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Mitochondria cell differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526246/impaired-mitophagy-facilitates-mitochondrial-damage-in-danon-disease
#1
Sherin I Hashem, Anne N Murphy, Ajit S Divakaruni, Matthew L Klos, Bradley C Nelson, Emily C Gault, Teisha J Rowland, Cynthia N Perry, Yusu Gu, Nancy D Dalton, William H Bradford, Eric J Devaney, Kirk L Peterson, Kenneth L Jones, Matthew R G Taylor, Ju Chen, Neil C Chi, Eric D Adler
RATIONALE: Lysosomal associated membrane protein type-2 (LAMP-2) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that is critical for autophagic flux. Loss of function mutations in the LAMP-2 gene cause Danon disease, a rare X-linked disorder characterized by developmental delay, skeletal muscle weakness, and severe cardiomyopathy. We previously found that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from Danon patients exhibited significant mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524859/mesenchymal-stem-cells-sense-mitochondria-released-from-damaged-cells-as-danger-signals-to-activate-their-rescue-properties
#2
Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov, Lionel Augeul, Claire Crola Da Silva, Maud Jourdan, Muriel Rigolet, Sylvie Manin, René Ferrera, Michel Ovize, Adeline Henry, Aurélie Guguin, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti, Anne-Marie Rodriguez
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect tissues against cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion insults. This therapeutic effect seems to be controlled by physiological cues released by the local microenvironment following injury. Recent lines of evidence indicate that MSC can communicate with their microenvironment through bidirectional exchanges of mitochondria. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies report that MSCs rescue injured cells through delivery of their own mitochondria. However, the role of mitochondria conveyed from somatic cells to MSC remains unknown...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524096/itraq-mitoproteome-analysis-reveals-mechanisms-of-programmed-cell-death-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-induced-by-ochratoxin-a
#3
Yan Wang, Xiaoli Peng, Zhuojun Yang, Weiwei Zhao, Wentao Xu, Junran Hao, Weihong Wu, Xiao Li Shen, Yunbo Luo, Kunlun Huang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common and dangerous mycotoxins in the world. Previous work indicated that OTA could elicit spontaneous HR-like lesions formation Arabidopsis thaliana, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in OTA toxicity, and their major endogenous source is mitochondria. However, there has been no evidence as to whether OTA induces directly PCD in plants until now. In this study, the presence of OTA in Arabidopsisthaliana leaves triggered accelerated respiration, increased production of mitochondrial ROS, the opening of ROS-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pores and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol...
May 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522964/the-differential-organization-of-f-actin-alters-the-distribution-of-organelles-in-cultured-when-compared-to-native-chromaffin-cells
#4
Yolanda Gimenez-Molina, José Villanueva, Carmen Nanclares, Inmaculada Lopez-Font, Salvador Viniegra, Maria Del Mar Francés, Luis Gandia, Amparo Gil, Luis M Gutiérrez
Cultured bovine chromaffin cells have been used extensively as a neuroendocrine model to study regulated secretion. In order to extend such experimental findings to the physiological situation, it is necessary to study mayor cellular structures affecting secretion in cultured cells with their counterparts present in the adrenomedullary tissue. F-actin concentrates in a peripheral ring in cultured cells, as witnessed by phalloidin-rodhamine labeling, while extends throughout the cytoplasm in native cells. This result is also confirmed when studying the localization of α-fodrin, a F-actin-associated protein...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504694/the-prohibitin-repressive-interaction-with-e2f1-is-rapidly-inhibited-by-androgen-signalling-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#5
S Koushyar, G Economides, S Zaat, W Jiang, C L Bevan, D A Dart
Prohibitin (PHB) is a tumour suppressor molecule with pleiotropic activities across several cellular compartments including mitochondria, cell membrane and the nucleus. PHB and the steroid-activated androgen receptor (AR) have an interplay where AR downregulates PHB, and PHB represses AR. Additionally, their cellular locations and chromatin interactions are in dynamic opposition. We investigated the mechanisms of cell cycle inhibition by PHB and how this is modulated by AR in prostate cancer. Using a prostate cancer cell line overexpressing PHB, we analysed the gene expression changes associated with PHB-mediated cell cycle arrest...
