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Mitochondria cell differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742600/cholesterol-reduction-and-macrophage-function-role-of-paraoxonases
#1
C Roger White, G M Anantharamaiah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Unregulated uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages to form foam cells is the hallmark for atherosclerosis. The paraoxonase (PON) family of enzymes plays a critical role in attenuating atherosclerotic lesion formation by hydrolyzing lipid peroxides (LOOHs) and preventing the oxidation of LDL particles and by enhancing HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Findings in recent years suggest novel mechanisms by which PON isoforms interact with macrophages to regulate cholesterol metabolism and cellular function...
July 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734361/preparation-of-intact-mitochondria-using-free-flow-isoelectric-focusing-with-post-ph-gradient-sample-injection-for-morphological-functional-and-proteomics-studies
#2
Yu-Chen He, Fan-Zhi Kong, Liu-Yin Fan, Jane Y Wu, Xiao-Ping Liu, Jun Li, Yan Sun, Qiang Zhang, Ying Yang, Xue-Jing Wu, Hua Xiao, Cheng-Xi Cao
Mitochondria play essential roles in both energy metabolism and cell signaling, which are critical for cell survival. Although significant efforts have been invested in understanding mitochondrial biology, methods for intact mitochondria preparation are technically challenging and remain to be improved. New methods for heterogeneous mitochondria purification will therefore boost our understanding on their physiological and biophysical properties. Herein, we developed a novel recycling free-flow isoelectric focusing (RFFIEF) with post-pH gradient sample injection (post-PGSI) for preparative separation of mitochondria...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730105/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-hypoxia-induced-apoptosis-by-preventing-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#3
Shu-Wei Tian, Yuan Ren, Jin-Zhi Pei, Bai-Chao Ren, Yuan He
AIM: To investigate the potential of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) to protect the immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells-5 (RGC-5) exposed to CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia. METHODS: After being differentiated with staurosporine (SS), RGC-5 cells were cultured in four conditions: control group cells cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 µmol/mL streptomycin and penicillin (named as normal conditions); hypoxia group cells cultured in DMEM containing 300 µmol/mL CoCl2; cells in the group protected by PEDF were first pretreated with 100 ng/mL PEDF for 2h and then cultured in the same condition as hypoxia group cells; and PEDF group cells that were cultured in the presence of 100 ng/mL PEDF under normal conditions...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718318/high-glucose-induced-endothelial-progenitor-cell-dysfunction
#4
Hongyan Kang, Xuejiao Ma, Jiajia Liu, Yubo Fan, Xiaoyan Deng
Vascular complications contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality of diabetes mellitus. The primary cause of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus is hyperglycaemia, associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired neovascularization. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells was shown to play important roles in vascular repair and promoting neovascularization. In this review, we will demonstrate the individual effect of high glucose on endothelial progenitor cells. Endothelial progenitor cells isolated from healthy subjects exposed to high glucose conditions or endothelial progenitor cells isolated from diabetic patients exhibit reduced number of endothelial cell colony forming units, impaired abilities of differentiation, proliferation, adhesion and migration, tubulization, secretion, mobilization and homing, whereas enhanced senescence...
July 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710464/analysis-of-mitochondrial-organization-and-function-in-the-drosophila-blastoderm-embryo
#5
Sayali Chowdhary, Darshika Tomer, Dnyanesh Dubal, Devashree Sambre, Richa Rikhy
Mitochondria are inherited maternally as globular and immature organelles in metazoan embryos. We have used the Drosophila blastoderm embryo to characterize their morphology, distribution and functions in embryogenesis. We find that mitochondria are relatively small, dispersed and distinctly distributed along the apico-basal axis in proximity to microtubules by motor protein transport. Live imaging, photobleaching and photoactivation analyses of mitochondrially targeted GFP show that they are mobile in the apico-basal axis along microtubules and are immobile in the lateral plane thereby associating with one syncytial cell...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708259/rapid-modulation-of-the-silent-information-regulator-1-sirt1-by-melatonin-after-hypoxia-ischemia-in-the-neonatal-rat-brain
#6
Silvia Carloni, Giulia Riparini, Giuseppe Buonocore, Walter Balduini
Increasing evidence indicates that melatonin possesses protective effects toward different kinds of damage in various organs, including the brain. In a neonatal model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI), melatonin was neuroprotective and preserved the expression of the Silent Information Regulator 1 (SIRT1) 24h after the insult. This study aimed to gain more insight into the role of SIRT1 in the protective effect of melatonin after HI by studying the early (1h) modulation of SIRT1 and its downstream targets, and the consequences on necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy and glial cell activation...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#7
Darren Qiancheng Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remains of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation; all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments; particularly those of hematopoietic, neural and muscle tissues...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705612/cardiac-mitochondrial-dynamics-mir-mediated-regulation-during-cardiac-injury
#8
Anusha Sivakumar, Ramasamy Subbiah, Rekha Balakrishnan, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Mitochondrial integrity is indispensable for cardiac health. With the advent of modern imaging technologies, mitochondrial motility and dynamics within the cell are extensively studied. Terminally differentiated and well-structured cardiomyocytes depict little mitochondrial division and fusion, questioning the contribution of mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mitofusin 1/2 and Optic Atrophy 1 protein) and fission factors (Dynamin-like protein 1 and mitochondrial fission 1 protein) in cardiomyocyte homeostasis...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705494/inflammation-initiated-by-stressed-organelles
#9
Fabio Martinon
Key cellular functions including those related to energy metabolism, organization of the genetic information or production of membrane-bound and secreted proteins are compartmentalized within organelles. Various stresses such as differentiation programs, viral and bacterial infections, perturbations in protein production, mechanical constraints, changes in the environment and nutriment accessibility can impact cellular homeostasis and organelle integrity. Perturbations of these cellular compartments trigger repair and adaptation programs aimed at restoring homeostasis...
