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Mitochondria cell differentiation

Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Armin A Sokolowski, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Nan-Hee Seo, Eun-Hye Lee, Jin-Hee Seo, Hwa-Ryung Song, Myung-Kwan Han
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are metabolically distinct from their differentiated counterparts. ESC mitochondria are less complex and fewer in number than their differentiated progeny. However, few studies have examined the proteins responsible for differences in mitochondrial structure and function between ESCs and somatic cells. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the differences between mitochondrial proteins in these two cell types. We demonstrate that HSP60 is more abundant in mouse ESC mitochondria than in mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
March 16, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Saki Hirofuji, Yuta Hirofuji, Hiroki Kato, Keiji Masuda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Hiroshi Sato, Fumiko Takayama, Michiko Torio, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka
Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder associated with psychomotor impairments, autonomic dysfunctions and autism. Patients with Rett syndrome have loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Abnormal biogenic amine signaling and mitochondrial function have been found in patients with Rett syndrome; however, few studies have analyzed the association between these factors. This study investigated the functional relationships between mitochondria and the neuronal differentiation of the MeCP2-deficient stem cells from the exfoliated deciduous teeth of a child with Rett syndrome...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
M A Afanasyeva, A S Ustiugova, S A Golyshev, A T Kopylov, A V Bogolyubova, D E Demin, P V Belousov, A M Schwartz
Ultracentrifugation on a density gradient remains the only reliable way to obtain highly pure mitochondria preparations. However, it is not readily available for any laboratory and has a serious disadvantage of providing low mitochondria yield, which can be critical when working with limited starting material. Here we describe a combined method for isolation of mitochondria for proteomic studies that includes cell disruption by sonication, differential centrifugation, and magnetic separation. Our method provides remarkable enrichment of mitochondrial proteins as compared to differential centrifugation, magnetic separation, or their combination, and it enables the strongest depletion of cytoplasmic components, as assessed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and Western blot...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Luna Samanta, Ashok Agarwal, Nirlipta Swain, Rakesh Sharma, Banu Gopalan, Sandro C Esteves, Damayanthi Durairajanayagam, Edmund Sabanegh
PURPOSE: Varicocele may disrupt testicular microcirculation and induce hypoxia-ischemia related degenerative changes in testicular cells and spermatozoa. Superoxide production at low oxygen concentrations exacerbates oxidative stress in men with varicocele. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the role of mitochondrial redox regulation and its possible involvement in sperm dysfunction in varicocele-associated infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were identified in 50 infertile men with varicocele and ten fertile controls by secondary LC-MS/MS data-driven in silico analysis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Urology
Yan Zhang, Nidhi Rohatgi, Deborah J Veis, Joel Schilling, Steven L Teitelbaum, Wei Zou
Osteoclasts are mitochondria-rich cells, but the role of these energy-producing organelles in bone resorption is poorly defined. To this end, we conditionally deleted the mitochondria-inducing co-activator, PGC1β, in myeloid lineage cells to generate PGC1βLysM mice. In contrast to previous reports, PGC1β-deficient macrophages differentiate normally into osteoclasts albeit with impaired resorptive function due to cytoskeletal disorganization. Consequently, bone mass of PGC1βLysM mice is double that of wild type...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Miriam Buttacavoli, Nadia Ninfa Albanese, Gianluca Di Cara, Rosa Alduina, Claudia Faleri, Michele Gallo, Giuseppe Pizzolanti, Giuseppe Gallo, Salvatore Feo, Franco Baldi, Patrizia Cancemi
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), embedded into a specific polysaccharide (EPS), were biogenerated by Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 under aerobic (AgNPs-EPSaer ) and anaerobic conditions (AgNPs-EPSanaer ). Both AgNPs-EPS matrices were tested by MTT assay for cytotoxic activity against human breast (SKBR3 and 8701-BC) and colon (HT-29, HCT 116 and Caco-2) cancer cell lines, revealing AgNPs-EPSaer as the most active, in terms of IC50, with a more pronounced efficacy against breast cancer cell lines. Therefore, colony forming capability, morphological changes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of apoptosis and autophagy, inhibition of migratory and invasive capabilities and proteomic changes were investigated using SKBR3 breast cancer cells with the aim to elucidate AgNPs-EPSaer mode of action...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Qing Mu, Weidong Yu, Shuying Zheng, Hongxia Shi, Mei Li, Jie Sun, Di Wang, Xiaoli Hou, Ling Liu, Xinjuan Wang, Zhuran Zhao, Rong Liang, Xue Zhang, Wei Dong, Chaomei Zeng, Jingzhu Guo
Vitamin A deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction are both associated with neural differentiation-related disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS). The mechanism of vitamin A-induced neural differentiation and the notion that vitamin A can regulate the morphology and function of mitochondria in its induction of neural differentiation through the RIP140/PGC-1α axis are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles and underlying mechanisms of RIP140/PGC-1α axis in vitamin A-induced neural differentiation...