May 15, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502718/mitochondrial-nd5-mutation-mediated-elevated-ros-regulates-apoptotic-pathway-epigenetically-in-a-p53-dependent-manner-for-generating-pro-cancerous-phenotypes
#6
Rajnish Kumar Singh, Sunil Saini, Dileep Verma, Ponnusamy Kalaiarasan, Rameshwar N K Bamezai
We have previously observed concomitant events of mutations in mitochondrial and nuclear genes, along with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and differential methylation within the promoters of nuclear genes in tumors and in vitro experiments of tumorigenesis. These observations have made it pertinent to replicate and understand the role of acquired mitochondrial condition in tuning a cell to accomplish a pro-cancerous state. Using a codon optimized vector system for exogenous over-expression and mitochondrial localization; we have characterized here the role of over-expressed wild type mtND5 and one of its non-synonymous somatic mutation, ND5:P265H...
May 11, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499702/prespermatogenesis-and-early-spermatogenesis-in-frogs
#7
Katarzyna Haczkiewicz, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Maria Ogielska
Spermatogenesis in frogs was for the first time divided into two phases: prespermatogenesis, when gonocytes proliferate in developing tadpole testes, and active spermatogenesis when spermatogonial stem cells (i.e. descendants of gonocytes), either self-renew or enter into meiotic cycles within cysts formed by Sertoli cells. We argue that amphibian larval gonocytes are homologues to mammalian gonocytes, whereas spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in adult frogs are homologous to mammalian single spermatogonia (As)...
March 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498364/convergence-of-mitochondrial-and-chloroplastic-anac017-pap-dependent-retrograde-signalling-pathways-and-suppression-of-programmed-cell-death
#8
Olivier Van Aken, Barry J Pogson
The energy-converting organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts are tightly embedded in cellular metabolism and stress response. To appropriately control organelle function, extensive regulatory mechanisms are at play that involve two-way exchange between the nucleus and mitochondria/chloroplasts. In recent years, our understanding of how mitochondria and chloroplasts provide 'retrograde' feedback to the nucleus, resulting in targeted transcriptional changes, has greatly increased. Nevertheless, mitochondrial and chloroplast retrograde signalling have largely been studied independently, and only few points of interaction have been found or proposed...
June 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495429/superoxide-hydrogen-peroxide-genetic-imbalance-modulates-differentially-the-oxidative-metabolism-on-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-exposed-to-seleno-l-methionine
#9
Karen Lilian Schott, Charles Elias Assmann, Fernanda Barbisan, Verônica Farina Azzolin, Beatriz Bonadiman, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Alencar Kolinski Machado, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz
Superoxide-hydrogen peroxide (S-HP) imbalance genetically caused by a gene polymorphism in the human manganese superoxide dismutase enzyme (Val16Ala-MnSOD) is associated with several dysfunctions and diseases. Into mitochondria, MnSOD catalyses superoxide radical producing hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Ala-MnSOD genotype presents a high MnSOD efficiency and generates the highest H2O2 concentrations that has been associated with the risk of several cancer types. Cellular selenoenzymes glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) as well as catalase (CAT) are essential to H2O2 removal produced in excess in cells...
May 8, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493341/design-and-validation-of-the-first-cell-impermeant-melatonin-receptor-agonist
#10
Florence Gbahou, Erika Cecon, Guillaume Viault, Romain Gerbier, Frederic Jean-Alphonse, Angeliki Karamitri, Gérald Guillaumet, Philippe Delagrange, Robert M Friedlander, Jean-Pierre Vilardaga, Franck Suzenet, Ralf Jockers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The paradigm that G protein-coupled receptors are able to prolong or initiate cellular signaling through intracellular receptors recently emerged. Melatonin binds to G protein-coupled MT1 and MT2 receptors. Different from most other hormones targeting GPCRs, melatonin and its synthetic analogs are amphiphilic molecules easily penetrating into cells, but the existence of intracellular receptors is still unclear mainly due to a lack of appropriate tools. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We therefore designed and synthesized a series of hydrophilic melatonin receptor ligands coupled to the Cy3 cyanin fluorophore to reliably monitor its inability of cellular penetration...
