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Mitochondria cell differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447797/signal-transductions-of-beas-2b-cells-in-response-to-carcinogenic-pm2-5-exposure-based-on-microfluidic-system
#1
Lulu Zheng, Sixiu Liu, Guoshun Zhuang, Jian Xu, Qi Liu, Xinlian Zhang, Congrui Deng, Zhigang Guo, Wang Zhao, Tingna Liu, Yiqi Wang, Yuxiao Zhang, Jing Lin, Qiongzhen Wang, Guodong Sui
PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter) is considered as a harmful carcinogen. Determining the precise relationship between the chemical constituents of PM2.5 in the air and cancer progression could aid the treatment of environment related disease and establishing risk reduction strategies. Herein, we used transcriptomics (RNA-seq) and integrated microfluidic system to identify the global gene expression and differential target proteins expression induced by ambient fine particles collected from the heavy haze in China...
April 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441355/-188-re-liposome-can-induce-mitochondrial-autophagy-and-reverse-drug-resistance-for-ovarian-cancer-from-bench-evidence-to-preliminary-clinical-proof-of-concept
#2
Chia-Ming Chang, Keng-Li Lan, Wen-Sheng Huang, Yi-Jang Lee, Te-Wei Lee, Chih-Hsien Chang, Chi-Mu Chuang
Despite standard treatment, about 70% of ovarian cancer will recur. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated in the drug-resistance mechanism. Several drug resistance mechanisms have been proposed, and among these, autophagy plays a crucial role for the maintenance and tumorigenicity of CSCs. Compared to their differentiated counterparts, CSCs have been demonstrated to display a significantly higher level of autophagy flux. Moreover, mitophagy, a specific type of autophagy that selectively degrades excessive or damaged mitochondria, is shown to contribute to cancer progression and recurrence in several types of tumors...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430982/evidence-of-nuclei-encoded-spliceosome-mediating-splicing-of-mitochondrial-rna
#3
Roberto H Herai, Priscilla D Negraes, Alysson R Muotri
Mitochondria are thought to have originated as free-living prokaryotes. Mitochondria organelles have small circular genomes with substantial structural (absence of histones and introns) and genetic similarity to bacteria. Contrary to the prevailing concept of intronless mitochondria, here we present evidences that mitochondrial RNA transcripts (mtRNA) are not limited to policystronic molecules, but also processed as nuclei-like transcripts that are differentially spliced and expressed in a cell-type specific manner...
April 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426722/interactions-between-mitoneet-and-naf-1-in-cells
#4
Ola Karmi, Sarah H Holt, Luhua Song, Sagi Tamir, Yuting Luo, Fang Bai, Ammar Adenwalla, Merav Darash-Yahana, Yang-Sung Sohn, Patricia A Jennings, Rajeev K Azad, Jose' N Onuchic, Faruck Morcos, Rachel Nechushtai, Ron Mittler
The NEET proteins mitoNEET (mNT) and nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) are required for cancer cell proliferation and resistance to oxidative stress. NAF-1 and mNT are also implicated in a number of other human pathologies including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease, as well as in development, differentiation and aging. Previous studies suggested that mNT and NAF-1 could function in the same pathway in mammalian cells, preventing the over-accumulation of iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423718/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-yamanaka-factors-reprogrammed-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Kun Wang, Zhiyan Shan, Lian Duan, Tiantian Gong, Feng Liu, Yue Zhang, Zhendong Wang, Jingling Shen, Lei Lei
Cancer cells had been developed to be reprogrammed into embryonic stem like cells by induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology, however, the tumor differentiation/dedifferentiation mechanisms had not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale. Here, we inserted the four stem cell transcription factor genes OCT4, SOX2, C-MYC and KLF4 into MCF cells (MCFs), represented a female breast cancer cell type, and obtained iPSCs (Mcfips) in about 3 weeks. By using the LC MS/MS iTRAQ technology, we analyzed the proteomic changes between MCFs and Mcfips...
