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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326730/-influences-of-vibration-on-rapid-osteogenic-response-of-osteoblasts
#1
Zhu Zhuoli, Zhang Ling, Ma Ruiyang, Gan Xueqi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the rapid response of osteoblasts, which were derived from low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV). Refractory period-derived memory response was also observed. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells were incubated and received LMHFV stimulation (0.49 g, 40 Hz) for 30 min. After application of LMHFV, mRNA levels of earlier osteogenic differentiation markers Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), collagen typeⅠ(Col-Ⅰ), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were immediately detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the absence or presence of antioxidant...
February 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319092/the-tdh-gcn5l1-fbxo15-kbp-axis-limits-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-mouse-embryonic-stem%C3%A2-cells
#2
Valerio Donato, Massimo Bonora, Daniele Simoneschi, Davide Sartini, Yasusei Kudo, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Matthias Stadtfeld, Paolo Pinton, Michele Pagano
Self-renewing naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) contain few mitochondria, which increase in number and volume at the onset of differentiation. KBP (encoded by Kif1bp) is an interactor of the mitochondrial-associated kinesin Kif1Bα. We found that TDH, responsible for mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA in mESCs, and the acetyltransferase GCN5L1 cooperate to acetylate Lys501 in KBP, allowing its recognition by and degradation via Fbxo15, an F-box protein transcriptionally controlled by the pluripotency core factors and repressed following differentiation...
March 20, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315453/defects-in-mitochondrial-energetic-function-compels-fanconi-anemia-cells-to-glycolytic-metabolism
#3
Enrico Cappelli, Paola Cuccarolo, Giorgia Stroppiana, Maurizio Miano, Roberta Bottega, Vanessa Cossu, Paolo Degan, Silvia Ravera
Energetic metabolism plays an essential role in the differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In Fanconi Anaemia (FA), DNA damage is accumulated during HSC differentiation, an event that is likely associated with bone marrow failure (BMF). One of the sources of the DNA damage is altered mitochondrial metabolism and an associated increment of oxidative stress. Recently, altered mitochondrial morphology and a deficit in the energetic activity in FA cells have been reported. Considering that mitochondria are the principal site of aerobic ATP production, we investigated FA metabolism in order to understand what pathways are able to compensate for this energy deficiency...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314111/indication-for-differential-sorting-of-the-rat-v-snare-splice-isoforms-vamp-1a-and-1b
#4
Fiona R Rodepeter, Susanne Wiegand, Hans-Georg Lüers, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Anson W Lowe, Michael Bette, Ralf Jacob, Robert Mandic
SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins are essential constituents of the intracellular trafficking machinery. The variable C-terminus in the two rat VAMP-1 splice isoforms VAMP-1a and -1b potentially acts as a sorting signal since similar changes at the C-terminal end of a human VAMP-1 splice isoform resulted in its sorting to mitochondria. To evaluate differences in the subcellular localization of these two v-SNARE proteins, GFP and RFP tagged VAMP-1a and -1b proteins were expressed in HeLa, COS-7 and MDCK cells and evaluated by conventional confocal as well as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy...
March 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300190/a-mechanistic-study-of-gold-nanoparticle-radiosensitisation-using-targeted-microbeam-irradiation
#5
Mihaela Ghita, Stephen J McMahon, Laura E Taggart, Karl T Butterworth, Giuseppe Schettino, Kevin M Prise
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been demonstrated as effective radiosensitizing agents in a range of preclinical models using broad field sources of various energies. This study aimed to distinguish between these mechanisms by applying subcellular targeting using a soft X-ray microbeam in combination with GNPs. DNA damage and repair kinetics were determined following nuclear and cytoplasmic irradiation using a soft X-ray (carbon K-shell, 278 eV) microbeam in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and AG01522 fibroblast cells with and without GNPs...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295644/effect-of-vitrification-on-the-mrna-transcriptome-of-bovine-oocytes
#6
N Wang, C-Y Li, H-B Zhu, H-S Hao, H-Y Wang, C-L Yan, S-J Zhao, W-H Du, D Wang, Y Liu, Y-W Pang, X-M Zhao
Vitrification has been shown to decrease the developmental capacity of mammalian oocytes, and this is closely associated with the abnormal mRNA expressions of vitrified oocytes. However, the effect of vitrification on transcriptional machinery of oocytes examined by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has yet to be defined. In the present study, the mRNA transcriptomes of fresh and vitrified bovine oocytes were analysed by Smart-seq2 with the differently expressed genes determined by DEseq2 (an adjusted p-value of .05 and a minimum fold change of 2)...
March 12, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288859/mitochondrial-toxicity-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#7
Lei-Lei Tang, Jia-Dan Wang, Ting-Ting Xu, Zhe Zhao, Jia-Jie Zheng, Ren-Shan Ge, Dan-Yan Zhu
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic contaminant that may cause cardiotoxicity in animals and humans. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism by which it affects the organelle toxicity in cardiomyocytes during the cardiogenesis. Our previous proteomic study showed that differences of protein expression mainly existed in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells after exposure to PFOS. Here, we focused on mitochondrial toxicity of PFOS in ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes...