March 7, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Dan-Ya Wu, Xia Zhang, Yi-Liang Miao
Stem cells have the potential to differentiate into specialized cell types under specific conditions in vivo or in vitro, which are used to cure many diseases related to aging. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) can reprogram differential somatic cells into cloned embryos and embryonic stem cells can be derived from these cloned embryos. Recipient oocytes have healthier mitochondria and can improve the metabolism competence, lessen the ROS damage, and rejuvenate mitochondrial function of aged cells during reprogramming...
March 7, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matteo Audano, Silvia Pedretti, Gaia Cermenati, Elisabetta Brioschi, Giuseppe Riccardo Diaferia, Serena Ghisletti, Alessandro Cuomo, Tiziana Bonaldi, Franco Salerno, Marina Mora, Liliana Grigore, Katia Garlaschelli, Andrea Baragetti, Fabrizia Bonacina, Alberico Luigi Catapano, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Maurizio Crestani, Donatella Caruso, Enrique Saez, Emma De Fabiani, Nico Mitro
Mitochondria are the energy-generating hubs of the cell. In spite of considerable advances, our understanding of the factors that regulate the molecular circuits that govern mitochondrial function remains incomplete. Using a genome-wide functional screen, we identify the poorly characterized protein Zinc finger CCCH-type containing 10 (Zc3h10) as regulator of mitochondrial physiology. We show that Zc3h10 is upregulated during physiological mitochondriogenesis as it occurs during the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes...
March 5, 2018: EMBO Reports
Megan C Harwig, Matheus P Viana, John M Egner, Jason J Harwig, Michael E Widlansky, Susanne M Rafelski, R Blake Hill
Mitochondria are found in a variety of shapes, from small round punctate structures to a highly interconnected web. This morphological diversity is important for function, but complicates quantification. Consequently, early quantification efforts relied on various qualitative descriptors that understandably reduce the complexity of the network leading to challenges in consistency across the field. Recent application of state-of-the-art computational tools have resulted in more quantitative approaches. This prospective highlights the implementation of MitoGraph, an open-source image analysis platform for measuring mitochondrial morphology initially optimized for use with Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
March 2, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Yulai Shen, Lu Wu, Jun Wang, Xin Wu, Xuemei Zhang
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse causes significant physical, psychological, and social concerns. Therefore, in this study, we investigated its effects on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We found that METH dose-dependently affected MSCs viability. Upon osteogenic induction, the 3 and 30 µmol/l METH dosages without deleterious effects on MSCs viability resulted in the down-regulation of osteoblastic marker genes (Alp, Bglap, and Runx2), suppression of the protein expression of RUNX2, and decreased ALP activity and mineralization ability...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
David Bargiela, Stephen P Burr, Patrick F Chinnery
Alterations in mitochondrial metabolism influence cell differentiation and growth. This process is regulated by the activity of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases (2OGDDs) - a diverse superfamily of oxygen-consuming enzymes - through modulation of the epigenetic landscape and transcriptional responses. Recent reports have described the role of mitochondrial metabolites in directing 2OGDD-driven cell-fate switches in stem cells (SCs), immune cells, and cancer cells. An understanding of the metabolic mechanisms underlying 2OGDD autoregulation is required for therapeutic targeting of this system...
