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Mitochondria cell differentiation

Xixi Dou, Lichan Chen, Mingjuan Lei, Lucas Zellmer, Qingwen Jia, Peixue Ling, Yan He, Wenxiu Yang, Dezhong Joshua Liao
Organisms and their different component levels, whether organelle, cellular or other, come by birth and go by death, and the deaths are often balanced by new births. Evolution on the one hand has built demise program(s) in cells of organisms but on the other hand has established external controls on the program(s). For instance, evolution has established death program(s) in animal cells so that the cells can, when it is needed, commit apoptosis or senescent death (SD) in physiological situations and stress-induced cell death (SICD) in pathological situations...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Xuejiao Sun, Jianyuan Song, Hailong Huang, Hong Chen, Kun Qian
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) represents a devastating, progressive, heterogeneous, and the most common motor neuron (MN) disease. To date, no cure has been available for the condition. Studies with transgenic mice have yielded significant results that help us understand the underlying mechanisms of ALS. Nonetheless, none of more than 30 large clinical trials over the past 20 years proved successful, which led some researchers to challenge the validity of the preclinical models...
November 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Ayako Nakamura-Ishizu, Takayoshi Matsumura, Patrick S Stumpf, Terumasa Umemoto, Hitoshi Takizawa, Yuji Takihara, Aled O'Neil, A'Qilah Banu Bte Abdul Majeed, Ben D MacArthur, Toshio Suda
During acute myelosuppression or thrombocytopenia, bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cells respond rapidly to replenish peripheral blood platelets. While the cytokine thrombopoietin (Thpo) both regulates platelet production and maintains HSC potential, whether Thpo controls megakaryocyte (Mk)-lineage differentiation of HSCs is unclear. Here, we show that Thpo rapidly upregulates mitochondrial activity in HSCs, an activity accompanied by differentiation to an Mk lineage. Moreover, in unperturbed hematopoiesis, HSCs with high mitochondrial activity exhibit Mk-lineage differentiation in vitro and myeloid lineage-biased reconstitution in vivo...
November 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Sonia Spalletta, Vincenzo Flati, Elena Toniato, Jacopo Di Gregorio, Antonio Marino, Laura Pierdomenico, Marco Marchisio, Gabriella D'Orazi, Ivana Cacciatore, Iole Robuffo
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is the result of white adipose tissue accumulation where excess of food energy is stored to form triglycerides. De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is the continuous process of new fat production and is driven by the transcription factor ChREBP. During adipogenesis, white adipocytes change their morphology and the entire cell volume is occupied by one large lipid droplet. Recent studies have implicated an essential role of autophagy in adipogenic differentiation, cytoplasmic remodelling and mitochondria reorganization...
2018: PloS One
Ruiwen Li, Runfeng Zhang, Jiangying Yi, Wei Guo, Qiangjun Cheng, Lifeng Zhi, Yaqiu Lin
Schizothorax prenanti is a cold-water fish species with great economic importance in aquaculture in Western China, and the underlying mechanisms of muscle development and growth in S. prenanti remain to be elucidated. In this study, deep RNA sequencing was performed to provide an in-depth view of the transcriptome of skeletal muscle of S. prenanti with the specific objective to identify expressed genes in the skeletal muscle of S. prenanti at 30 days post-hatching (S01), 1 year (S02), and 3 years (S03)...
October 26, 2018: Gene
Swati Paliwal, Rituparna Chaudhuri, Anurag Agrawal, Sujata Mohanty
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as effective mitochondrial donors with therapeutic success in multiple experimental models of human disease. MSCs obtained from different tissue sources such as bone marrow (BM), adipose (AD), dental pulp (DP), and Wharton's jelly (WJ) are routinely used in clinical trials with no known study of their mitochondrial donor capacity. Here, we show for the first time that MSCs derived from different tissue sources have different mitochondrial donor properties and that this is correlated with their intrinsic respiratory states...
November 8, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Zhe Zhao, Yifan Li, Songchao Zhao, Jiawen Zhang, Hong Zhang, Bo Fu, Fan He, Mingqin Zhao, Pengfei Liu
Senescence affects the remobilization of nutrients and adaption of the plant to the environment. Combined stresses can result in premature senescence in plants which exist in the field. In this study, transcriptomic analysis was performed on mature leaves and leaves in three stages of premature senescence to understand the molecular mechanism. With progressive premature senescence, a declining chlorophyll (chl) content and an increasing malonaldehyde (MDA) content were observed, while plasmolysis and cell nucleus pyknosis occurred, mitochondria melted, thylakoid lamellae were dilated, starch grains in chloroplast decreased, and osmiophilic granules increased gradually...
