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Mitochondria cell differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098432/a-multi-mitochondrial-anticancer-agent-that-selectively-kills-cancer-cells-and-overcomes-drug-resistance
#1
Yong Bo Peng, Zi Long Zhao, Teng Liu, Guo Jian Xie, Cheng Jin, Tang Gang Deng, Yang Sun, Xiong Li, Xiao Xiao Hu, Xiao Bing Zhang, Mao Ye, Wei Hong Tan
Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles involved mainly in supplying cellular energy, but also play roles in signaling, cell differentiation, and cell death. Mitochondria are implicated in carcinogenesis, and therefore dozens of lethal signal transduction pathways converge on these organelles. Accordingly, mitochondria provide an alternative target for cancer management. In this study, F16, a drug that targets mitochondria, and chlorambucil (CBL), which is indicated for the treatment of selected human neoplastic diseases, were covalently linked, resulting in the synthesis of a multi-mitochondrial anticancer agent, FCBL...
January 18, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093935/new-methods-for-monitoring-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-mitophagy-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#2
Jessica A Williams, Katrina Zhao, Shengkan Jin, Wen-Xing Ding
Removal of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and functions. Increasing evidence implicates mitophagy in red blood cell differentiation, neurodegeneration, macrophage-mediated inflammation, ischemia, adipogenesis, drug-induced tissue injury, and cancer. Considerable progress has been made toward understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in mitophagy regulation. However, few reliable assays to monitor and quantify mitophagy have been developed, particularly in vivo...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087333/nicotinamide-nucleotide-transhydrogenase-activity-impacts-mitochondrial-redox-balance-and-the-development-of-hypertension-in-mice
#3
Igor Leskov, Amber Neville, Xinggui Shen, Sibile Pardue, Christopher G Kevil, D Neil Granger, David M Krzywanski
Oxidant stress contributes to the initiation and progression of hypertension (HTN) by enhancing endothelial dysfunction and/or causing perturbations in nitric oxide homeostasis. Differences in mitochondrial function may augment this process and provide insight into why age of onset and clinical outcomes differ among individuals from distinct ethnic groups. We have previously demonstrated that variation in normal mitochondrial function and oxidant production exists in endothelial cells from individuals of Caucasian and African-American ethnicity and that this variation contributes to endothelial dysfunction...
December 16, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087257/calcium-regulates-cell-death-in-cancer-roles-of-the-mitochondria-and-mitochondria-associated-membranes-mams
#4
REVIEW
Alberto Danese, Simone Patergnani, Massimo Bonora, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Maurizio Previati, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo Pinton
Until 1972, the term 'apoptosis' was used to differentiate the programmed cell death that naturally occurs in organismal development from the acute tissue death referred to as necrosis. Many studies on cell death and programmed cell death have been published and most are, at least to some degree, related to cancer. Some key proteins and molecular pathways implicated in cell death have been analyzed, whereas others are still being actively researched; therefore, an increasing number of cellular compartments and organelles are being implicated in cell death and cancer...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075050/formyl-peptide-receptors-in-cellular-differentiation-and-inflammatory-diseases
#5
Ha Young Lee, Mingyu Lee, Yoe-Sik Bae
Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a family of classical chemoattractant receptors. Although FPRs are mainly expressed in phagocytic innate immune cells including monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils, recent reports demonstrated that additional different cell types such as T-lymphocytes and several non-immune cells also express functional FPRs. FPRs were first reported as a specific receptor to detect bacteria-derived N-formyl peptides. However, accumulating evidence has shown that FPRs can recognize various ligands derived from pathogens, mitochondria, and host...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066541/ultrastructural-changes-during-osteogenic-differentiation-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-cultured-in-alginate-hydrogel
#6
Jakub Grzesiak, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Krzysztof Marycz
BACKGROUND: Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells has been extensively investigated with regards to different aspects, including the analysis of cell intracellular and extracellular proteome, cell gene expression pattern, and morphology. During the osteogenic differentiation, osteoblasts produce and release specific proteins, like osteocalcin and osteopontin. Simultaneously, cells produce the extracellular matrix (ECM) that resembles the bone ECM, with high quantity of calcium and phosphorus...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063355/orbital-oncocytoma-evaluation-with-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-using-a-time-signal-intensity-curve-and-positive-enhancement-integral-images
#7
Nutchawan Jittapiromsak, Ping Hou, Michelle D Williams, T Linda Chi
Oncocytomas, which are benign epithelial tumors filled with abundant mitochondria, arise from ductal cells. Oncocytomas rarely occur in the orbit. We present a case of pathologically proven orbital oncocytoma of the lacrimal gland studied by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI). DCE MRI has potential as an adjunct to conventional MRI in the differential diagnosis and tumor margin delineation of orbital oncocytoma. Simple assessments of the time-signal intensity curve, semiquantitative parameters, and post-processing positive enhancement integral images should be considered in the evaluation of orbital masses found on MRI...