February 28, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Diego Castejón, Guiomar Rotllant, Enric Ribes, Mercè Durfort, Guillermo Guerao
The esophagus of the eucrustaceans is known as a short tube that connects the mouth with the stomach but has generally received little attention by the carcinologists, especially during the larval stages. By this reason, the present study is focused on the morphology and ultrastructure of the esophagus in the brachyuran Maja brachydactyla during the larval development and adult stage. The esophagus shows internally four longitudinal folds. The simple columnar epithelium is covered by a thick cuticle. The epithelial cells of the adults are intensively interdigitated and show abundant apical mitochondria and bundles of filamentous structures...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Martijn Kerkhofs, Mart Bittremieux, Giampaolo Morciano, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo Pinton, Jan B Parys, Geert Bultynck
Inter-organellar communication often takes the form of Ca2+ signals. These Ca2+ signals originate from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and regulate different cellular processes like metabolism, fertilization, migration, and cell fate. A prime target for Ca2+ signals are the mitochondria. ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer is possible through the existence of mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs), ER structures that are in the proximity of the mitochondria. This creates a micro-domain in which the Ca2+ concentrations are manifold higher than in the cytosol, allowing for rapid mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Katia E Helfenberger, Nerina M Villalba, Bruno Buchholz, Alberto Boveris, Juan José Poderoso, Ricardo J Gelpi, Cecilia Poderoso
Activation of ERK1/2 implies the phosphorylation of tyrosine (pTyr) and threonine (pThr) by MEK1/2; both reactions were thought to be cytoplasmic, promoting ERK to reach the nucleus where it activates several transcription factors. In addition, H2O2 concentrations are known to modulate ERK intracellular translocation, which impacts on cellular proliferation. In this context, the objective of this work was to study the sequence of ERK phosphorylation under two redox conditions and to analyze a putative mitochondrial contribution to this process, in LP07 murine lung cells...
2018: PloS One
Ling Wang, Chao Chen, Lijie Guo, Qin Li, Hongyan Ding, Hongsheng Bi, Dadong Guo
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles can exhibit toxic effect on cells and tissues, which may be involved in the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the consequent mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of ZnO nanoparticles on the expressions of cytochrome c, ATP level, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS, apoptosis, total antioxidant enzyme activities and apoptotic-related protein levels in murine photoreceptor cells as well as the changes of proteomic profiling...
February 28, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Patricia Boya, Patrice Codogno, Natalia Rodriguez-Muela
Autophagy is a catabolic pathway by which cellular components are delivered to the lysosome for degradation and recycling. Autophagy serves as a crucial intracellular quality control and repair mechanism but is also involved in cell remodelling during development and cell differentiation. In addition, mitophagy, the process by which damaged mitochondria undergo autophagy, has emerged as key regulator of cell metabolism. In recent years, a number of studies have revealed roles for autophagy and mitophagy in the regulation of stem cells, which represent the origin for all tissues during embryonic and postnatal development, and contribute to tissue homeostasis and repair throughout adult life...
February 26, 2018: Development
L Tauzin, V Campos, M Tichet
Reticulocytes and erythrocytes are the ultimate differentiated stages of erythropoiesis. In addition to being anucleate cells, they are characterized by the clearance of their mitochondrial pool or lack thereof. Given that for most research-oriented flow cytometry experiments erythrocytes and reticulocytes are often undesirable cell types, their identification and exclusion from analyses can be essential. Here, we describe a flow cytometric method based on cellular NAD(P)H-related autofluorescence, whose localization is mainly associated with mitochondria...
February 26, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
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