March 10, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286170/depletion-of-oxaloacetate-decarboxylase-fahd1-inhibits-mitochondrial-electron-transport-and-induces-cellular-senescence-in-human-endothelial-cells
#8
Michele Petit, Rafal Koziel, Solmaz Etemad, Haymo Pircher, Pidder Jansen-Dürr
In this study we report the identification of FAH domain containing protein 1 (FAHD1), a recently described member of the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) superfamily of metabolic enzymes, as a novel player in the regulation of cellular senescence. FAHD1 was found in a proteomic screen searching for mitochondrial proteins, which are differentially regulated in mitochondria from young and senescent human endothelial cells, and subsequently identified as oxaloacetate decarboxylase. We report here that depletion of FAHD1 from human endothelial cells inhibited mitochondrial energy metabolism and subsequently induced premature senescence...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285353/morphophysiological-study-of-digestive-system-litter-feeding-termite-cornitermes-cumulans-kollar-1832
#9
Géssica de Sousa, Vânia Cristina Dos Santos, Nelder de Figueiredo Gontijo, Reginaldo Constantino, Gabriela de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Ana Cristina Bahia, Fabio Mendonça Gomes, Ednildo de Alcantara Machado
Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline...
March 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283580/er-mitochondria-contacts-control-surface-glycan-expression-and-sensitivity-to-killer-lymphocytes-in-glioma-stem-like-cells
#10
Esen Yonca Bassoy, Atsuko Kasahara, Valentina Chiusolo, Guillaume Jacquemin, Emma Boydell, Sebastian Zamorano, Cristina Riccadonna, Serena Pellegatta, Nicolas Hulo, Valérie Dutoit, Madiha Derouazi, Pierre Yves Dietrich, Paul R Walker, Denis Martinvalet
Glioblastoma is a highly heterogeneous aggressive primary brain tumor, with the glioma stem-like cells (GSC) being more sensitive to cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated killing than glioma differentiated cells (GDC). However, the mechanism behind this higher sensitivity is unclear. Here, we found that the mitochondrial morphology of GSCs modulates the ER-mitochondria contacts that regulate the surface expression of sialylated glycans and their recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. GSCs displayed diminished ER-mitochondria contacts compared to GDCs...
March 10, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282966/experimental-mitochondria-targeted-dna-methylation-identifies-gpc-methylation-not-cpg-methylation-as-potential-regulator-of-mitochondrial-gene-expression
#11
Monique G P van der Wijst, Amanda Y van Tilburg, Marcel H J Ruiters, Marianne G Rots
Like the nucleus, mitochondria contain their own DNA and recent reports provide accumulating evidence that also the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is subjective to DNA methylation. This evidence includes the demonstration of mitochondria-localised DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, and the detection of mtDNA methylation as well as hydroxymethylation. Importantly, differential mtDNA methylation has been linked to aging and diseases, including cancer and diabetes. However, functionality of mtDNA methylation has not been demonstrated...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282037/sk2-channels-regulate-mitochondrial-respiration-and-mitochondrial-ca-2-uptake
#12
Birgit Honrath, Lina Matschke, Tammo Meyer, Lena Magerhans, Fabiana Perocchi, Goutham K Ganjam, Hans Zischka, Cornelius Krasel, Albert Gerding, Barbara M Bakker, Moritz Bünemann, Stefan Strack, Niels Decher, Carsten Culmsee, Amalia M Dolga
Mitochondrial calcium ([Ca(2+)]m) overload and changes in mitochondrial metabolism are key players in neuronal death. Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels provide protection in different paradigms of neuronal cell death. Recently, SK channels were identified at the inner mitochondrial membrane, however, their particular role in the observed neuroprotection remains unclear. Here, we show a potential neuroprotective mechanism that involves attenuation of [Ca(2+)]m uptake upon SK channel activation as detected by time lapse mitochondrial Ca(2+) measurements with the Ca(2+)-binding mitochondria-targeted aequorin and FRET-based [Ca(2+)]m probes...
March 10, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281933/spatial-regulation-of-araf-controls-the-mst2-hippo-pathway
#13
Jens Rauch, Walter Kolch
The RAF-MAPK signaling pathway regulates several very diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and transformation. While the canonical function of RAF kinases within the MAPK pathway is the activation of MEK, our group could demonstrate an important crosstalk between RAF signaling and the pro-apoptotic mammalian sterile 20-like kinase (MST2) tumor suppressor pathway in several cancer entities, including head and neck, colon, and breast. Here, the RAF kinases CRAF and ARAF sequester and inhibit the pro-apoptotic kinase MST2 independently of their own kinase activity...