December 6, 2016: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061861/oxidative-status-predicts-quality-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Alessandro Bertolo, Simona Capossela, Gion Fränkl, Martin Baur, Tobias Pötzel, Jivko Stoyanov
BACKGROUND: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult progenitor cells with great potential for application in cell-based therapies. From a cell-based therapy perspective, there are two limitations to MSC use: (1) these therapies require large numbers of cells, and long-term expansion of MSC in vitro promotes replicative senescence; and (2) patient variability is a challenge for defining MSC quality standards for transplantation. This study aimed to determine whether low or high oxidative status of MSC correlate with changes in cell expansion and differentiation potentials...
January 6, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060382/epigenetic-control-of-mitochondrial-cell-death-through-pacs1-mediated-regulation-of-bax-bak-oligomerization
#9
Daniella Brasacchio, Amber E Alsop, Tahereh Noori, Mariam Lufti, Sweta Iyer, Kaylene J Simpson, Phillip I Bird, Ruth M Kluck, Ricky W Johnstone, Joseph A Trapani
PCAF and ADA3 associate within the same macromolecular complexes to control the transcription of many genes, including some that regulate apoptosis. Here we show that PCAF and ADA3 regulate the expression of PACS1, whose protein product is a key component of the machinery that sorts proteins among the trans-Golgi network and the endosomal compartment. We describe a novel role for PACS1 as a regulator of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Cells with decreased PACS1 expression were refractory to cell death mediated by a variety of stimuli that operate through the mitochondrial pathway, including human granzyme B, staurosporine, ultraviolet radiation and etoposide, but remained sensitive to TRAIL receptor ligation...
January 6, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057485/efficient-induction-of-dopaminergic-neuron-differentiation-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reveals-impaired-mitophagy-in-park2-neurons
#10
Sadafumi Suzuki, Wado Akamatsu, Fumihiko Kisa, Takefumi Sone, Kei-Ichi Ishikawa, Naoko Kuzumaki, Hiroyuki Katayama, Atsushi Miyawaki, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano
Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show promise for use as tools for in vitro modeling of Parkinson's disease. We sought to improve the efficiency of dopaminergic (DA) neuron induction from iPSCs by the using surface markers expressed in DA progenitors to increase the significance of the phenotypic analysis. By sorting for a CD184(high)/CD44(-) fraction during neural differentiation, we obtained a population of cells that were enriched in DA neuron precursor cells and achieved higher differentiation efficiencies than those obtained through the same protocol without sorting...
January 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052355/mitochondrial-ryanodine-sensitive-ca-2-channels-of-rat-liver
#11
N I Kupynyak, O V Ikkert, S G Shlykov, L G Babich, V V Manko
To examine ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+) channels in mitochondria of rat hepatocytes and their role in energy state of the cells via investigation of the ryanodine effect on mitochondrial membrane potential. Oxygen consumption was measured by polarography using the Clark electrode. The substrates of oxidation such as pyruvate (5mM), α-ketoglutarate (5mM), or succinate (5mM) were used. Oxidative phosphorylation was stimulated by the addition of adenosine diphosphate (200nM). Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using a voltage-sensitive fluorescent probe tetramethylrhodamine-methyl-ester (0...
January 3, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035705/a-rare-case-of-cutaneous-oncocytic-hidradenoma
#12
Shivani P Reddy, Kim Chong, David S Cassarino
Oncocytes are epithelial cells characterized by their abundant eosinophilic and finely granular cytoplasm. Their histologic appearance is due to excessive amounts of cytoplasmic mitochondria. Oncocytes generally occur in the setting of benign neoplasms. Oncocytomas, or tumors composed primarily of oncocytes, are typically found in the kidneys. Other common sites include the salivary, thyroid, and parathyroid glands. Oncocytic metaplasia has only been rarely reported in various cutaneous neoplasms. We report a case of an elderly male presenting with a 5 millimeter erythematous papule on his left scalp, who underwent a shave biopsy showing a nodular, dermal-based adnexal tumor with prominent ductal differentiation, composed of multiple small, well-formed lumina surrounded by enlarged, bland-appearing epithelioid cells...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035665/mechanistic-aspects-of-mammalian-cell-size-control
#13
REVIEW
Kazuo Yamamoto, Tak W Mak
Size distribution in a group of differentiated cells often falls into a constant range. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that cells can temporarily change their size in response to their surrounding environment and the stimuli they receive. Thus, there must be a mechanism that normally keeps cell size constant while allowing a shift to an alternative size when necessary. To investigate the molecular basis of mammalian cell size control, we conducted a genetic screen in a human T cell line to identify genes involved in cell size regulation...
December 30, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029338/vasculogenic-mimicry-in-malignant-mesothelioma-an-experimental-and-immunohistochemical-analysis
#14
Emily Pulford, Ashleigh Hocking, Kim Griggs, James McEvoy, Claudine Bonder, Douglas W Henderson, Sonja Klebe
Vasculogenic mimicry, the process in which cancer cells form angiomatoid structures independent of or in addition to host angiogenesis has been recorded in several otherwise non-endothelial malignant neoplasms. This study describes evidence of routine vascular mimicry by human mesothelioma cell lines in vitro, when the cell lines are cultured alone or co-cultured with human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, with the formation of angiomatoid tubular networks. Vasculogenic mimicry is also supported by immunohistochemical demonstration of human-specific anti-mitochondria antibody labelling of tumour-associated vasculature of human mesothelioma cells xenotransplanted into nude mice, and by evidence of vascular mimicry in some biopsy samples of human malignant mesotheliomas...