May 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492551/haploinsufficiency-in-the-mitochondrial-protein-chchd4-reduces-brain-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#11
Yanyan Sun, Tao Li, Cuicui Xie, Yiran Xu, Kai Zhou, Juan Rodriguez, Wei Han, Xiaoyang Wang, Guido Kroemer, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Klas Blomgren, Changlian Zhu
Mitochondria contribute to neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by releasing potentially toxic proteins into the cytosol. CHCHD4 is a mitochondrial intermembrane space protein that plays a major role in the import of intermembrane proteins and physically interacts with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of CHCHD4 haploinsufficiency on mitochondrial function and brain injury after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal mice. CHCHD4(+/-) and wild-type littermate mouse pups were subjected to unilateral cerebral HI on postnatal day 9...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487431/different-roles-of-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-complex-subunits-in-growth-and-infectivity-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#12
Miguel A Chiurillo, Noelia Lander, Mayara S Bertolini, Melissa Storey, Anibal E Vercesi, Roberto Docampo
Trypanosoma cruzi is the agent of Chagas disease, and the finding that this parasite possesses a mitochondrial calcium uniporter (TcMCU) with characteristics similar to that of mammalian mitochondria was fundamental for the discovery of the molecular nature of MCU in eukaryotes. We report here that ablation of TcMCU, or its paralog TcMCUb, by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 led to a marked decrease in mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake without affecting the membrane potential of these cells, whereas overexpression of each gene caused a significant increase in the ability of mitochondria to accumulate Ca(2+) While TcMCU-knockout (KO) epimastigotes were viable and able to differentiate into trypomastigotes, infect host cells, and replicate normally, ablation of TcMCUb resulted in epimastigotes having an important growth defect, lower rates of respiration and metacyclogenesis, more pronounced autophagy changes under starvation, and significantly reduced infectivity...
May 9, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487205/mitochondrial-determinants-of-cancer-health-disparities
#13
REVIEW
Aaheli Roy Choudhury, Keshav K Singh
Mitochondria are involved in the generation of energy, cell growth and differentiation, cellular signaling, cell cycle control, and cell death. To date, the mitochondrial basis of cancer disparities is unknown. The goal of this review is to provide an understanding and a framework of mitochondrial determinants that may contribute to cancer disparities in racially different populations. Mitochondria, which are multi-functional, have been implicated in the initiation and progression of cancers in relation to metabolic alterations in transformed cells...
May 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482903/heat-shock-factor-1-inhibits-the-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway-by-regulating-second-mitochondria-derived-activator-of-caspase-to-promote-pancreatic-tumorigenesis
#14
Wenjin Liang, Yong Liao, Jing Zhang, Qi Huang, Wei Luo, Jidong Yu, Jianhua Gong, Yi Zhou, Xuan Li, Bo Tang, Songqing He, Jinghong Yang
BACKGROUND: As a relatively conservative transcriptional regulator in biological evolution, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is activated by, and regulates the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in response to a variety of stress conditions. HSF1 also plays a key role in regulating the development of various tumors; however, its role in pancreatic cancer and the specific underlying mechanism are not clear. METHODS: We first examined HSF1 expression in pancreatic cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry, and then studied its clinical significance...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481867/the-rb-il-6-axis-controls-self-renewal-and-endocrine-therapy-resistance-by-fine-tuning-mitochondrial-activity
#15
S Kitajima, A Yoshida, S Kohno, F Li, S Suzuki, N Nagatani, Y Nishimoto, N Sasaki, H Muranaka, Y Wan, T C Thai, N Okahashi, F Matsuda, H Shimizu, T Nishiuchi, Y Suzuki, K Tominaga, N Gotoh, M Suzuki, M E Ewen, D A Barbie, O Hirose, T Tanaka, C Takahashi
Retinoblastoma (RB) protein inactivation during tumor progression is often associated with acquisition of immature phenotypes and resistance to therapy. Determination of an RB inactivation signature in a context of gaining undifferentiated phenotype in a p53-null sarcoma system revealed a critical role for interleukin (IL)-6. Using a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), we discovered that poorly differentiated breast cancers are enriched for this RB inactivation signature. Accelerated IL-6 secretion following RB inactivation in an RB-intact luminal-type breast cancer cell line MCF-7 promoted a positive feed forward loop between IL-6 and STAT3 driving tumor growth and endocrine therapy resistance...
