microbiota-derived phenolic metabolites on the ability of human muscle cells to take up and metabolize glucose. As a model, we used the differentiated human skeletal muscle myoblast line, LHCN-M2, which expresses typical muscle phenotypic markers...
September 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Xiao-Shuang Hou, Huai-Song Wang, Benson Peter Mugaka, Gong-Jun Yang, Ya Ding
Mitochondria, the energy supply factories for cell-life activities, play important roles in controlling epigenetics, differentiation and initiation, and the execution of apoptosis. These functions of the mitochondria contribute to cell adaptation to challenging microenvironment conditions. In past decades, mitochondrial malfunction has been revealed to be closely related to the occurrence and development of a variety of human disorders, including cancer and multiple neurodegenerative diseases. The disturbance of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) or mitochondrial vital functions, e...
September 5, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Jun Yang, Zongmeng Chen, Nan Liu, Yijun Chen
Tumorigenesis is commonly known as a complicated process, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role to involve in signal transduction, metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation. Previously, ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10) was suggested to possess extra-ribosomal functions in pancreatic cancer cells in addition to being proposed as a tumor suppressor or transcription co-regulator. To better understand the relationship between RPL10 and tumorigenic potential in pancreatic cancer cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing reveals that RPL10 is unlikely to be a transcription factor without a specific binding motif for gene transcription...
August 24, 2018: Redox Biology
Anu Hangas, Koit Aasumets, Nina J Kekäläinen, Mika Paloheinä, Jaakko L Pohjoismäki, Joachim M Gerhold, Steffi Goffart
Maintenance of topological homeostasis is vital for gene expression and genome replication in all organisms. Similar to other circular genomes, also mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to exist in various different topological forms, although their functional significance remains unknown. We report here that both known type II topoisomerases Top2α and Top2β are present in mammalian mitochondria, with especially Top2β regulating the supercoiling state of mtDNA. Loss of Top2β or its inhibition by ciprofloxacin results in accumulation of positively supercoiled mtDNA, followed by cessation of mitochondrial transcription and replication initiation, causing depletion of mtDNA copy number...
August 31, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Riccardo Cristofani, Marina Montagnani Marelli, Maria Elena Cicardi, Fabrizio Fontana, Monica Marzagalli, Patrizia Limonta, Angelo Poletti, Roberta Manuela Moretti
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of death in males. Available treatments often lead to the appearance of chemoresistant foci and metastases, with mechanisms still partially unknown. Within tumour mass, autophagy may promote cell survival by enhancing cancer cells tolerability to different cell stresses, like hypoxia, starvation or those triggered by chemotherapic agents. Because of its connection with the apoptotic pathways, autophagy has been differentially implicated, either as prodeath or prosurvival factor, in the appearance of more aggressive tumours...
August 30, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Hua-Pei Song, Zhi-Gang Chu, Dong-Xia Zhang, Yong-Ming Dang, Qiong Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase -AKT (PI3K-AKT) is an important intracellular signal pathway in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In previous studies, we've demonstrated that PI3K-AKT pathway protects cardiomyocytes from ischemic and hypoxic apoptosis through mitochondrial function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via PI3K-AKT pathway remain ill-defined. Here, we addressed this question...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaobing Hong, Zelin Yu, Zhonglin Chen, Hongyan Jiang, Yongdong Niu, Zhanqin Huang
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a multifunctional cell growth factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. FGF2 has multiple isoforms, including an 18-kDa low molecular weight isoform (lo-FGF2) and 22-, 23-, 24-, and 34-kDa high molecular weight isoforms (hi-FGF2). Hi-FGF2 overexpression induces chromatin compaction, which requires the mitochondria and leads to apoptosis. Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein (C1QBP) plays an important role in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis by regulating the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Dhanendra Tomar, Zhiwei Dong, Katherine J Slovik, Neeharika Nemani, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan, Edmund Carvalho, Christy Lu, Kaitlyn Corrigan, Venkata Naga Srikanth Garikipati, Jessica Ibetti, Sudarsan Rajan, Carlos Barrero, Kurt Chuprun, Raj Kishore, Salim Merali, Ying Tian, Wenli Yang, Muniswamy Madesh
Although many factors contribute to cellular differentiation, the role of mitochondria Ca2+ dynamics during development remains unexplored. Because mammalian embryonic epiblasts reside in a hypoxic environment, we intended to understand whether m Ca2+ and its transport machineries are regulated during hypoxia. Tissues from multiple organs of developing mouse embryo evidenced a suppression of MICU1 expression with nominal changes on other MCU complex components. As surrogate models, we here utilized human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)/induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and primary neonatal myocytes to delineate the mechanisms that control m Ca2+ and bioenergetics during development...