October 28, 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028442/regulation-of-vdac-trafficking-modulates-cell-death
#15
Ashvini K Dubey, Ashwini Godbole, M K Mathew
The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and mitochondria-associated hexokinase (HxK) have crucial roles in both cell survival and death. Both the individual abundances and their ratio seem to influence the balance of survival and death and are thus critical in scenarios, such as neurodegeneration and cancer. Elevated levels of both VDAC and HxK have been reported in cancerous cells. Physical interaction is surmised and specific residues or regions involved have been identified, but details of the interaction and the mechanism by which it modulates survival are yet to be elucidated...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012248/sesamol-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-in-c57bl-6j-mice-and-suppresses-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-via-regulating-mitochondria-lipid-metabolism
#16
Zhigang Liu, Qinglian Qiao, Yali Sun, Yuwei Chen, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu
SCOPE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of sesamol, a natural powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phenol derivative of sesame oil, on adiposity and adiposity-related metabolic disturbances in mice fed with western diet, and the potential underlying mechanisms focusing on the mitochondria-lipid metabolism. METHODS & RESULTS: In the experimental model that consisted of 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice divided into 3 groups with/without sesamol in the drinking water including standard diet, high fat and high fructose diet (HFFD), and HFFD with sesamol...
December 24, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012060/adipocyte-microenvironment-promotes-bclxl-expression-and-confers-chemoresistance-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#17
Carlos Cardenas, Michele K Montagna, Mary Pitruzzello, Eydis Lima, Gil Mor, Ayesha B Alvero
Resistance to mitochondria-initiated apoptosis is a hallmark of chemoresistant cancer stem cells including CD44+/MyD88+ epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) stem cells. This is controlled by members of the Bcl2 family of proteins, which function as rheostats of mitochondrial stability. We observed a differential expression profile of Bcl2 family members comparing the chemoresistant EOC stem cells and the chemosensitive CD44-/MyD88- EOC cells. Chemoresistant EOC stem cells surprisingly express higher levels of the pro-apoptotic members Bak and Bax compared to the chemosensitive EOC cells...
December 23, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012015/modulation-of-cell-death-in-human-colorectal-and-breast-cancer-cells-through-a-manganese-chelate-by-involving-gsh-with-intracellular-p53-status
#18
Kaushik Banerjee, Satyajit Das, Saikat Majumder, Subrata Majumdar, Jaydip Biswas, Soumitra Kumar Choudhuri
Chemotherapy is central to current treatment modality especially for advanced and metastatic colorectal and breast cancers. Targeting the key molecular events of the neoplastic cells may open a possibility to treat cancer. Although some improvements in understanding of colorectal and breast cancer treatment have been recorded, the involvement of glutathione (GSH) and dependency of p53 status on the modulation of GSH-mediated treatment efficacy have been largely overlooked. Herein, we tried to decipher the underlying mechanism of the action of Mn-N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) glycinate (MnNG) against differential p53 status bearing Hct116, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-468 cells on the backdrop of intracellular GSH level and reveal the role of p53 status in modulating GSH-dependant abrogation of MnNG-induced apoptosis in these cancer cells...
December 23, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009285/anabolism-associated-mitochondrial-stasis-driving-lymphocyte-differentiation-over-self-renewal
#19
William C Adams, Yen-Hua Chen, Radomir Kratchmarov, Bonnie Yen, Simone A Nish, Wen-Hsuan W Lin, Nyanza J Rothman, Larry L Luchsinger, Ulf Klein, Meinrad Busslinger, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Hans-Willem Snoeck, Steven L Reiner
Regeneration requires related cells to diverge in fate. We show that activated lymphocytes yield sibling cells with unequal elimination of aged mitochondria. Disparate mitochondrial clearance impacts cell fate and reflects larger constellations of opposing metabolic states. Differentiation driven by an anabolic constellation of PI3K/mTOR activation, aerobic glycolysis, inhibited autophagy, mitochondrial stasis, and ROS production is balanced with self-renewal maintained by a catabolic constellation of AMPK activation, mitochondrial elimination, oxidative metabolism, and maintenance of FoxO1 activity...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006657/the-6-chromanol-derivate-sul-109-enables-prolonged-hypothermic-storage-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#20
Ghazaleh Hajmousa, Pieter Vogelaar, Linda A Brouwer, Adrianus C van der Graaf, Robert H Henning, Guido Krenning
Encouraging advances in cell therapy research with adipose derived stem cells (ASC) require an effective short-term preservation method that provides time for quality control and transport of cells from their manufacturing facility to their clinical destination. Hypothermic storage of cells in their specific growth media offers an alternative and simple preservation method to liquid nitrogen cryopreservation or commercial preservation fluids for short-term storage and transport. However, accumulation of cell damage during hypothermia may result in cell injury and death upon rewarming through the production of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 2017: Biomaterials
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