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Mitochondria cell differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143843/mitochondria-targetable-carbon-quantum-dots-for-differentiating-cancerous-cells-from-normal-cells
#1
Ge Gao, Yao-Wen Jiang, Jingjing Yang, Fu-Gen Wu
In this study, a series of fluorescent carbon quantum dots (or carbon dots, CDs) with inherent mitochondrial targeting/imaging and cancerous/normal cell differentiation capabilities were prepared by a one-pot solvothermal treatment of glycerol and a silane molecule. Glycerol acted as a solvent and carbon source, and the silane molecule acted as a passivation agent. The as-prepared CDs could specifically and stably (for at least 24 h) visualize mitochondria of various types of cells without the introduction of mitochondria-targeting ligands (such as triphenylphosphonium)...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141998/vanillic-acid-attenuates-obesity-via-activation-of-the-ampk-pathway-and-thermogenic-factors-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#2
Yunu Jung, Jinbong Park, Hye-Lin Kim, Jung-Eun Sim, Dong-Hyun Youn, JongWook Kang, Seona Lim, Mi-Young Jeong, Woong Mo Yang, Seok-Geun Lee, Kwang Seok Ahn, Jae-Young Um
Energy expenditure is a target gaining recent interest for obesity treatment. The antiobesity effect of vanillic acid (VA), a well-known flavoring agent, was investigated in vivo and in vitro High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and genetically obese db/db mice showed significantly decreased body weights after VA administration. Two major adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), were reduced while the key factor of energy metabolism, AMPKα, was increased in the white adipose tissue and liver tissue of VA-treated mice...
November 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138856/differentially-expressed-proteins-in-the-human-esophageal-cancer-cell-line-eca%C3%A2-109-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-gemcitabine
#3
Zenghuang Ma, Xiaojie Xue
The present study aimed to screen and study the roles of differentially expressed proteins in the human esophageal cancer cell line Eca‑109, in the presence and absence of gemcitabine (GEM). The 3‑(4,5)‑dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) method was used to assay the vitality of the Eca‑109 cells following treatment with GEM (1‑16 µg/ml). The cell apoptosis was measured by using fluorescence activated cell sorting. The proteins in the treated Eca‑109 cells were extracted, validated, and assayed via two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with matrix‑assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI‑TOF‑MS)...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131056/chloride-intracellular-channel-4-overexpression-in-the-proximal-tubules-of-kidneys-from-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-insight-from-proteomic-analysis
#4
Diane Hatziioanou, Georgios Barkas, Elena Critselis, Jerome Zoidakis, Hariklia Gakiopoulou, Maria-Eleni Androutsou, Garyfalia Drossopoulou, Aristidis Charonis, Demetrios V Vlahakos
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive nephropathy, a leading cause of declining kidney function, is a multifactorial process not well understood. In order to elucidate biological processes and identify novel macromolecular components crucially involved in the process of kidney damage, the application of system biology approaches, like proteomics, is required. METHODS: Proteomic studies were performed using the renal parenchyma of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their normotensive Wistar Kyoto controls...
November 7, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119535/mitochondria-bound-hexokinase-mt-hk-activity-differ-in-cortical-and-hypothalamic-synaptosomes-differential-role-of-mt-hk-in-h2o2-depuration
#5
João Paulo Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, Eduardo de Souza Ferreira, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Antonio Galina
Glucose and oxygen are vital for the brain, as these molecules provide energy and metabolic intermediates that are necessary for cell function. The glycolysis pathway and mitochondria play a pivotal role in cell energy metabolism, which is closely related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Hexokinase (HK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose metabolism that modulates the level of brain mitochondrial ROS by recycling ADP for oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). Here, we hypothesize that the control of mitochondrial metabolism by hexokinase differs in distinct areas of the brain, such as the cortex and hypothalamus, in which ROS might function as signaling molecules...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115569/glioma-stem-cells-and-their-non-stem-differentiated-glioma-cells-exhibit-differences-in-mitochondrial-structure-and-function
#6
Eun-Jung Kim, Xiong Jin, Ock Ran Kim, Seok Won Ham, Sung-Hye Park, Hyunggee Kim
Although mitochondria play an important role in cell survival, their biological significance in differentiated and undifferentiated cells is not well known. In the present study, we compared the differences in the structure and function of mitochondria between undifferentiated cancer stem cells and differentiated cancer cells. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), when grown under serum culture conditions, demonstrated a decrease in stem cell marker expression and tumor sphere forming ability, while showing an increase in differentiated cell markers...
