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Mitochondria cell differentiation

Lars Peter Engeset Austdal, Gro H Mathisen, Else Marit Løberg, Ragnhild E Paulsen
Immediate early gene nerve growth factor-induced clone B (NGFI-B), a nuclear receptor important for differentiation and apoptosis, is expressed in mice and rat cerebellum from an early stage of postnatal development. Following apoptotic stimuli NGFI-B translocates to mitochondria to initiate cell death processes. Controlled cell death is critical for correct cerebellar development. Immunohistochemical analysis of NGFI-B in sections of mice cerebella showed NGFI-B to be expressed in granule neurons in vivo at a time (P8-11) when apoptosis is known to occur...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Mercedes Fernández-Moreno, Tamara Hermida-Gómez, M Esther Gallardo, Andrea Dalmao-Fernández, Ignacio Rego-Pérez, Rafael Garesse, Francisco J Blanco
INTRODUCTION: The generation of Rho-0 cells requires the use of an immortalization process, or tumor cell selection, followed by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide (EtBr), incurring the drawbacks its use entails. The purpose of this work was to generate Rho-0 cells using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with reagents having the ability to remove mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) more safely than by using EtBr. METHODOLOGY: Two immortalized hMSC lines (3a6 and KP) were used; 143B...
2016: PloS One
Junji Hamuro, Morio Ueno, Kazuko Asada, Munetoyo Toda, Monty Montoya, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita
Purpose: To clarify whether cultured human corneal endothelial cells (cHCECs), heterogeneous in their differentiation state, exhibit distinctive energy metabolism with the aim to develop a reliable method to sort cHCECs applicable for regenerative medicine. Methods: The presence of cHCEC subpopulations (SPs) was verified via surface cluster-of-differentiation (CD) marker expression. Cultured HCEC metabolic extracts or corresponding culture supernatants with distinctive cellular phenotypes in regard to energy-metabolism-related functional markers c-Myc and CD44 were prepared and analyzed via capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Qingye Li, Yuxian Tang, Jing Qin, Lan Yi, Yening Yang, Juan Wang, Jie He, Qi Su, Hui Tan
Diallyl disulfide (DADS) has been demonstrated to exert potent anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies indicate that DADS may induce the differentiation and/or apoptosis of human leukemia cells in vitro. However, the mechanisms underlying these anticancer effects remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in the subcellular localization of protein deglycase DJ‑1 (also known as Parkinsonism associated deglycase-7, PARK-7) in the cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondria of human leukemia HL‑60 cells induced by DADS, in order to provide novel experimental evidence for the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer mechanisms of DADS in leukemia cells...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kyoko Ito, Raphaël Turcotte, Jinhua Cui, Samuel E Zimmerman, Sandra Pinho, Toshihide Mizoguchi, Fumio Arai, Judith M Runnels, Clemens Alt, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Jessica C Mar, Rajat Singh, Toshio Suda, Charles P Lin, Paul S Frenette, Keisuke Ito
A single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is capable of reconstituting hematopoiesis and maintaining homeostasis by balancing self-renewal and cell differentiation. The mechanisms of HSC division balance, however, are not yet defined. Here we demonstrate, by characterizing at the single cell level a purified and minimally heterogeneous Tie2(+) HSC population, that these top hierarchical HSCs preferentially undergo symmetric divisions. The induction of mitophagy, a quality-control process in mitochondria, plays an essential role in self-renewing expansion of Tie2(+) HSCs...
October 13, 2016: Science
Jia Zhenwei
Mitochondria are important intracellular organelles which provide energy for cellular activities through oxidative phosphorylation. Recently, mitochondria have been shown to exhibit peculiar features in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), namely, PSCs rely mainly on glycolysis for energy supply in pluripotent states while mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function is gradually enhanced during PSCs differentiation. In contrast, during somatic reprogramming, the metabolic transition from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis is necessary for successful reprogramming...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Luke A J O'Neill
In this issue of Cell Reports, Van den Bossche et al. (2016) reveal that, once the M1 macrophage forms, the accompanying metabolic alterations in the mitochondria are irreversible, preventing differentiation into the more homeostatic M2 macrophage.
