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Mitochondria cell differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330800/evaluation-of-erythrocyte-changes-after-normoxic-return-from-hypoxia
#1
Jihyun Song, Josef T Prchal
Hypoxia increases erythropoiesis by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), principally by HIF-2, which upregulates erythropoietin transcription. This results in an increase of red blood cell (RBC) production and delivery of more oxygen to tissues. Upon rapid return to normoxia, hypoxia-induced polycythemia is overcorrected by neocytolysis, a transient destruction of preferentially young RBCs bearing low catalase (downregulated by hypoxia-stimulated microRNA(miR)-21) caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) from expanded mitochondria...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330550/a-metabolomics-pilot-study-on-desmoid-tumors-and-novel-drug-candidates
#2
Kelly A Mercier, Mushriq Al-Jazrawe, Raymond Poon, Zachery Acuff, Benjamin Alman
Desmoid tumors (aggressive fibromatosis) are locally invasive soft tissue tumors that lack the ability to metastasize. There are no directed therapies or standard treatment plan, and chemotherapeutics, radiation, and surgery often have temporary effects. The majority of desmoid tumors are related to T41A and S45F mutations of the beta-catenin encoding gene (CTNNB1). Using broad spectrum metabolomics, differences were investigated between paired normal fibroblast and desmoid tumor cells from affected patients...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326381/b1a-b-cells-require-autophagy-for-metabolic-homeostasis-and-self-renewal
#3
Alexander J Clarke, Thomas Riffelmacher, Daniel Braas, Richard J Cornall, Anna Katharina Simon
Specific metabolic programs are activated by immune cells to fulfill their functional roles, which include adaptations to their microenvironment. B1 B cells are tissue-resident, innate-like B cells. They have many distinct properties, such as the capacity to self-renew and the ability to rapidly respond to a limited repertoire of epitopes. The metabolic pathways that support these functions are unknown. We show that B1 B cells are bioenergetically more active than B2 B cells, with higher rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and depend on glycolysis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324904/prohibitin-plays-a-critical-role-in-enterovirus-71-neuropathogenesis
#4
Issac Horng Khit Too, Isabelle Bonne, Eng Lee Tan, Justin Jang Hann Chu, Sylvie Alonso
A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Here, using a two-dimensional proteomics approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have identified a unique panel of host proteins that were differentially and dynamically modulated during EV71 infection of motor-neuron NSC-34 cells, which are found at the neuromuscular junctions where EV71 is believed to enter the central nervous system...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318513/targeted-elimination-of-mutant-mitochondrial-dna-in-melas-ipscs-by-mitotalens
#5
Yi Yang, Han Wu, Xiangjin Kang, Yanhui Liang, Ting Lan, Tianjie Li, Tao Tan, Jiangyun Peng, Quanjun Zhang, Geng An, Yali Liu, Qian Yu, Zhenglai Ma, Ying Lian, Boon Seng Soh, Qingfeng Chen, Ping Liu, Yaoyong Chen, Xiaofang Sun, Rong Li, Xiumei Zhen, Ping Liu, Yang Yu, Xiaoping Li, Yong Fan
Mitochondrial diseases are maternally inherited heterogeneous disorders that are primarily caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Depending on the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNA, known as heteroplasmy, mitochondrial defects can result in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Mitochondria-targeted endonucleases provide an alternative avenue for treating mitochondrial disorders via targeted destruction of the mutant mtDNA and induction of heteroplasmic shifting. Here, we generated mitochondrial disease patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (MiPSCs) that harbored a high proportion of m...
January 9, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301947/subcellular-specialization-and-organelle-behavior-in-germ-cells
#6
Yukiko M Yamashita
Gametes, eggs and sperm, are the highly specialized cell types on which the development of new life solely depends. Although all cells share essential organelles, such as the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), Golgi, mitochondria, and centrosomes, germ cells display unique regulation and behavior of organelles during gametogenesis. These germ cell-specific functions of organelles serve critical roles in successful gamete production. In this chapter, I will review the behaviors and roles of organelles during germ cell differentiation...