November 2, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113168/negative-correlation-between-x-linked-inhibitors-of-apoptosis-and-second-mitochondria-derived-activator-of-caspase-expression-levels-in-cervical-carcinoma-and-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#7
Xue-Jing Jin, Ping-Sheng Cai, Shu-Pin Zhu, Li-Jie Wang, Hua Zhu
X-linked inhibitors of apoptosis (XIAP) and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) have been widely reported to serve roles in the development of cervical carcinoma. The present study analyzed the associations between the expression levels of XIAP and Smac in normal cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections was performed in order to analyze the expression levels of XIAP and Smac in 15 cases of normal cervical tissues, 69 cases of CIN and 76 cases of cervical carcinoma...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110746/lead-promotes-abnormal-angiogenesis-induced-by-ccm3-gene-defects-via-mitochondrial-pathway
#8
Y Sun, H Zhang, X Xing, Z Zhao, J He, J Li, J Chen, M Wang, Y He
Lead is one of the environmental pollutants with cardiovascular toxicity. The embryos are particularly sensitive to lead exposure, because it can move through the blood-placental barrier and the blood-brain barrier easily during embryonic development. Cerebral cavernous malformations 3 (CCM3) gene plays an important role in cardiovascular development, mainly affecting cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, we established a blood vessel development model of mouse embryos in order to imitate human people with CCM3 genes defects and exposing to environment toxin Pb in utero...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104120/methylmercury-exposure-causes-a-persistent-inhibition-of-myogenin-expression-and-c2c12-myoblast-differentiation
#9
Lisa M Prince, Matthew D Rand
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, best known for its selective targeting of the developing nervous system. MeHg exposure has been shown to cause motor deficits such as impaired gait and coordination, muscle weakness, and muscle atrophy, which have been associated with disruption of motor neurons. However, recent studies have suggested that muscle may also be a target of MeHg toxicity, both in the context of developmental myogenic events and of low-level chronic exposures affecting muscle wasting in aging...
November 2, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102119/rig-1-and-mda-5-signaling-pathways-contribute-to-ifn-%C3%AE-production-and-viral-replication-in-porcine-circovirus-virus-type-2-infected-pk-15-cells-in-vitro
#10
Bei Huang, Jiansheng Li, Xinchen Zhang, Qiling Zhao, Mingqing Lu, Yingjun Lv
Type I Interferons (IFNs) is known for its antiviral activity; however, it is surprising that in vitro treatment of IFN-α and IFN-γ enhanced the replication of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), indicating a complex relationship between interferon and PCV2. To date, it remains poorly understood how the interferon is produced during PCV2 infection and whether the interferon induced by PCV2 itself can promote viral replication. In this study, PCV2 induced the up-regulation of IFN-β in PK-15 cells, while treatment of PCV2-infected cells with the interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) inhibitor, BX795, decreased the expression of IFN-β, whereas treatment with the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, did not...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096559/retinoic-acid-receptors-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-are-involved-in-antioxidative-protection-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-injury-induced-by-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#11
Ling Jiang, Yuanhan Qin, Fengying Lei, Xiuping Chen, Zhiqiang Zhou
Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is a common outcome in various chronic kidney diseases. Injury to renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC) is major link in RIF. Hypoxia is one of the common factors for RTEC damage. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs), RARα, RARβ and RARγ, are evolutionary conserved and pleiotropic proteins that have been involved in various cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and transcription. Recently, we discovered that aberrant expression of RARs was involved in the development of RIF in rats...
November 3, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089562/determining-the-contents-and-cell-origins-of-apoptotic-bodies-by-flow-cytometry
#12
Lanzhou Jiang, Stephanie Paone, Sarah Caruso, Georgia K Atkin-Smith, Thanh Kha Phan, Mark D Hulett, Ivan K H Poon
Over 200 billion cells undergo apoptosis every day in the human body in order to maintain tissue homeostasis. Increased apoptosis can also occur under pathological conditions including infection and autoimmune disease. During apoptosis, cells can fragment into subcellular membrane-bound vesicles known as apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs). We recently developed a flow cytometry-based method to accurately differentiate ApoBDs from other particles (e.g. cells and debris). In the present study, we aim to further characterize subsets of ApoBDs based on intracellular contents and cell type-specific surface markers...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080757/ultrastructural-analysis-of-oocytes-of-rhipicephalus-boophilus-annulatus-during-postengorgement-period-as-a-tool-to-evaluate-the-cytotoxic-effects-of-amitraz-and-deltamethrin-on-the-germinative-cells
#13
Kanapadinchareveetil Sreelekha, Leena Chandrasekhar, Harikumar S Kartha, Reghu Ravindran, Sanis Juliet, Karapparambu G Ajithkumar, Suresh N Nair, Srikanta Ghosh