March 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423196/melatonin-enhances-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-and-engraftment-by-increasing-mitochondrial-function
#6
Miguel Mendivil-Perez, Viviana Soto-Mercado, Ana Guerra-Librero, Beatriz I Fernandez-Gil, Javier Florido, Ying-Qiang Shen, Miguel A Tejada, Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez, Iryna Rusanova, José M Garcia-Verdugo, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, Luis Carlos López, Carlos Velez-Pardo, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, José M Ferrer, Germaine Escames
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are regarded as a promising therapeutic approach to protecting and restoring damaged neurons in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (PD and AD, respectively). However, new research suggests that NSC differentiation is required to make this strategy effective. Several studies have demonstrated that melatonin increases mature neuronal markers, which reflects NSC differentiation into neurons. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of mitochondria in the effects of melatonin during NSC differentiation has not yet been fully established...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421116/mitochondrial-maturation-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#7
Dao-Fu Dai, Maria Elena Danoviz, Brian Wiczer, Michael A Laflamme, Rong Tian
Human pluripotent stem cells derived cardiomyocytes (PSC-CMs) have been widely used for disease modeling, drug safety screening, and preclinical cell therapy to regenerate myocardium. Most studies have utilized PSC-CM grown in vitro for a relatively short period after differentiation. These PSC-CMs demonstrated structural, electrophysiological, and mechanical features of primitive cardiomyocytes. A few studies have extended in vitro PSC-CM culture time and reported improved maturation of structural and electromechanical properties...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416581/trp-channels-in-brown-and-white-adipogenesis-from-human-progenitors-new-therapeutic-targets-and-the-caveats-associated-with-the-common-antibiotic-streptomycin
#8
Anna Goralczyk, Marc van Vijven, Mathilde Koch, Cedric Badowski, M Shabeer Yassin, Sue-Anne Toh, Asim Shabbir, Alfredo Franco-Obregón, Michael Raghunath
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal cell sensors responding to diverse stimuli and widely implicated in the developmental programs of numerous tissues. The evidence for an involvement of TRP family members in adipogenesis, however, is scant. We present the first comprehensive expression profile of all known 27 human TRP genes in mesenchymal progenitors cells during white or brown adipogenesis. Using positive trilineage differentiation as an exclusion criterion, TRP polycystic (P)3, and TPR melastatin (M)8 were found to be uniquely adipospecific...
April 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415797/rab7-gtpase-controls-lipid-metabolic-signaling-in-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#9
Xinchun Ding, Wenjing Zhang, Ting Zhao, Cong Yan, Hong Du
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a critical neutral lipid metabolic enzyme that regulates metabolic reprogramming in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) through over-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Affymetrix GeneChip microarray analysis of MDSCs from LAL deficient mouse (lal-/-) revealed upregulation of Rab7 GTPase protein, which belongs to a superfamily of small-molecular-weight GTPase known to regulate intracellular membrane trafficking from early to late endosomes and lysosomes. Here, the physical protein-protein interaction between Rab7 GTPase and mTOR has been detected by co-immunoprecipitation in the cell extract of wild type HD1A and lal-/- MDSC-like HD1B myeloid cell lines...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409773/the-making-of-a-mammalian-peroxisome-version-2-0-mitochondria-get-into-the-mix
#10
Michael Schrader, Luca Pellegrini
A recent report from the Laboratory of Heidi McBride (McGill University) presents a role for mitochondria in the de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. Peroxisomes are essential organelles responsible for a wide variety of biochemical functions, from the generation of bile to plasmalogen synthesis, reduction of peroxides, and the oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids. Like mitochondria, peroxisomes proliferate primarily through growth and division of pre-existing peroxisomes. However, unlike mitochondria, peroxisomes do not fuse; further, and perhaps most importantly, they can also be born de novo, a process thought to occur through the generation of pre-peroxisomal vesicles that originate from the endoplasmic reticulum...
April 14, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407697/cytosolic-hsp90%C3%AE-and-its-mitochondrial-isoform-trap1-are-differentially-required-in-a-breast-cancer-model
#11
Evangelia Vartholomaiou, Marta Madon-Simon, Stéphane Hagmann, Guillaume Mühlebach, Wolfgang Wurst, Thomas Floss, Didier Picard
The Hsp90 family of molecular chaperones includes the cytosolic isoforms Hsp90α and Hsp90β, and the mitochondrial isoform Trap1. Hsp90α/β support a large number of client proteins in the cytoplasm and the nucleus whereas Trap1 regulates oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Many of the associated proteins and cellular processes are relevant to cancer, and there is ample pharmacological and genetic evidence to support the idea that Hsp90α/β and Trap1 are required for tumorigenesis. However, a direct and comparative genetic test in a mouse cancer model has not been done...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401437/estrogens-regulate-life-and-death-in-mitochondria
#12
Carolyn M Klinge
Estrogens coordinate and integrate cellular metabolism and mitochondrial activities by direct and indirect mechanisms mediated by differential expression and localization of estrogen receptors (ER) in a cell-specific manner. Estrogens regulate transcription and cell signaling pathways that converge to stimulate mitochondrial function- including mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial fusion and fission, calcium homeostasis, and antioxidant defense against free radicals. Estrogens regulate nuclear gene transcription by binding and activating the classical genomic estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) and by activating plasma membrane-associated mERα, mERβ, and G-protein coupled ER (GPER, GPER1)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401359/ultrastructure-of-fat-body-cells-and-malpighian-tubule-cells-in-overwintering-scoliopteryx-libatrix-noctuoidea
#13
Saška Lipovšek, Franc Janžekovič, Tone Novak
The herald moths, Scoliopteryx libatrix, overwinter in hypogean habitats. The ultrastructure of their fat body (FB) cells and Malpighian tubule (MT) epithelial cells was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and essential biometric and biochemical measurements were performed. The FB was composed of adipocytes and sparse urocytes. The ultrastructure of both cells did not change considerably during this natural starvation period, except for rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) which became more abundant in March females...
