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Mitochondria cell differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779213/differential-toxicity-of-tdp-43-isoforms-depends-on-their-sub-mitochondrial-localization-in-neuronal-cells
#1
Illari Salvatori, Alberto Ferri, Silvia Scaricamazza, Ilaria Giovannelli, Alessia Serrano, Simona Rossi, Nadia D'Ambrosi, Mauro Cozzolino, Andrea Di Giulio, Sandra Moreno, Cristiana Valle, Maria Teresa Carrì
TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is an RNA binding protein and a major component of protein aggregates found in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and several other neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43 exists as a full length protein and as two shorter forms of 25 and 35 kDa. Full length mutant TDP-43s found in ALS patients re-localize from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and in part to mitochondria, where they exert a toxic role associated with neurodegeneration. However, induction of mitochondrial damage by TDP-43 fragments is yet to be clarified...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774118/proteomic-profiling-of-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-in-cancer-cachexia-alterations-in-sarcomeric-and-mitochondrial-protein-expression
#2
Angie M Y Shum, Anne Poljak, Nicholas L Bentley, Nigel Turner, Timothy C Tan, Patsie Polly
Background: Cancer cachexia is observed in more than 50% of advanced cancer patients, and impairs quality of life and prognosis. A variety of pathways are likely to be dysregulated. Hence, a broad-spectrum understanding of the disease process is best achieved by a discovery based approach such as proteomics. Results: More than 300 proteins were identified with > 95% confidence in correct sequence identification, of which 5-10% were significantly differentially expressed in cachectic tissues ( p -value of 0...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765861/mitochondrial-metabolism-mediated-regulation-of-adult-neurogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Ruth Beckervordersandforth
The life-long generation of new neurons from radial glia-like neural stem cells (NSCs) is achieved through a stereotypic developmental sequence that requires precise regulatory mechanisms to prevent exhaustion or uncontrolled growth of the stem cell pool. Cellular metabolism is the new kid on the block of adult neurogenesis research and the identity of stage-specific metabolic programs and their impact on neurogenesis turns out to be an emerging research topic in the field. Mitochondrial metabolism is best known for energy production but it contains a great deal more...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743968/altered-redox-homeostasis-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-disorders-organic-acidurias-and-homocystinuria
#4
REVIEW
Eva Richard, Lorena Gallego-Villar, Ana Rivera-Barahona, Alfonso Oyarzábal, Belén Pérez, Pilar Rodríguez-Pombo, Lourdes R Desviat
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are a group of monogenic disorders characterized by dysregulation of the metabolic networks that underlie development and homeostasis. Emerging evidence points to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction as major contributors to the multiorgan alterations observed in several IEMs. The accumulation of toxic metabolites in organic acidurias, respiratory chain, and fatty acid oxidation disorders inhibits mitochondrial enzymes and processes resulting in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740695/metabolic-influence-of-walnut-phenolic-extract-on-mitochondria-in-a-colon-cancer-stem-cell-model
#5
Jina Choi, Phil-Kyung Shin, Yuri Kim, Chang Pyo Hong, Sang-Woon Choi
PURPOSE: Walnut phenolic extract (WPE) reduces proliferation and enhances differentiation of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs). The present study investigated the metabolic influence of WPE on the mitochondrial function of colon CSCs to determine its underlying mechanism. METHODS: CD133+ CD44+ HCT116 colon cancer cells were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and were treated with or without 40 µg/mL WPE. RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were further validated with RT-PCR...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740477/determination-of-oocyte-manipulation-zygote-manipulation-and-genome-reprogramming-effects-on-the-transcriptomes-of-bovine-blastocysts
#6
Byungkuk Min, Jung S Park, Yong-Kook Kang
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (scNT) embryos suffer from damage caused by micro-operation (manipulation) and inefficient genome reprograming that hinder their normal development at different levels and in distinct ways. These two effects are inseparable in the nature of the scNT embryo, although methods to separately measure them are needed to improve scNT technology and evaluate incoming reprogramming tools. As an attempt to meet these demands, we made bovine sham nuclear-transfer (shNT) blastocysts, special embryos made with a standard nuclear-transfer procedure at the zygote stage, while retaining an intact genome...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734677/the-effect-of-bornyl-cis-4-hydroxycinnamate-on-melanoma-cell-apoptosis-is-associated-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#7
Tzu-Yen Yang, Yu-Jen Wu, Chi-I Chang, Chien-Chih Chiu, Mei-Li Wu
