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Mitochondria cell differentiation

Wenjing Cheng, Weimei Chen, Peng Wang, Jianfeng Chu
Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide can cause neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective role of asiatic acid (AA) against Aβ25-35 -induced neurotoxicity in neuronally differentiated PC12 cells. Differentiated PC12 cells were pretreated with 5, 10 or 20 μM AA before treatment with 20 μM Aβ25-35 . The viability and apoptosis of differentiated PC12 cells were determined by MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, respectively. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of differentiated PC12 cells was analyzed by JC-1 staining...
July 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Jing Li, Zhongjun Ding, Yue Yang, Baohong Mao, Yanxia Wang, Xiaoying Xu
Pregnancy complications are associated with abnormal cytotrophoblast differentiation and invasion. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important mediator of oxidative ischemia/reperfusion stress in the placenta. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) have been demonstrated to counteract oxidative free radicals. The effects of LBP in trophoblast HTR8/SVneo cells injured with H2O2 were examined. A cell counting kit‑8 assay was performed to detect the effect of LBP at different concentrations on the proliferative ability of H2O2 injured trophoblast cells...
July 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Nastassia Urien, Sophie Cooper, Antoine Caron, Helga Sonnenberg, Lisa Rozon-Ramilo, Peter G C Campbell, Patrice Couture
In the present study, we examined the subcellular distribution of metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Cu, Se and Zn) in the liver and gonads of wild white suckers (Catostomus commersonii) collected downstream from a metal mining operation (exposure area) and in a reference area. Metal partitioning among potentially metal-sensitive fractions (heat-denatured proteins (HDP), mitochondria and microsomes) and potentially biologically detoxified fractions (heat-stable proteins (HSP) and metal-rich granules) within cells was determined after differential centrifugation, NaOH digestion and heat-denaturation steps...
July 2, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Yongchao Liu, Lili Teng, Lanlan Chen, Hongchang Ma, Hong-Wen Liu, Xiao-Bing Zhang
Mitophagy induced by hypoxia plays an important role in regulating cellular homeostasis via the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria in the lysosomal degradation pathway, which results in physiological changes in the mitochondria, such as the pH, polarity and viscosity. However, the lack of an effective method for imaging of both the hypoxic microenvironment and the resulting variable mitochondria limits the visualization of hypoxia-induced mitophagy. Based on the specific mitochondrial pH changes during the hypoxia-induced mitophagy process, we have reported a near-infrared fluorescent probe (NIR-HMA) for real-time simultaneous visualization of the hypoxic microenvironment and the subsequent mitophagy process in live cells...
June 28, 2018: Chemical Science
An Xie, Anyu Zhou, Hong Liu, Guangbin Shi, Man Liu, Kenneth R Boheler, Samuel C Dudley
INTRODUCTION: Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is known to contribute to automaticity via the cytoplasmic Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX). Mitochondria participate in Ca2+ cycling. We studied the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ flux in ventricular spontaneous electrical activity. METHODS: Spontaneously contracting mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC)-derived ventricular cardiomyocytes (CMs) were differentiated from wild type and ryanodine receptor type 2 (RYR2) knockout mouse ESCs and differentiated for 19-21 days...
2018: PloS One
Krzysztof Marycz, Katarzyna Kornicka, Jennifer M Irwin-Houston, Christine Weiss
Endocrine disorders have become more and more frequently diagnosed in humans and animals. In horses, equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, inflammation and usually by pathological obesity. Due to an increased inflammatory response in the adipose tissue, cytophysiological properties of adipose derived stem cells (ASC) have been impaired, which strongly limits their therapeutic potential. Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondria deterioration and accelerated ageing of those cells affect their multipotency and restrict the effectiveness of the differentiation process...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Q M Zhai, B Li, Z W Wang, L Liu, Y Jin, F Jin
Objective: To investigate the effect of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria coupling and the expression of mitofusion 2 (Mfn2) in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC), so as to provide a theoretical basis and therapeutic target for promoting periodontal regeneration in treatment of periodontitis. Methods: The periodontal ligament tissue was scraped from extracted intact human teeth and teeth with periodontitis collected in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the Fourth Military Medical University...