January 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301015/transcript-levels-of-orf288-are-associated-with-the-hau-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-system-and-altered-nuclear-gene-expression-in-brassica-juncea
#7
Shuangping Heng, Jie Gao, Chao Wei, Fengyi Chen, Xianwen Li, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Chaozhi Ma, Jinxing Tu, Tingdong Fu, Jinxiong Shen
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is primarily caused by chimeric genes located in the mitochondrial genomes. In Brassica juncea, orf288 has been identified as a CMS-associated gene in the hau CMS line; however, neither the specific abortive stage nor the molecular function of the gene have been determined. We therefore characterized the hau CMS line, and found that defective mitochondria affect the development of archesporial cells during the L2 stage, leading to male sterility. The expression level of the orf288 transcript was higher in the male-sterility line than in the fertility-restorer line, although no significant differences were apparent at the protein level...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296759/a-specialized-pathway-for-erythroid-iron-delivery-through-lysosomal-trafficking-of-transferrin-receptor-2
#8
Shadi Khalil, Maja Holy, Stephen Grado, Robert Fleming, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Adam Goldfarb
Erythroid progenitors are the largest consumers of iron in the human body. In these cells, a high flux of iron must reach the mitochondrial matrix to form sufficient heme to support hemoglobinization. Canonical erythroid iron trafficking occurs via the first transferrin receptor (TfR1)-mediated endocytosis of diferric-transferrin into recycling endosomes, where ferric iron is released, reduced, and exported to the cytosol via DMT1. However, mice lacking TfR1 or DMT1 demonstrate residual erythropoiesis, suggesting additional pathways for iron use...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290623/identification-of-new-activators-of-mitochondrial-fusion-reveals-a-link-between-mitochondrial-morphology-and-pyrimidine-metabolism
#9
Laia Miret-Casals, David Sebastián, José Brea, Eva M Rico-Leo, Manuel Palacín, Pedro M Fernández-Salguero, M Isabel Loza, Fernando Albericio, Antonio Zorzano
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that produce most of the cellular ATP, and are involved in many other cellular functions such as Ca2+ signaling, differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell growth. One key process of mitochondrial dynamics is mitochondrial fusion, which is catalyzed by mitofusins (MFN1 and MFN2) and OPA1. The outer mitochondrial membrane protein MFN2 plays a relevant role in the maintenance of mitochondrial metabolism, insulin signaling, and mutations that cause neurodegenerative disorders...
December 23, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288688/neuroprotective-activity-of-macamides-on-manganese-induced-mitochondrial-disruption-in-u-87-mg-glioblastoma-cells
#10
Kuljeet S Gugnani, Nguyen Vu, Alejandro N Rondón-Ortiz, Mark Böhlke, Timothy J Maher, Alejandro J Pino-Figueroa
Macamides are a distinct class of secondary metabolites, benzylamides of long chain fatty acids, which were isolated from the Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca). As structural analogues of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), they have demonstrated neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the neuroprotective activity of the macamides: N-(3-methoxybenzyl)oleamide (MAC 18:1), N-(3-methoxybenzyl)linoleamide (MAC 18:2) and N-(3-methoxybenzyl)linolenamide (MAC 18:3) in a neurotoxic environment caused by exposure of U-87 MG glioblastoma cells to manganese chloride (MnCl2)...
December 27, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285267/a-molecular-signature-of-lung-cancer-potential-biomarkers-for-adenocarcinoma-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
Varda Shoshan-Barmatz, Yael Bishitz, Avijit Paul, Yakov Krelin, Itay Nakdimon, Nir Peled, Avia Lavon, Elina Rudoy-Zilberman, Yael Refaely
Adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), sub-types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both present unique features at the genome, epigenome, transcriptome and proteome levels, as well as shared clinical and histopathological characteristics, but differ in terms of treatment. To ensure proper treatment, one must be able to distinguish between these sub-types. Here, we identify novel biomarker proteins in NSCLC, allowing for distinguishing between the AC and SCC sub-types. Proteomics analysis distinguished between healthy and tumor tissues, with the expression level of 1,494 proteins being altered, 378 of which showed a ≥|100|-fold change...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285057/chenodeoxycholic-acid-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-hyperglycemia-via-the-g-protein-coupled-bile-acid-receptor-1-and-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-pathway
#12
Xiaosong Chen, Liu Yan, Zhihui Guo, Ying Chen, Ming Li, Chushan Huang, Zhaohong Chen, Xiyong Meng
G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) serves a key function in regulating glycometabolism. TGR5 is highly expressed in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and downregulates adenosine triphosphate synthesis via the bile acid-TGR5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-2-iodothyronine deiodinase (D2)-triiodothyronine-uncoupling protein pathway, thus regulating energy homeostasis and reducing body weight. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), the primary bile acid, is a natural ligand of TGR5. The present study aimed to characterize the ability of CDCA to reduce high-fat diet-induced obesity and improve glucose tolerance...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278716/2-o-carba-oleoyl-cyclic-phosphatidic-acid-induces-glial-proliferation-through-the-activation-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor
#13
Shingo Nakajima, Mari Gotoh, Keiko Fukasawa, Hiromu Murofushi, Kimiko Murakami-Murofushi
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) are one of the lipid mediators regulating cell proliferation and differentiation through the activation of LPA receptors. An LPA receptor-mediated signal is important for the development of the central nervous system, while it has been demonstrated that LPA caused microglial activation and astroglial dysfunction. Previously, we have reported that cPA and carba analog of cPA, 2-O-carba-cPA (2ccPA), protected neural damage caused by transient ischemia...