April 11, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399880/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-parkin-substrates-in-drosophila-neurons
#14
Aitor Martinez, Benoit Lectez, Juanma Ramirez, Oliver Popp, James D Sutherland, Sylvie Urbé, Gunnar Dittmar, Michael J Clague, Ugo Mayor
BACKGROUND: Parkin (PARK2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is commonly mutated in Familial Parkinson's Disease (PD). In cell culture models, Parkin is recruited to acutely depolarised mitochondria by PINK1. PINK1 activates Parkin activity leading to ubiquitination of multiple proteins, which in turn promotes clearance of mitochondria by mitophagy. Many substrates have been identified using cell culture models in combination with depolarising drugs or proteasome inhibitors, but not in more physiological settings...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398002/alpha-ketoglutarate-curbs-differentiation-and-induces-cell-death-in-mesenchymal-stromal-precursors-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#15
Karmveer Singh, Linda Krug, Abhijit Basu, Patrick Meyer, Nicolai Treiber, Seppe Vander Beken, Meinhard Wlaschek, Stefan Kochanek, Wilhelm Bloch, Hartmut Geiger, Pallab Maity, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek
Increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from dysfunctional mitochondria contribute to diverse aging-related degenerative disorders. But so far little is known about the impact of distinct ROS on metabolism and fate of stromal precursor cells. We here demonstrate that an increase in superoxide anion radicals due to superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) deficiency in stromal precursor cells suppress osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation through fundamental changes in the global metabolite landscape...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389691/deletion-of-adseverin-in-osteoclasts-affects-cell-structure-but-not-bone-metabolism
#16
Yixuan Cao, Yongqiang Wang, Sara Sprangers, Daisy I Picavet, Michael Glogauer, Christopher A McCulloch, Vincent Everts
Adseverin is an actin-severing/capping protein that may contribute to osteoclast differentiation in vitro but its role in bone remodeling of healthy animals is not defined. We analyzed bone and osteoclast structure in adseverin conditional null mice at alveolar and long bone sites. In wild-type and adseverin null mice, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, there were no differences of bone mineral content or bone mineral density, indicating no change of bone metabolism. In tibiae, TRAcP(+) osteoclasts were formed in comparable numbers in adseverin null and wild-type mice...
April 7, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387723/classical-and-novel-tspo-ligands-for-the-mitochondrial-tspo-can-modulate-nuclear-gene-expression-implications-for-mitochondrial-retrograde-signaling
#17
Nasra Yasin, Leo Veenman, Sukhdev Singh, Maya Azrad, Julia Bode, Alex Vainshtein, Beatriz Caballero, Ilan Marek, Moshe Gavish
It is known that knockdown of the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) as well as TSPO ligands modulate various functions, including functions related to cancer. To study the ability of TSPO to regulate gene expression regarding such functions, we applied microarray analysis of gene expression to U118MG glioblastoma cells. Within 15 min, the classical TSPO ligand PK 11195 induced changes in expression of immediate early genes and transcription factors. These changes also included gene products that are part of the canonical pathway serving to modulate general gene expression...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385400/nanomicelle-curcumin-induced-dna-fragmentation-in-testicular-tissue-correlation-between-mitochondria-dependent-apoptosis-and-failed-pcna-related-hemostasis
#18
Sana Moshari, Vahid Nejati, Gholamreza Najafi, Mazdak Razi
Current study was done to assess possible anti-proliferative effect of nanomicelle curcumin (NMCM) against germ cells in testicular tissue. For this purpose, 24 mature male Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups. The animals in test groups received 7.5mg/kg, 15mg/kg and 30mg/kg of NMC (NO=6 rats in each group). Following 48days, the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, P53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated by using reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry...
April 3, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382841/hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-fanconi-bickel-syndrome
#19
Jennifer Pogoriler, Allison F O'Neill, Stephan D Voss, Robert C Shamberger, Antonio R Perez-Atayde
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the facilitative glucose transporter 2 ( GLUT2 or SLC2A2) gene resulting in excessive glycogen storage predominantly in the liver and kidney. Previous case reports of this condition have described liver biopsies with glycogen storage and variable steatosis and/or fibrosis. Unlike in other types of glycogen storage disease, hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas have not been described to date in this syndrome. A 6-year-old boy with consanguineous parents had short stature, poorly controlled rickets, hepatosplenomegaly, and renal tubular dysfunction clinically consistent with Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380531/effect-of-abomasal-butyrate-infusion-on-gene-expression-in-the-duodenum-of-lambs
#20
A P Foote, C M Zarek, L A Kuehn, H C Cunningham, K M Cammack, H C Freetly, A K Lindholm-Perry
A previous study infusing butyrate into the abomasum of sheep produced increased oxygen, glucose, glutamate, and glutamine uptake by the portal-drained viscera. These changes were thought to be partially due to increases in glycolysis and cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duodenum transcriptome of control and butyrate-treated lambs to determine whether genes involved in these pathways were altered. Polled Dorset lambs ( = 9) received a pulse dose of either butyrate (10 mg/kg BW) or an equal volume of a buffered saline solution (1 mL/kg BW) daily at the time of feeding...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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