The present study utilizes the ultrastructural analysis of the fully engorged female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks, as a tool to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of deltamethrin and amitraz on the germinative cells. The ultrastructural analysis of the ovary of the normal (untreated) R (B.) annulatus revealed, oocytes in different stages of development, attached to the ovary wall by pedicel cells. The attachment site of oocyte to the pedicel cell was characterized by indentations of the plasma membrane...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078798/proteomic-profiling-of-neuronal-mitochondria-reveals-modulators-of-synaptic-architecture
#14
Laura C Graham, Samantha L Eaton, Paula J Brunton, Abdelmadjid Atrih, Colin Smith, Douglas J Lamont, Thomas H Gillingwater, Giuseppa Pennetta, Paul Skehel, Thomas M Wishart
BACKGROUND: Neurons are highly polarized cells consisting of three distinct functional domains: the cell body (and associated dendrites), the axon and the synapse. Previously, it was believed that the clinical phenotypes of neurodegenerative diseases were caused by the loss of entire neurons, however it has recently become apparent that these neuronal sub-compartments can degenerate independently, with synapses being particularly vulnerable to a broad range of stimuli. Whilst the properties governing the differential degenerative mechanisms remain unknown, mitochondria consistently appear in the literature, suggesting these somewhat promiscuous organelles may play a role in affecting synaptic stability...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074393/dcf1-subcellular-localization-and-its-function-in-mitochondria
#15
Yanlu Chen, Ruili Feng, Guanghong Luo, Jianjian Guo, Yajiang Wang, Yangyang Sun, Lili Zheng, Tieqiao Wen
Dendritic cell factor 1 (DCF1) is a transmembrane protein that plays important roles in regulating neural stem cell differentiation and dendritic spine formation. Apart from its cytoplasmic functions, DCF1 plays a role in autophagy during the regulation of amyloid precursor proteins. However, the subcellular localization of DCF1 remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, DCF1 tagged with green fluorescent protein was transiently expression in HelaS3 and HEK293T cells. The results showed that DCF1 was widely expressed in different organelles, including the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, endosomes and lysosomes...
October 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059699/identification-of-the-genomic-region-under-epigenetic-regulation-during-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression
#16
Kikuko Hotta, Takuya Kitamoto, Aya Kitamoto, Yuji Ogawa, Yasushi Honda, Takaomi Kessoku, Masato Yoneda, Kento Imajo, Wataru Tomeno, Satoru Saito, Atsushi Nakajima
AIM: The progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is affected by epigenetics. We performed co-methylation and differentially methylated region (DMR) analyses to identify the genomic region that is under epigenetic regulation during NAFLD progression. METHODS: We collected liver biopsy specimens from 60 Japanese patients with NAFLD and classified these into mild (fibrosis stages 0-2) or advanced (fibrosis stages 3-4) NAFLD. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and identified the differentially methylated CpGs between mild and advanced NAFLD...
October 23, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058774/mesoderm-specific-transcript-localization-in-the-er-and-er-lipid-droplet-interface-supports-a-role-in-adipocyte-hypertrophy
#17
Igor Prudovsky, Rea P Anunciado-Koza, Chester G Jacobs, Doreen Kacer, Matthew E Siviski, Robert A Koza
Highly variable expression of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest) in adipose tissue among genetically homogeneous mice fed an obesogenic diet, and its positive association with fat mass expansion, suggests that Mest is an epigenetic determinant for the development of obesity. Although the mechanisms by which MEST augments fat accumulation in adipocytes have not been elucidated, it has sequence homology and catalytic peptide motifs which suggests that it functions as an epoxide hydrolase or as a glycerol- or acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057310/mitophagy-metabolism-and-cell-fate
#18
Lorena Esteban-Martínez, Elena Sierra-Filardi, Patricia Boya
Mitophagy is the process by which cells eliminate damaged or superfluous mitochondria by degrading them within lysosomes. We show that during development, selective removal of mitochondria by autophagy induces a metabolic shift toward glycolysis that is essential for differentiation of several cell types. These findings suggest potential applications of cell-fate manipulation strategies targeting mitophagy.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053143/momp-cell-suicide-as-a-bcl-2-family-business
#19
REVIEW
Halime Kalkavan, Douglas R Green
Apoptosis shapes development and differentiation, has a key role in tissue homeostasis, and is deregulated in cancer. In most cases, successful apoptosis is triggered by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which defines the mitochondrial or intrinsic pathway and ultimately leads to caspase activation and protein substrate cleavage. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway centered on MOMP is controlled by an intricate network of events that determine the balance of the cell fate choice between survival and death...
October 20, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051191/role-of-thyroid-hormone-in-skeletal-muscle-physiology
#20
Flavia F Bloise, Aline Cordeiro, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho
Thyroid hormones (TH) are crucial for development, growth, differentiation, metabolism and thermogenesis. Skeletal muscle (SM) contractile function, myogenesis and bioenergetic metabolism are influenced by TH. These effects depend on the presence of the TH transporters MCT8 and MCT10 in the plasma membrane, the expression of TH receptors (THRA or THRB) and hormone availability, which is determined either by the activation of thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) by type 2 iodothyronine deiodinases (D2) or by the inactivation of T4 into reverse T3 by deiodinases type 3 (D3)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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