July 10, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701735/quantitative-proteomics-reveal-the-anti-tumour-mechanism-of-the-carbohydrate-recognition-domain-of-galectin-3-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Mingchao Wang, Fang Tian, Wantao Ying, Xiaohong Qian
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious threat to human health. The carbohydrate recognition domain of Galectin-3 (Gal3C) has been reported to be an anti-tumour molecule. In this study, we aim to explore effects of Gal3C in HCC and its possible molecular mechanism with quantitative proteomics approach. We found that rGal3C stimulation could inhibit cell viability, migration and invasion of HepG2. After rGal3C stimulating, 190 proteins were differentially expressed. Eighty up-regulated proteins located mainly in extracellular exosome and involved in cell adhesion and metabolism, and 110 down-regulated proteins located in mitochondria and extracellular exosome, and related to processes of metabolism and oxidation-reduction...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701634/mitochondria-regulate-the-differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth
#11
Hiroki Kato, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Yuta Hirofuji, Xu Han, Hiroshi Sato, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka
Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are isolated from the dental pulp tissue of primary teeth and can differentiate into neuronal cells. Although SHED are a desirable type of stem cells for transplantation therapy and for the study of neurological diseases, a large part of the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial activity is involved in the differentiation of stem cells. In the present work, we investigated the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED by focusing on mitochondrial activity...
July 11, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693220/remodeling-of-energy-metabolism-by-a-ketone-body-and-medium-chain-fatty-acid-suppressed-the-proliferation-of-ct26-mouse-colon-cancer-cells
#12
Yui Kadochi, Shiori Mori, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Yi Luo, Yukiko Nishiguchi, Shingo Kishi, Kiyomu Fujii, Hitoshi Ohmori, Hiroki Kuniyasu
Normal and cancerous cells are suggested to have differential utilization of fatty acids and ketone bodies, which could be exploited in cancer therapy. The present study examined the effect of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HBA), which is a ketone body generating acetyl-CoA, and lauric acid (LAA, C12:0), which is a medium-chain saturated fatty acid translocated to mitochondria in a carnitine-independent manner to produce acetyl-CoA, on the energy metabolism of mouse CT26 colon cancer cells. In CT26 cells expressing 3-HBA and LAA transporters, 3-HBA and LAA reduced cell proliferation, mitochondrial volume and lactate production, and increased oxidative stress, particularly in low-glucose conditions...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689636/dynamic-transcription-and-expression-patterns-of-kif3a-and-kif3b-genes-during-spermiogenesis-in-the-shrimp-palaemon-carincauda
#13
Yong-Qiang Zhao, Hai-Yan Yang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Ying-Li Han, Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Spermiogenesis is a highly ordered and complex process in the male germ cell differentiation. The microtubule-based motor proteins KIF3A and KIF3B are required for the progression of the stages of spermiogenesis. In this study, the main goal was to determine whether KIF3A and KIF3B have a key role in spermiogenesis in Palaemon carincauda. The complete cDNA of KIF3A/3B from the testis of P. carincauda was cloned by using PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The predicted secondary and tertiary structures of KIF3A/3B contained three domains which were the: a) head region, b) stalk region, and c) tail region...