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Aleksandra Cvoro, Aleksandar Bajic, Aijun Zhang, Marisa Simon, Igor Golic, Douglas H Sieglaff, Mirjana Maletic-Savatic, Aleksandra Korac, Paul Webb
Thyroid hormone (TH) receptors (TRs α and β) are homologous ligand-dependent transcription factors (TFs). While the TRs display distinct actions in development, metabolic regulation and other processes, comparisons of TRα and TRβ dependent gene regulation mostly reveal similar mechanisms of action and few TR subtype specific genes. Here, we show that TRα predominates in multipotent human adipose derived stem cells (hADSC) whereas TRβ is expressed at lower levels and is upregulated during hADSC differentiation...
2016: PloS One
Adam J Case, Colton T Roessner, Jun Tian, Matthew C Zimmerman
Norepinephrine (NE) produces multifaceted regulatory patterns in T-lymphocytes. Recently, we have shown that NE utilizes redox signaling as evidenced by increased superoxide (O2●-) causally linked to the observed changes in these cells; however, the source of this reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that the source of increased O2●- in NE-stimulated T-lymphocytes is due to disruption of mitochondrial bioenergetics. To address this hypothesis, we utilized purified mouse splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes stimulated with NE and assessed O2●- levels, mitochondrial metabolism, cellular proliferation, and cytokine profiles...
2016: PloS One
B C Medeiros, A T Fathi, C D DiNardo, D A Pollyea, S M Chan, R Swords
Alterations to genes involved in cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation are implicated in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies. Recurring mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes are detected in approximately 20% of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 5% of adults with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). IDH proteins are homodimeric enzymes involved in diverse cellular processes, including adaptation to hypoxia, histone demethylation, and DNA modification. The IDH2 protein is localized in the mitochondria and is a critical component of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, also called the 'citric acid' or Krebs) cycle...
October 10, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Qinglin Zhang, Zhi Liang, Yongxiang Gao, Maikun Teng, Liwen Niu
It has been reported that tumor growth and proliferation correspond to mitochondrial dysfunction and that the tumor cellular microenvironment plays a key role in tumor progression, representing an area that might be manipulated to confer therapeutic anti-tumor benefits. In this article, we have identified mitochondrial genes, largely nuclear-encoded genes, which are differentially expressed in breast cancer epithelial and stromal cells compared to cells from normal breast tissues. We determined that gene expression of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain complex I and IV and ATP synthesis were reduced in both in epithelial and stromal cancer cells compared to normal breast cells...
October 6, 2016: Gene
Yi-Chun Lin, Horng-Jyh Harn, Po-Cheng Lin, Ming-Hsi Chuang, Chun-Hung Chen, Shinn-Zong Lin, Tzyy-Wen Chiou
Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a promising source of autologous stem cells for personalized cell-based therapies. Culture expansion of ADSCs provides an attractive opportunity for liver cirrhosis patients. However, safety and stability issues can pose big challenges for personalized autologous stem cell products. In the present study, we addressed whether the commercial production program could provide a consistent product for liver cirrhosis therapy. We collected adipose tissue from three human donors by lipoaspirate and isolated ADSCs, which were expanded in culture to reach 1 × 10(8) cells (an approximately 1000-fold expansion) within four passages...
October 6, 2016: Cell Transplantation
M Águila Ruiz-Sola, M Victoria Barja, David Manzano, Briardo Llorente, Bert Schipper, Jules Beekwilder, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion
A wide diversity of isoprenoids is produced in different plant compartments. Most groups of isoprenoids synthesized in plastids and some produced elsewhere in the plant cell derive from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthesized by GGPP synthase (GGPPS) enzymes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, 5 genes appear to encode GGPPS isoforms localized in plastids (2), the endoplasmic reticulum (2), and mitochondria (1). However, the loss of function of the plastid-targeted GGPPS11 isoform (referred to as G11) is sufficient to cause lethality...