November 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wen C Aw, Samuel G Towarnicki, Richard G Melvin, Neil A Youngson, Michael R Garvin, Yifang Hu, Shaun Nielsen, Torsten Thomas, Russell Pickford, Sonia Bustamante, Antón Vila-Sanjurjo, Gordon K Smyth, J William O Ballard
Diet may be modified seasonally or by biogeographic, demographic or cultural shifts. It can differentially influence mitochondrial bioenergetics, retrograde signalling to the nuclear genome, and anterograde signalling to mitochondria. All these interactions have the potential to alter the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes (mitotypes) in nature and may impact human health. In a model laboratory system, we fed four diets varying in Protein: Carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (1:2, 1:4, 1:8 and 1:16 P:C) to four homoplasmic Drosophila melanogaster mitotypes (nuclear genome standardised) and assayed their frequency in population cages...
November 2018: PLoS Genetics
Hsuan Chia Chang, Chien Han Kao, Shih Ying Chung, Wei Cheng Chen, Lulus Putri Aninda, Yi Huan Chen, Yi An Juan, Shen Liang Chen
PGC-1α is a key regulator of oxidative metabolism facilitating the expression of genes critical for the function and biogenesis of the two key oxidative organelles, mitochondria and peroxisomes, in skeletal muscle (SKM) and other organs. Our recent studies have found that the transcription factor Bhlhe40 negatively regulates PGC-1α gene expression and its coactivational activity, therefore, this factor should have profound influence on the biogenesis and metabolic activity of mitochondria and peroxisomes...
October 29, 2018: Redox Biology
Navid Sahebekhtiari, Paula Fernandez-Guerra, Zahra Nochi, Jasper Carlsen, Peter Bross, Johan Palmfeldt
The mitochondrial enzyme ETHE1 is a persulfide dioxygenase essential for cellular sulfide detoxification, and its deficiency causes the severe and complex inherited metabolic disorder ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE). In spite of well-described clinical symptoms of the disease, detailed cellular and molecular characterization is still ambiguous. Cellular redox regulation has been described to be influenced in ETHE1 deficient cells, and to clarify this further we applied image cytometry and detected decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in cultivated EE patient fibroblast cells...
November 2, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Kazuya Tsubouchi, Jun Araya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano
Mitochondria regulate not only cell functions through energy generation but also aging-associated cell phenotypes. Impaired mitochondrial structural and functional integrity accompanied by excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is associated with enhanced programmed cell death (PCD) and cellular senescence. Dysregulation of mechanisms for mitochondrial integrity, including mitophagy, induces accumulation of mitochondrial damage. Mitophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of selectively delivering damaged mitochondria for lysosomal degradation and is mainly governed by phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative protein kinase 1 (PINK1) and PARK2...
2018: Inflammation and Regeneration
W G Bottje
Mitochondria are responsible for roughly 90% of the ATP produced in a cell. A consequence of aerobic metabolism is oxidative stress that results from production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to inefficiency of electron transport. Several antioxidant-redox coupled reactions in the mitochondria help minimize oxidative damage in the mitochondria. These redox reactions not only protect mitochondria from oxidative damage but also are important in regulating cellular redox status. Oxidative stress from mitochondrial ROS occurs in broilers in pulmonary hypertension syndrome, heat stress, and in the phenotypic expression of feed efficiency...
October 27, 2018: Poultry Science
Dengqiu Xu, Zhenzhou Jiang, Zeren Sun, Lu Wang, Guolin Zhao, Hozeifa M Hassan, Sisi Fan, Wang Zhou, Shuangshuang Han, Luyong Zhang, Tao Wang
Pre-diabetes is characterized by impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or impaired fasting glucose. Impairment of skeletal muscle function is closely associated with the progression of diabetes. However, the entire pathological characteristics and mechanisms of pre-diabetes in skeletal muscle remain fully unknown. Here, we established a mouse model of pre-diabetes, in which 6-week-old male C57BL6/J mice were fed either normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 or 16 weeks. Both non-fasting and fasting glucose levels and the results of glucose and insulin tolerance tests showed that mice fed an 8-week HFD developed pre-diabetes with IGT; whereas mice fed a 16-week HFD presented with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG-IGT)...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Shiki Okamoto, Nur Farehan Asgar, Shigefumi Yokota, Kumiko Saito, Yasuhiko Minokoshi
BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimer with α1 or α2 catalytic subunits, acts as an energy sensor and regulates cellular homeostasis. Whereas AMPKα1 is necessary for myogenesis in skeletal muscle, the role of AMPKα2 in myogenic differentiation and energy metabolism-related gene expressions has remained unclear. We here examined the specific roles of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 in the myogenic differentiation and mitochondria and energy metabolism-related gene expressions in C2C12 cells...