December 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274806/metabolic-properties-of-the-osteoclast
#14
REVIEW
Timothy R Arnett, Isabel R Orriss
Osteoclasts are defined as cells capable of excavating 3-dimensional resorption pits in bone, and other mineralised tissues. They derived from the differentiation/fusion of promonocytic precursors, and are usually large, multinucleated cells. In common with other cells from this myeloid lineage such as macrophages and dendritic cells, they are adapted to function in hypoxic, acidic environments. The process of bone resorption is rapid and appears to be highly energy-intensive, since osteoclasts must actively extrude protons to dissolve hydroxyapatite mineral, whilst secreting cathepsin K to degrade collagen, as well as maintaining a high degree of motility...
December 21, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261068/expression-of-a-t39n-mutant-rab32-protein-arrests-mitochondria-movement-within-neurites-of-differentiated-sh-sy5y-cells
#15
Jonas Rybnicek, Samira Samtleben, Maria Sol Herrera-Cruz, Thomas Simmen
We have shown that multiple sclerosis (MS) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induce Rab32, an ER/mitochondria-localized small GTPase. High levels of both dominant-active (Q85L) or dominant-inactive (T39N) Rab32 are toxic to neurons. While Rab32Q85L interacts with its effector Drp1 to promote mitochondria fission, it is unclear how Rab32T39N could result as toxic to neurons. Given the perinuclear clustering of mitochondria observed upon transfection of inactive Rab32, we hypothesized Rab32T39N could stall mitochondria within neurites...
December 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259445/molecular-mechanism-of-estrogen-estrogen-receptor-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Pelin Yaşar, Gamze Ayaz, Sırma Damla User, Gizem Güpür, Mesut Muyan
17β-Estradiol (E2), as the main circulating estrogen hormone, regulates many tissue and organ functions in physiology. The effects of E2 on cells are mediated by the transcription factors and estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ that are encoded by distinct genes. Localized at the peri-membrane, mitochondria, and the nucleus of cells that are dependent on estrogen target tissues, the ERs share similar, as well as distinct, regulatory potentials. Different intracellular localizations of the ERs result in dynamically integrated and finely tuned E2 signaling cascades that orchestrate cellular growth, differentiation, and death...
January 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258365/the-effect-of-reactive-oxygen-species-on-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-its-potential-mechanism
#17
Hua Wei, Xiangfeng Cong
The coordination of metabolic shift with genetic circuits is critical to cell specification, but the metabolic mechanisms that drive cardiac development are largely unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is not only the byproduct of mitochondrial metabolism, but play a critical role in signaling cascade of cardiac development as a second messenger. Various levels of ROS appear differential and even oppose effect on selfrenewal and cardiac differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) at each stage of differentiation...
December 19, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248972/pharmacological-targeting-of-hsp90-with-17-aag-induces-apoptosis-of-myogenic-cells-through-activation-of-the-intrinsic-pathway
#18
Akira Wagatsuma, Yuzo Takayama, Takayuki Hoshino, Masataka Shiozuka, Shigeru Yamada, Ryoichi Matsuda, Kunihiko Mabuchi
We have shown that pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 ATPase activity induces apoptosis of myoblasts during their differentiation. However, the signaling pathways remain not fully characterized. We report that pharmacological targeting of HSP90 with 17-AAG activates the intrinsic pathway including caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. 17-AAG induces the typical apoptotic phenotypes including PARP cleavage, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation with mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO, procaspase-9 processing, and caspase-3 activation...
December 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246308/mir-3174-contributes-to-apoptosis-and-autophagic-cell-death-defects-in-gastric-cancer-cells-by-targeting-arhgap10
#19
Bowen Li, Lu Wang, Zheng Li, Weizhi Wang, Xiaofei Zhi, Xiaoxu Huang, Qiang Zhang, Zheng Chen, Xuan Zhang, Zhongyuan He, Jianghao Xu, Lu Zhang, Hao Xu, Diancai Zhang, Zekuan Xu
Gastric cancer (GC) is a major health problem worldwide because of its high morbidity and mortality. Considering the well-established roles of miRNA in the regulation of GC carcinogenesis and progression, we screened differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) by using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the GEO databases. We found that miR-3174 was the most significantly differentially expressed miRNA in GC. Ectopic miR-3174 expression was also detected in clinical GC patient samples and cell lines and associated with poor patient prognosis...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239820/all-trans-retinoic-acid-induces-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-affects-the-balance-of-the-adipogenic-differentiation
#20
Laynna de Carvalho Schweich, Edwin José Torres de Oliveira, João Renato Pesarini, Larissa Corrêa Hermeto, Melissa Camassola, Nance Beyer Nardi, Themis Maria Milan Brochado, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira
The all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is the most active form of vitamin A that helps to regulate the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of several types of cells, mainly the adipocytes, and causes weight loss through the reduction of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In this present study we demonstrated that ATRA concentrations of 20.75, 50 and 100 μM decreased the cell viability in vitro of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), and in ADSCs during adipogenic differentiation. The cells cycle assessment showed that ATRA increased the cell frequency in Sub-G1 at 4...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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