October 5, 2016: Plant Physiology
Quanquan Wang, Lili Zhang, Xiaodong Yuan, Ya Ou, Xuhong Zhu, Zanzan Cheng, Pingshu Zhang, Xiaoying Wu, Yan Meng, Liping Zhang
Our objective is to study the relationship between the regulatory proteins Bcl-2/Bax and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis during the differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into neurons. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting showed that the cells weakly expressed neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in the non-induced group and expressed NSE more strongly in the groups induced for 1 h, 3 h, 5 h and 8 h. NSE expression peaked at 5 h (P < 0.05), although there was no significant difference between 5 and 8 h (P > 0...
2016: PloS One
Yang Wang, Zhi-Hao Huang, Yang-Jia Li, Gui-Wei He, Ru-Yuan Yu, Jie Yang, Wan-Ting Liu, Bin Li, Qing-Yu He
Emerging evidence suggested that necroptosis has essential functions in many human inflammatory diseases, but the molecular mechanisms of necroptosis remain unclear. Here, we employed SILAC quantitatively dynamic proteomics to compare the protein changes during TNF-α-induced necroptosis at different time points in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells with caspase-8 deficiency, and then performed the systematical analysis on the signaling networks involved in the progress using bioinformatics methods. Our results showed that a total of 329, 421 and 378 differentially expressed proteins were detected at three stages of necroptosis, respectively...
October 4, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Rei Nagahara, Masayuki Kimura, Megu Itahashi, Go Sugahara, Masashi Kawashima, Hirotada Murayama, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Two solitary and minute tumors of 1 and 1.5 mm diameter were identified by microscopy in the left fourth mammary gland of a 13-year-old female Labrador Retriever dog, in addition to multiple mammary gland tumors. The former tumors were well circumscribed and were composed of small-to-large polyhedral neoplastic oncocytes with finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and were arranged in solid nests separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Scattered lumina of variable sizes containing eosinophilic secretory material were evident...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
María José Hernández-Corbacho, Mohamed F Salama, Daniel Canals, Can E Senkal, Lina M Obeid
Sphingolipids are bioactive lipids found in cell membranes that exert a critical role in signal transduction. In recent years, it has become apparent that sphingolipids participate in growth, senescence, differentiation and apoptosis. The anabolism and catabolism of sphingolipids occur in discrete subcellular locations and consist of a strictly regulated and interconnected network, with ceramide as the central hub. Altered sphingolipid metabolism is linked to several human diseases. Hence, an advanced knowledge of how and where sphingolipids are metabolized is of paramount importance in order to understand the role of sphingolipids in cellular functions...
September 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Takashi Kikuma, Takayuki Tadokoro, Jun-Ichi Maruyama, Katsuhiko Kitamoto
Autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotic cells for degradation of cellular proteins and organelles. In filamentous fungi, autophagic degradation of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria, and nuclei occurs in basal cells after the prolonged culture, but its mechanism is not well understood. Here, we functionally analyzed the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae AoAtg26, an ortholog of the sterol glucosyltransferase PpAtg26 involved in pexophagy in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Deletion of Aoatg26 caused a severe decrease in conidiation and aerial hyphae formation, which is typically observed in the autophagy-deficient A...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
E Bustos-Morán, N Blas-Rus, N B Martín-Cófreces, F Sánchez-Madrid
The immune synapse (IS) is a specialized structure established between different immune cells that fulfills several functions, including a role as a communication bridge. This intimate contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell promotes the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes involved in the contact. T-cell activation requires the specific triggering of the T-cell receptor (TCR), which promotes the activation of different signaling pathways inducing the polarization of the T cell. During this process, different adhesion and signaling receptors reorganize at specialized membrane domains, concomitantly to the polarization of the tubulin and actin cytoskeletons, forming stable polarization platforms...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Sophie Wecht, Mauricio Rojas
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a populace of non-haematopoietic multipotent stromal cells, which have the ability to differentiate into tissue derived from a single germ layer. MSCs have been isolated from various sites, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, synovium, spleen, thymus, lung and amniotic fluid, but are most often isolated from bone marrow. MSCs have several valuable functions that make them a promising therapeutic option in the field of regenerative medicine, including the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, the migration of cells to the site of injury when administered and the ability to 'rescue' cells through the transfer of functional mitochondria...
November 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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