October 22, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Erik L Jensen, Alvaro M Gonzalez-Ibanez, Pierina Mendoza, Lina M Ruiz, Claudia A Riedel, Felipe Simon, Jan J Schuringa, Alvaro A Elorza
The lack of copper has been associated with anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and leukemia as well as with a loss in complex IV activity and an enlarged mitochondrial morphology. Mitochondria play a key role during the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells by regulating the passage from a glycolytic to oxidative metabolism. The former is associated with cell proliferation and the latter with cell differentiation. Oxidative metabolism, which occurs inside mitochondria, is sustained by the respiratory chain, where complex IV is copper-dependent...
October 25, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Patrizia Straccia, Giuseppe Santeusanio, Francesco Pierconti, Chiara Brunelli, Guido Fadda
It is a diagnostic challenge to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms made up of Hürthle (or oncocytic) cells on cytologic material. They are large, polygonal cells with marked eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm reflective of overly abundant mitochondria. These cells commonly occur in nodular goiters and dominant adenomatous or hyperplastic nodules though they may also be the predominant component of neoplastic lesions. There are significant controversies concerning the optimal management of patients with oncocytic cell carcinoma...
October 24, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Yong Jie Qin, Wai Kit Chu, Li Huang, Clara Hoi Yen Ng, Tommy Chung Yan Chan, Di Cao, Cheng Yang, Liang Zhang, Shao Ping Huang, Juan Li, Hong Liang Lin, Wen Qian Li, Li Chen, Andrew V Schally, Sun On Chan, Hong Yang Zhang, Chi Pui Pang
Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the signaling of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) in the pathogenesis of pterygium and determine the apoptotic effect of GHRH-R antagonist on pterygium epithelial cells (PECs). Methods: Fourteen samples of primary pterygium of grade T3 with size of corneal invasion ≥ 4 mm were obtained for investigation by histology, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, explant culture, and flow cytometry. Results: We found that PECs were localized in the basal layer of the epithelium in advancing regions of the head of pterygium...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Lisa Ma Murray, Anna D Krasnodembskaya
The therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies may be largely dependent on the ability of stem cells to modulate host cells rather than on their differentiation into host tissues. Within the last decade, there has been considerable interest in the inter-cellular communication mediated by the transfer of cytoplasmic material and organelles between cells. Numerous studies have shown that mitochondria and lysosomes are transported between cells by various mechanisms, such as tunnelling nanotubes, microvesicles and cellular fusion...
October 24, 2018: Stem Cells
Teresa Faddetta, Loredana Abbate, Giovanni Renzone, Antonio Palumbo Piccionello, Antonella Maggio, Elisabetta Oddo, Andrea Scaloni, Anna Maria Puglia, Giuseppe Gallo, Francesco Carimi, Sergio Fatta Del Bosco, Francesco Mercati
Our results provide a comprehensive overview how the alloplasmic condition might lead to a significant improvement in citrus plant breeding, developing varieties more adaptable to a wide range of conditions. Citrus cybrids resulting from somatic hybridization hold great potential in plant improvement. They represent effective products resulting from the transfer of organelle-encoded traits into cultivated varieties. In these cases, the plant coordinated array of physiological, biochemical, and molecular functions remains the result of integration among different signals, which derive from the compartmentalized genomes of nucleus, plastids and mitochondria...
October 19, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Atsushi Saito, Kazunori Imaizumi
The function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can be impaired by changes to the extra- and intracellular environment, such as disruption of calcium homeostasis, expression of mutated proteins, and oxidative stress. In response to disruptions to ER homeostasis, eukaryotic cells activate canonical branches of signal transduction cascades, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR functions to remove or recover the activity of misfolded proteins that accumulated in the ER and to avoid irreversible cellular damage...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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