July 1, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685325/potential-signaling-pathways-of-acute-endurance-exercise-induced-cardiac-autophagy-and-mitophagy-and-its-possible-role-in-cardioprotection
#14
REVIEW
Youngil Lee, Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Wankeun Song, Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Mark H Roltsch
Cardiac myocytes are terminally differentiated cells and possess extremely limited regenerative capacity; therefore, preservation of mature cardiac myocytes throughout the individual's entire life span contributes substantially to healthy living. Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent cellular catabolic process, is essential for normal cardiac function and mitochondria maintenance. Therefore, it may be reasonable to hypothesize that if endurance exercise promotes cardiac autophagy and mitochondrial autophagy or mitophagy, exercise-induced cardiac autophagy (EICA) or exercise-induced cardiac mitophagy (EICM) may confer propitious cellular environment and thus protect the heart against detrimental stresses, such as an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685064/identification-of-rhodamine-123-positive-stem-cell-subpopulations-in-canine-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#15
Harumichi Itoh, Shimpei Nishikawa, Tomoya Haraguchi, Yu Arikawa, Masato Hiyama, Toshie Iseri, Yoshiki Itoh, Munekazu Nakaichi, Yasuho Taura, Kenji Tani, Kazuhito Itamoto
The majority of cases of chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not effective in human or veterinary medicine due to resistance against anticancer agents. In human medicine, hepatocellular carcinoma stem cells (HCSCs) were recently identified as cytokeratin 19 (CK19)-, cluster of differentiation (CD)-44-, and CD133-positive. However, there are few previous reports regarding canine HCSC (cHCSC). Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, the chemoresistance against anticancer agents of these cHCSCs has not been investigated...
July 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681086/effect-of-low-level-laser-treated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-myocardial-infarction
#16
Zaynab H El Gammal, Amr M Zaher, Nagwa El-Badri
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although cardiac transplantation is considered the most effective therapy for end-stage cardiac diseases, it is limited by the availability of matching donors and the complications of the immune suppressive regimen used to prevent graft rejection. Application of stem cell therapy in experimental animal models was shown to reverse cardiac remodeling, attenuate cardiac fibrosis, improve heart functions, and stimulate angiogenesis. The efficacy of stem cell therapy can be amplified by low-level laser radiation...
July 6, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673772/methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-mpp-differentially-affects-monoamine-release-and-re-uptake-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-neurons
#17
Yasmina Martí, Friederike Matthaeus, Thorsten Lau, Patrick Schloss
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is known to selectively damage dopaminergic (DA) cells in the substantia nigra and to produce symptoms which are alike to those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Based on the similarity between MPTP-induced neurotoxicity and PD-related neuropathology, application of MPTP or its metabolite methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) was successfully established in experimental rodent models to study PD-related neurodegenerative events. MPP+ is taken up by the dopamine transporter (DAT) into DA neurons where it exerts its neurotoxic action on mitochondria by affecting complex I of the respiratory chain...
June 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671275/curtailed-t-cell-activation-curbs-effector-differentiation-and-generates-cd8-t-cells-with-a-naturally-occuring-memory-stem-cell-phenotype
#18
Veronica Zanon, Karolina Pilipow, Eloise Scamardella, Federica De Paoli, Gabriele De Simone, David A Price, Amaia Martinez Usatorre, Pedro Romero, Domenico Mavilio, Alessandra Roberto, Enrico Lugli
Human T memory stem (TSCM ) cells with superior persistence capacity and effector functions are emerging as important players in the maintenance of long-lived T-cell memory and are thus considered an attractive population to be used in adoptive transfer-based immunotherapy of cancer. However, the molecular signals regulating their generation remain poorly defined. Here we show that curtailed T-cell receptor stimulation curbs human effector CD8(+) T-cell differentiation and allows the generation of CD45RO(-) CD45RA(+) CCR7(+) CD27(+) CD95(+) -phenotype cells from highly purified naïve T-cell precursors, resembling naturally-occurring human TSCM ...
July 3, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665046/features-of-lineage-specific-haematopoietic-metabolism-revealed-by-mitochondrial-proteomics
#19
Claudia Billing, Michael Walker, Nicole Noack, Christian Böhme, Uta Ceglarek, Dietger Niederwieser, Anthony Whetton, Michael Cross
Hematopoietic bone marrow is a regenerative tissue of high clinical relevance, yet relatively little is known about the metabolism of the stem and progenitor populations concerned. We have used a multipotent murine cell line to generate sufficient numbers of cells undergoing self-renewal, erythroid or myeloid differentiation to allow a proteomics analysis of enriched mitochondria. Stringent analysis identified 37 mitochondria-associated proteins changing on differentiation in this system. Those induced during differentiation were commonly associated with mature cell functions, while those inactivated upon differentiation indicate widespread changes in mitochondrial transport, fatty acid catabolism and oxidative phosphorylation...
June 30, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663370/short-term-starvation-is-a-strategy-to-unravel-the-cellular-capacity-of-oxidizing-specific-exogenous-endogenous-substrates-in-mitochondria
#20
Julianna Dias Zeidler, Lorena O Fernandes-Siqueira, Ana S Carvalho, Eduardo Cararo-Lopes, Matheus H S Dias, Luisa A Ketzer, Antonio Galina, Andrea T Da Poian
Mitochondrial oxidation of nutrients is tightly regulated in response to the cellular environment and changes in energy demands. In vitro studies evaluating the mitochondrial capacity of oxidizing different substrates are important for understanding metabolic shifts in physiological adaptations and pathological conditions, but may be influenced by the nutrients present in the culture medium or by the utilization of endogenous stores. One such influence is exemplified by the Crabtree effect (the glucose-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration), as most in vitro experiments are performed in glucose-containing media...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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