July 9, 2018: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Angela Tramonti, Alessandro Paiardini, Alessio Paone, Amani Bouzidi, Giorgio Giardina, Giulia Guiducci, Maria Chiara Magnifico, Serena Rinaldo, Lee McDermott, Javier A Menendez, Roberto Contestabile, Francesca Cutruzzolà
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is a pivotal enzyme in one-carbon metabolism that catalyses the reversible conversion of serine and tetrahydrofolate into glycine and methylenetetrahydrofolate. It exists in cytosolic (SHMT1) and mitochondrial (SHMT2) isoforms. Research on one-carbon metabolism in cancer cell lines has shown that SHMT1 preferentially catalyses serine synthesis, whereas in mitochondria SHMT2 is involved in serine breakdown. Recent research has focused on the identification of inhibitors that bind at the folate pocket...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Kethmi N Jayawardhane, Stacy D Singer, Randall J Weselake, Guanqun Chen
Acyl-lipids such as intracellular phospholipids, galactolipids, sphingolipids, and surface lipids play a crucial role in plant cells by serving as major components of cellular membranes, seed storage oils, and extracellular lipids such as cutin and suberin. Plant lipids are also widely used to make food, renewable biomaterials, and fuels. As such, enormous efforts have been made to uncover the specific roles of different genes and enzymes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathways over the last few decades. sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) are a group of important enzymes catalyzing the acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate at the sn-1 or sn-2 position to produce lysophosphatidic acids...
July 10, 2018: Lipids
Karolina E Hilse, Anne Rupprecht, Monika Egerbacher, Sarah Bardakji, Lars Zimmermann, Andrea E M Seiler Wulczyn, Elena E Pohl
The involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases is widely acknowledged. However, contradictory reports show that the functions of UCP2/UCP3 are still disputed. We have previously described that UCP2 is highly abundant in cells that rely on glycolysis, such as stem, cancer and activated immune cells. In contrast, high amounts of UCP3 are present in brown adipose tissue, followed by heart and skeletal muscles - all known to metabolize fatty acids (FA) to a high extent...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Chiara Porta, Arianna Marino, Francesca Maria Consonni, Augusto Bleve, Silvia Mola, Mariangela Storto, Elena Riboldi, Antonio Sica
New evidences indicate that the metabolic instruction of immunity (immune metabolism) results from the integration of cell metabolism and whole body metabolism, that are both influenced by nutrition, microbioma metabolites and disease-driven metabolism (e.g. cancer metabolism). Cancer metabolism influences the immunological homeostasis and promotes immune alterations that support disease progression, hence influencing the clinical outcome. Cancer cells display increased glucose uptake and fermentation of glucose to lactate, even in the presence of completely functioning mitochondria...
July 2, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Krzysztof Marycz, Christine Weiss, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Katarzyna Kornicka
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are frequently used in both human and veterinary medicine because their unique properties, such as modulating the immune response and differentiating into multiple lineages, make them a valuable tool in cell-based therapies. However, many studies have indicated the age-, lifestyle-, and disease-related deterioration of MSC regenerative characteristics. However, it still needs to be elucidated how the patient's health status affects the effectiveness of MSC differentiation. In the present study, we isolated mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs)) from horses diagnosed with equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), a common metabolic disorder characterized by pathological obesity and insulin resistance...
2018: Stem Cells International
Andreas Aufschnaiter, Verena Kohler, Corvin Walter, Sergi Tosal-Castano, Lukas Habernig, Heimo Wolinski, Walter Keller, F-Nora Vögtle, Sabrina Büttner
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent trait of cellular decline during aging and intimately linked to neuronal degeneration during Parkinson's disease (PD). Various proteins associated with PD have been shown to differentially impact mitochondrial dynamics, quality control and function, including the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Here, we demonstrate that high levels of the enzymatic core of human LRRK2, harboring GTPase as well as kinase activity, decreases mitochondrial mass via an impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis in aging yeast...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Jette Lengefeld, Yves Barral
Asymmetric cell division generates cell diversity and contributes to cellular aging and rejuvenation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms enabling budding yeast to recognize spindle pole bodies (SPB, centrosome equivalent) based on their age, and guide their non-random mitotic segregation: SPB inheritance requires the distinction of old from new SPBs and is regulated by the SPB-inheritance network (SPIN) and the mitotic exit network (MEN). The SPIN marks the pre-existing SPB as old and the MEN recognizes these marks translating them into spindle orientation...