Bornyl cis -4-hydroxycinnamate, an active compound isolated from Piper betle stems, was investigated in terms of its effects on A2058 and A375 melanoma cell proliferation and protein expression in this study. We used flow cytometric analysis to examine the early stages of apoptosis induced by bornyl cis -4-hydroxycinnamate in the two melanoma cell lines and employed comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the effects of this compound on protein expression in A375 cells. Master maps generated by PDQuest software from two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of A375 cells showed that the expression levels of 35 proteins were significantly altered, with 18 proteins upregulated and 17 downregulated...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725380/tgf-%C3%AE-3-reduces-apoptosis-in-ischemia-induced-adipose-derived-stem-cells-by-enhancing-dna-repair
#8
Fan Wu, Haiwen Ye, Junfeng Lin, Yaodong Xu, Zhuasong Zhang, Hao Xiong, Maojin Laing, Yiqing Zhen, Suijun Chen
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) possess good proliferative and differentiative abilities, making then a promising candidate for the treatment of cartilage defects. However, local ischemia often causes apoptosis in ADSCs. Transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) is often used as a chondrogenic differentiation cytokine whose function in apoptosis is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of TGF-β3 in ischemia-induced ADSC apoptosis. In the present study, the phenotypes and multipotent differentiation properties of human ADSCs at passage 3 were analyzed using flow cytometry and cytochemical staining...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721087/resveratrol-counteracts-bone-loss-via-mitofilin-mediated-osteogenic-improvement-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-senescence-accelerated-mice
#9
Ya-Jie Lv, Yi Yang, Bing-Dong Sui, Cheng-Hu Hu, Pan Zhao, Li Liao, Ji Chen, Li-Qiang Zhang, Tong-Tao Yang, Shao-Feng Zhang, Yan Jin
Rational: Senescence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the related functional decline of osteogenesis have emerged as the critical pathogenesis of osteoporosis in aging. Resveratrol (RESV), a small molecular compound that safely mimics the effects of dietary restriction, has been well documented to extend lifespan in lower organisms and improve health in aging rodents. However, whether RESV promotes function of senescent stem cells in alleviating age-related phenotypes remains largely unknown. Here, we intend to investigate whether RESV counteracts senescence-associated bone loss via osteogenic improvement of MSCs and the underlying mechanism...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698803/fasting-and-refeeding-induces-changes-in-the-mouse-hepatic-lipid-droplet-proteome
#10
David A Kramer, Ariel D Quiroga, Jihong Lian, Richard P Fahlman, Richard Lehner
During fasting, the liver increases lipid storage as a mean to reserve and provide energy for vital cellular functions. After re-feeding, hepatocytes rapidly decrease the amount of triacylglycerol that is stored in lipid droplets (LDs), visible as the size of hepatic LDs significantly decreases after re-feeding. Little is known about the changes in the liver LD proteome that occur during the fasting/re-feeding transition. This study aimed to investigate the hepatic LD proteome in fasted and re-fed conditions in the mouse...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698455/isolation-of-mitochondria-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-using-magnetic-bead-affinity-purification
#11
Pin-Chao Liao, Istvan R Boldogh, Stephanie E Siegmund, Zachary Freyberg, Liza A Pon
Isolated mitochondria are widely used to study the function of the organelle. Typically, mitochondria are prepared using differential centrifugation alone or in conjunction with density gradient ultracentrifugation. However, mitochondria isolated using differential centrifugation contain membrane or organelle contaminants, and further purification of crude mitochondria by density gradient ultracentrifugation requires large amounts of starting material, and is time-consuming. Mitochondria have also been isolated by irreversible binding to antibody-coated magnetic beads...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693115/novel-zinc%C3%A2-and-silicon%C3%A2-phthalocyanines-as-photosensitizers-for-photodynamic-therapy-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#12
Jacob Schmidt, Weronika Kuzyniak, Janine Berkholz, Gustav Steinemann, Racheal Ogbodu, Björn Hoffmann, Geraldine Nouailles, Ayşe Gül Gürek, Bianca Nitzsche, Michael Höpfner
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an effective and minimally invasive cancer treatment modality. In the present study, two novel phthalocyanines, tetra‑triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and dihydroxy‑2,9(10),16(17),23(24)‑tetrakis(4,7,10‑trioxaundecan‑1‑sulfonyl) silicon phthalocyanine (Pc32), were investigated as photosensitizers (PS) for PDT of cholangiocarcinoma (CC). ZnPc showed a pronounced dose‑dependent and predominantly cytoplasmic accumulation in EGI‑1 and TFK‑1 CC cell lines...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689279/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-elevates-parkin-mediated-mitophagy-through-lon-peptidase-in-starvation
#13
Xiao-Yun Huang, Dan Li, Zhi-Xin Chen, Yue-Hong Huang, Wen-Yu Gao, Bi-Yun Zheng, Xiao-Zhong Wang
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most prevalent cancer worldwide. Specially, Hepatitis B viurs X protein (HBx) is a leading factor in the progression of Hepatitis B viurs-related HCC. Nutrient-deprived tumor microenvironment also contributes to tumor development. However, the role of HBx in nutrient-deprived HCC has received little investigation. Here, we show that HBx elevates PINK1-Parkin mediating mitophagy in starvation. HBx not only increases the PINK1/Parkin gene expression but also accelerates Parkin recruitment to partial mitochondria...