March 10, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274921/the-unfolded-protein-response-in-relation-to-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#14
Zahra S Mesbah Moosavi, David A Hood
Mitochondria are comprised of both nuclear- and mitochondrially-encoded proteins requiring precise stoichiometry for their integration into functional complexes. The augmented protein synthesis associated with mitochondrial biogenesis results in the accumulation of unfolded proteins, thus triggering cellular stress. As such, the unfolded protein responses emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (UPR(ER)) or the mitochondrion (UPR(MT)) are triggered to ensure correct protein handling. Whether this response is necessary for mitochondrial adaptations is unknown...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273069/interplay-between-metabolic-identities-in-the-intestinal-crypt-supports-stem-cell-function
#15
Maria J Rodríguez-Colman, Matthias Schewe, Maaike Meerlo, Edwin Stigter, Johan Gerrits, Mia Pras-Raves, Andrea Sacchetti, Marten Hornsveld, Koen C Oost, Hugo J Snippert, Nanda Verhoeven-Duif, Riccardo Fodde, Boudewijn M T Burgering
The small intestinal epithelium self-renews every four or five days. Intestinal stem cells (Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar cells (CBCs)) sustain this renewal and reside between terminally differentiated Paneth cells at the bottom of the intestinal crypt. Whereas the signalling requirements for maintaining stem cell function and crypt homeostasis have been well studied, little is known about how metabolism contributes to epithelial homeostasis. Here we show that freshly isolated Lgr5(+) CBCs and Paneth cells from the mouse small intestine display different metabolic programs...
March 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271444/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-osteogenic-adipogenic-and-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Qianqian Li, Zewen Gao, Ye Chen, Min-Xin Guan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are progenitors of connective tissues, which have emerged as important tools for tissue engineering due to their differentiation potential along various cell types. In recent years, accumulating evidence has suggested that the regulation of mitochondria dynamics and function is essential for successful differentiation of MSCs. In this paper, we review and provide an integrated view on the role of mitochondria in MSC differentiation. The mitochondria are maintained at a relatively low activity level in MSCs, and upon induction, mtDNA copy number, protein levels of respiratory enzymes, the oxygen consumption rate, mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-associated genes, and intracellular ATP content are increased...
March 7, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270625/gametophyte-development-needs-mitochondrial-coproporphyrinogen-iii-oxidase-function
#17
Pritu Pratibha, Sunil Kumar Singh, Ramamurthy Srinivasan, Shripad Ramchandra Bhat, Yelam Sreenivasulu
Tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is one of the most essential metabolic pathways in almost all organisms. Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPO) catalyzes the conversion of Coproporphyrinogen III into Protoporphyrinogen IX in this pathway. Here we report that mutation in the Arabidopsis thaliana CPO coding gene At5g63290 (AtHEMN1) adversely affects silique length, ovule number and seed set. Athemn1 mutant alleles were transmitted via both male and female gametes but homozygous mutants were never recovered. Plants carrying Athemn1 mutant allele showed defects in gametophyte development including non-viable pollen and embryo sacs with unfused polar nuclei...
March 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260042/protective-effect-of-naringin-against-the-lps-induced-apoptosis-of-pc12-cells-implications-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#18
Hui Wang, You Song Xu, Miao Lin Wang, Chao Cheng, Rui Bian, Hao Yuan, Yi Wang, Ting Guo, Lin Lin Zhu, Hang Zhou
Several studies have demonstrated that increased apoptosis plays an essential role in neurodegenerative disorders. It has been demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces apoptosis largely through the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the potential protective mechanisms of naringin (Nar), a pummelo peel extract, on LPS-induced PC12 cell apoptosis. Nar pre-conditioning prior to stimulation with LPS for 18 h was a prerequisite for evaluating PC12 cell viability and the protective mechanisms of Nar...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253984/therapeutic-strategies-for-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-age-related-metabolic-disorders
#19
J S Bhatti, S Kumar, M Vijayan, G K Bhatti, P H Reddy
Mitochondria are complex, intercellular organelles present in the cells and are involved in multiple roles including ATP formation, free radicals generation and scavenging, calcium homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and cell death. Many studies depicted the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in aging and pathogenesis of age-related metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Remarkable advancements have been made in understanding the structure, function, and physiology of mitochondria in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245885/olive-oil-bioactive-compounds-increase-body-weight-and-improve-gut-health-and-integrity-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#20
Enric Gisbert, Karl B Andree, José C Quintela, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
An olive oil bioactive extract (OBE) rich in bioactive compounds like polyphenols, triterpenic acids, long-chain fatty alcohols, unsaturated hydrocarbons, tocopherols and sterols was tested (0, 0·08, 0·17, 0·42 and 0·73 % OBE) in diets fed to sea bream (Sparus aurata) (initial weight: 5·4 (sd 1·2) g) during a 90-d trial (four replicates). Fish fed diets containing 0·17 and 0·42 % OBE were 5 % heavier (61·1 (sd 1·6) and 60·3 (sd 1·1) g, respectively) than those of the control group (57·0 (sd 0·7) g), although feed conversion ratio and specific feed intake did not vary...
March 1, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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