July 5, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Odelya H Kaufman, KathyAnn Lee, Manon Martin, Sophie Rothhämel, Florence L Marlow
The most prominent developmental regulators in oocytes are RNA-binding proteins (RNAbps) that assemble their targets into ribonucleoprotein granules where they are stored, transported and translationally regulated. RNA-binding protein of multiple splice forms 2, or Rbpms2, interacts with molecules that are essential to reproduction and egg patterning, including bucky ball, a key factor for Bb formation. Rbpms2 is localized to germ granules in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and to the Balbiani body (Bb) of oocytes, although the mechanisms regulating Rbpms2 localization to these structures are unknown...
July 5, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Stephen P Cobbold, Elizabeth Adams, Duncan Howie, Herman Waldmann
During an immune response, naïve CD4+ T cells proliferate and generate a range of effector, memory, and regulatory T cell subsets, but how these processes are co-ordinated remains unclear. A traditional model suggests that memory cells use mitochondrial respiration and are survivors from a pool of previously proliferating and glycolytic, but short-lived effector cells. A more recent model proposes a binary commitment to either a memory or effector cell lineage during a first, asymmetric cell division, with each lineage able to undergo subsequent proliferation and differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mahin Khatami
Maintenance of health involves a synchronized network of catabolic and anabolic signals among organs/tissues/cells that requires differential bioenergetics from mitochondria and glycolysis (biological laws or biorhythms). We defined biological circadian rhythms as Yin (tumoricidal) and Yang (tumorigenic) arms of acute inflammation (effective immunity) involving immune and non-immune systems. Role of pathogens in altering immunity and inducing diseases and cancer has been documented for over a century. However, in 1955s decision makers in cancer/medical establishment allowed public (current baby boomers) to consume million doses of virus-contaminated polio vaccines...
July 2, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Konstanze Kobel-Höller, Kevin Gley, Janina Jochinke, Kristina Heider, Verena Nadin Fritsch, Ha Viet Duc Nguyen, Timo Lischke, Renate Radek, Ria Baumgrass, Rupert Mutzel, Sascha Thewes
Calcineurin is involved in development and cell differentiation of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. However, since knockouts of the calcineurin-encoding genes are not possible in D. discoideum it is assumed that the phosphatase also plays a crucial role during vegetative growth of the amoebae. Therefore, we investigated the role of calcineurin during vegetative growth in D. discoideum. RNAi-silenced calcineurin mutants showed cellular alterations with an abnormal morphology of mitochondria and had increased content of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...
April 21, 2018: Protist
Li Zhao, Laiqing Zhu, Xiaoqian Guo
Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of the present study was to identify the protective role of valproic acid (VPA) against β-amyloid protein fragment 25-35 (Aβ25-35 )-caused neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Different doses of VPA was added to cultures of differentiated PC12 cells, 1 h before Aβ25-35 . We found that VPA effectively prevented Aβ25-35 -stimulated cytotoxicity through attenuating apoptosis and increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in PC12 cells...
June 25, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Francisco J Aulestia, Isabelle Néant, Jihu Dong, Jacques Haiech, Marie-Claude Kilhoffer, Marc Moreau, Catherine Leclerc
Quiescence is a reversible cell-cycle arrest which allows cancer stem-like cells to evade killing following therapies. Here, we show that proliferating glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSLCs) can be induced and maintained in a quiescent state by lowering the extracellular pH. Through RNAseq analysis we identified Ca2+ signalling genes differentially expressed between proliferating and quiescent GSLCs. Using the bioluminescent Ca2+ reporter EGFP-aequorin we observed that the changes in Ca2+ homeostasis occurring during the switch from proliferation to quiescence are controlled through store-operated channels (SOC) since inhibition of SOC drives proliferating GSLCs to quiescence...
June 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
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