April 21, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688805/opa1-anchored-pka-phosphorylates-perilipin-1-on-s522-and-s497-in-adipocytes-differentiated-from-human-adipose-stem-cells
#14
Marie Rogne, Dinh-Toi Chu, Thomas M Küntziger, Maria-Niki Mylonakou, Philippe Collas, Kjetil Tasken
Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) targeting the pool of PKA responsible for perilipin 1 phosphorylation, a gatekeeper for lipolysis. However, the involvement of OPA1-bound PKA in the downstream regulation of lipolysis is unknown. Here, we show upregulation and relocation of OPA1 from mitochondria to lipid droplets during adipocytic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). We employed various biochemical and immunological approaches to demonstrate that OPA1-bound PKA phosphorylates perilipin 1 at S522 and S497 upon lipolytic stimulation...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687596/revealing-the-inhibitory-effect-of-ginseng-on-mitochondrial-respiration-through-synaptosomal-proteomics
#15
Dezhi Kong, Xiaolin Tian, Yunshan Li, Saihang Zhang, Yiru Cheng, Lifang Huo, Huanhuan Ma, Zuxiao Yang, Leiming Ren, Zhang Mingquan, Wei Zhang
Ginseng, the active ingredients of which are ginsenosides, is the most popular herbal medicine and has potential merit in the treatment of cerebral disorders. To better understand the function of Ginseng in the cerebral system, we examined changes in the protein expression profiles of synaptosomes extracted from the cerebral cortical and hippocampal tissues of rats administered a high or low dose of Ginseng for two weeks. More than five thousand proteins belonging to synaptosomes were simultaneously identified and quantitated by an approach combining tandem mass tags with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
April 23, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668854/prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-sulforaphane-in-a-preclinical-mouse-model-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-metabolism
#16
Krishna B Singh, Su-Hyeong Kim, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Subrata K Pore, Bruce L Jacobs, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a rather unique and targetable mechanism of human prostate cancer. We have shown previously that oral administration of sulforaphane (SFN) significantly inhibits the incidence and/or burden of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. The present study used cellular models of prostate cancer and archived plasma/adenocarcinoma tissues and sections from the TRAMP study to demonstrate inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by SFN treatment in vitro and in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665018/differential-response-of-human-dermal-fibroblast-subpopulations-to-visible-and-near-infrared-light-potential-of-photobiomodulation-for-addressing-cutaneous-conditions
#17
Charles Mignon, Natallia E Uzunbajakava, Irene Castellano-Pellicena, Natalia V Botchkareva, Desmond J Tobin
BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of photobiomodulation (PBM), demonstrating encouraging results for the treatment of cutaneous disorders. Confidence in this approach, however, is impaired not only by a lack of understanding of the light-triggered molecular cascades but also by the significant inconsistency in published experimental outcomes, design of the studies and applied optical parameters. This study aimed at characterizing the response of human dermal fibroblast subpopulations to visible and near-infrared (NIR) light in an attempt to identify the optical treatment parameters with high potential to address deficits in aging skin and non-healing chronic wounds...
April 17, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663563/the-effects-of-mitochondrial-dna-supplementation-at-the-time-of-fertilization-on-the-gene-expression-profiles-of-porcine-preimplantation-embryos
#18
Te-Sha Tsai, Justin C St John
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deficient metaphase II porcine oocytes are less likely to fertilize and more likely to arrest during preimplantation development. However, they can be supplemented with autologous populations of mitochondria at the time of fertilization, which significantly increases mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage due to the modulation of DNA methylation at a CpG island of the gene encoding mtDNA-specific polymerase, POLG, and promotes preimplantation development. Although mitochondrial supplementation does not increase development rates or mtDNA copy number in oocytes with normal levels of mtDNA copy number, we tested whether this approach would also impact on chromosomal gene expression patterns in these oocytes at each stage of preimplantation development...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661859/mitochondria-and-the-dynamic-control-of-stem-cell-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Pawel Lisowski, Preethi Kannan, Barbara Mlody, Alessandro Prigione
The maintenance of cellular identity requires continuous adaptation to environmental changes. This process is particularly critical for stem cells, which need to preserve their differentiation potential over time. Among the mechanisms responsible for regulating cellular homeostatic responses, mitochondria are emerging as key players. Given their dynamic and multifaceted role in energy metabolism, redox, and calcium balance, as well as cell death, mitochondria appear at the interface between environmental cues and the control of epigenetic identity...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658330/comparative-cytotoxicity-and-apoptotic-pathways-induced-by-nanosilver-in-human-liver-hepg2-and-l02-cells
#20
Y Xue, J Wang, Y Huang, X Gao, L Kong, T Zhang, M Tang
Silver nanoparticles are used in many commercial products in daily life. Exposure to nanosilver has hepatotoxic effects in animals. This study investigated the cytotoxicity associated with polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated nanosilver (23.44 ± 4.92 nm in diameter) exposure in the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and normal hepatic cell line (L02), and the molecular mechanisms induced by nanosilver in HepG2 cells. Nanosilver, in doses of 20-160 μg mL-1 for 24 and 48 h, reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced cell membrane leakage and mitochondria injury in both cell lines; these effects were more pronounced in HepG2 cells than in L02 cells...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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