August 29, 2018: Nature Communications
Yue Zhou, Xiaowu Sheng, Feiyan Deng, Hui Wang, Liangfang Shen, Yong Zeng, Qianxi Ni, Shibin Zhan, Xiao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Lack of animal model of radiation induced muscle fibrosis, this study aimed to establish such a model by using 90 Gy single dose irradiation to mimic clinical relevance and also to explore the potential post-irradiation regenerative mechanism. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into dose investigation groups and time gradient groups. Group1-6 were irradiated with a single dose of 65Gy, 70Gy, 75Gy, 80Gy, 85Gy and 90Gy respectively, and the degree of rectus femoris fibrosis in the irradiated area was detected at 4 weeks after irradiation...
August 29, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Payam A Gammage, Michal Minczuk
As a platform capable of mtDNA heteroplasmy manipulation, mitochondrially targeted zinc-finger nuclease (mtZFN) technology holds significant potential for the future of mitochondrial genome engineering, in both laboratory and clinic. Recent work highlights the importance of finely controlled mtZFN levels in mitochondria, permitting far greater mtDNA heteroplasmy modification efficiencies than observed in early applications. An initial approach, differential fluorescence-activated cell sorting (dFACS), allowing selection of transfected cells expressing various levels of mtZFN, demonstrated improved heteroplasmy modification...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
He Liu, Zhaoyue He, Simon Leonhard April, Marcel Philipp Trefny, Jean-Sébastien Rougier, Souzan Salemi, Radu Olariu, Hans Rudolf Widmer, Hans-Uwe Simon
Stem cells are generally believed to contain a small number of mitochondria, thus accounting for their glycolytic phenotype. We demonstrate here, however, that despite an indispensable glucose dependency, human dermal stem cells (hDSCs) contain very numerous mitochondria. Interestingly, these stem cells segregate into two distinct subpopulations. One exhibits high, the other low-mitochondrial membrane potentials (Δ ψm ). We have made the same observations with mouse neural stem cells (mNSCs) which serve here as a complementary model to hDSCs...
August 28, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Wan-Hsin Chang, Hsiu-Chi Ting, Wei-Wei Chen, Jui-Fen Chan, Yuan-Hao Howard Hsu
BACKGROUND: The macrophage plays an important role in innate immunity to induce immune responses. Lipid replacement therapy has been shown to change the lipid compositions of mitochondria and potentially becomes an alternative to reduce the inflammatory response. METHODS: We examined the effects of omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA), omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on the activated the macrophage cell line RAW264...
August 28, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Eduardo Larriba, Eduardo Rial, Jesús Del Mazo
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are organelles that fulfill a fundamental role in cell bioenergetics, as well as in other processes like cell signaling and death. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA) are now being considered as pivotal post-transcriptional regulators, widening the landscape of their diversity and functions. In mammalian cells, small RNAs encoded by the mitochondrial genome, mitosRNAs were discovered recently, although their biological role remains uncertain. RESULTS: Here, using specific bioinformatics analyses, we have defined the diversity of mitosRNAs present in early differentiated germ cells of male mice (PGCs and spermatogonia), and in the gametes of both sexes and in zygotes...
August 28, 2018: BMC Genomics
Brianna H Shares, Melanie Busch, Noelle White, Laura Shum, Roman A Eliseev
Bone marrow stromal (a.k.a. mesenchymal stem) cells (BMSCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts (OBs), adipocytes, or chondrocytes. As BMSCs undergo OB differentiation, they upregulate mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) connecting mitochondrial OxPhos to OB differentiation. First, we found that treating BMSC-like C3H10T1/2 cells with an OxPhos inhibitor reduces their osteogenic potential. Interestingly, ATP levels were not reduced, as glycolysis compensated for the decreased OxPhos...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ewa Podgorska, Martyna Sniegocka, Marianna Mycinska, Wojciech Trybus, Ewa Trybus, Anna Kopacz-Bednarska, Olga Wiechec, Martyna Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna Elas, Teodora Krol, Krystyna Urbanska, Andrzej Slominski
Although vitamin D is included in the group of fat-soluble vitamins, it must be considered as a prohormone. Its active forms, including calcitriol, have pleiotropic effects and play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as in hormone secretion, and they demonstrate anti-cancer properties. Since calcitriol delivery can be beneficial for the organism, and Syrian golden hamsters represent a unique experimental model, we decided to investigate its toxicity in this species...
August 27, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
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