May 8, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479382/characterization-and-expression-of-star2a-and-star2b-in-the-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#16
Dongdong Liang, Zhaofei Fan, Shenda Weng, Shuang Jiao, Zhihao Wu, Yuxia Zou, Xungang Tan, Jun Li, Peijun Zhang, Feng You
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein 2 (StAR2) is a key protein in transporting cholesterol from the outer mitochondria membrane to the inner mitochondria membrane for sex steroid synthesis. In this study, two StAR2 gene isoforms, StAR2a and StAR2b, were isolated from the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus gonads. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that their expression levels were higher in testis than those in ovary. StAR2a was mainly expressed in the thecal cells and ooplasm of ovary, and Leydig cells and spermatid of testis according to the results of in situ hybridization...
May 4, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476498/molecular-targets-of-chloropicrin-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Maija Pesonen, Jaana Rysä, Markus Storvik, Kirsi Rilla, Markku Pasanen, Kirsi Vähäkangas
Chloropicrin is a vaporizing, irritating compound that causes complications in the respiratory system when inhaled. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to chloropicrin for 24h on ultrastructure and global gene expression in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The treatment increased the number of round and shrunken cells, which detached from culture plates more readily than the untreated control cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed some swollen mitochondria and the appearance of autophagy/lysosome type of vacuoles in the treated cells...
May 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472853/genetic-rescue-of-mitochondrial-and-skeletal-muscle-impairment-in-an-ipscs-model-of-coenzyme-q10-deficiency
#18
Damià Romero-Moya, Carlos Santos-Ocaña, Julio Castaño, Gloria Garrabou, José A Rodríguez-Gómez, Vanesa Ruiz-Bonilla, Clara Bueno, Patricia González-Rodriguez, Alessandra Giorgetti, Eusebio Perdiguero, Cristina Prieto, Constanza Moren-Nuñez, Daniel J Fernández-Ayala, Maria Victoria Cascajo, Iván Velasco, Josep Maria Canals, Raquel Montero, Delia Yubero, Cristina Jou, José López-Barneo, Francesc Cardellach, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Rafael Artuch, Plácido Navas, Pablo Menéndez
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) plays a crucial role in mitochondria as an electron carrier within the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC), and is an essential antioxidant. Mutations in genes responsible for CoQ10 biosynthesis (COQ genes) cause primary CoQ10 deficiency, a rare and heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with no clear genotype-phenotype association, mainly affecting tissues with high-energy demand including brain and skeletal muscle (SkM). Here, we report a 4-year old girl diagnosed with minor mental retardation and lethal rhabdomyolysis harboring a heterozygous mutation (c...
May 4, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469467/interactions-of-tryptophan-and-its-catabolites-with-melatonin-and-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-receptor-in-central-nervous-system-and-psychiatric-disorders-role-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-direct-mitochondria-regulation
#19
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes
Recent work indicates an intimate interaction of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathways with the melatonergic pathways, primarily via TRYCAT pathway induction taking tryptophan away from the production of serotonin, which is a necessary precursor for the melatonergic pathways. The alpha 7 nicotinic receptor may be significantly modulated by this interaction, given its inactivation by the TRYCAT, kynurenic acid, and its induction by melatonin. Similarly, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is activated by both kynurenic acid and kynurenine, leading to CYP1A2 and melatonin metabolism, whereas melatonin may act to inhibit the aryl hydrocarbon receptor...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465321/programmed-mitophagy-is-essential-for-the-glycolytic-switch-during-cell-differentiation
#20
Lorena Esteban-Martínez, Elena Sierra-Filardi, Rebecca S McGreal, María Salazar-Roa, Guillermo Mariño, Esther Seco, Sylvère Durand, David Enot, Osvaldo Graña, Marcos Malumbres, Ales Cvekl, Ana María Cuervo, Guido Kroemer, Patricia Boya
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the sole projecting neurons of the retina and their axons form the optic nerve. Here, we show that embryogenesis-associated mouse RGC differentiation depends on mitophagy, the programmed autophagic clearance of mitochondria. The elimination of mitochondria during RGC differentiation was coupled to a metabolic shift with increased lactate production and elevated expression of glycolytic enzymes at the mRNA level. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of either mitophagy or glycolysis consistently inhibited RGC differentiation...
May 2, 2017: EMBO Journal
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