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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458112/compatible-osmolytes-modulate-mitochondrial-function-in-a-marine-osmoconformer-crassostrea-gigas-thunberg-1793
#1
Eugene P Sokolov, Inna M Sokolova
Salinity is an important environmental factor affecting physiology of marine organisms. Osmoconformers such as marine mollusks maintain metabolic function despite changes of the osmolarity and composition of the cytosol during salinity shifts. Currently, metabolic responses to the salinity-induced changes of the intracellular milieu are not well understood. We studied the effects of osmolarity (450 vs. 900 mOsm) and compatible osmolytes (70-590 mM of taurine or betaine) on isolated gill mitochondria of a marine osmoconformer, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458000/evidence-for-a-mitochondrial-atp-regulated-potassium-channel-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#2
Piotr Bednarczyk, Anna Kicinska, Michal Laskowski, Bogusz Kulawiak, Rafal Kampa, Agnieszka Walewska, Milena Krajewska, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz, Adam Szewczyk
Mitochondrial ATP-regulated potassium channels are present in the inner membrane of the mitochondria of various cells. In the present study, we show for the first time mitochondrial ATP-regulated potassium channels in human dermal fibroblast cells. Using the patch-clamp technique on the inner mitochondrial membrane of fibroblasts, we detected a potassium channel with a mean conductance equal to 100 pS in symmetric 150 mM KCl. The activity of this channel was inhibited by a complex of ATP/Mg2+ and activated by potassium channel openers such as diazoxide or BMS 191095...
February 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456246/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Josephine M Forbes, David R Thorburn
Globally, diabetes is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death. Despite this burden, the factors that precipitate the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remain to be fully elucidated. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with kidney disease in nondiabetic contexts, and increasing evidence suggests that dysfunctional renal mitochondria are pathological mediators of DKD. These complex organelles have a broad range of functions, including the generation of ATP...
February 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453889/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-axon-degeneration-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Graham Campbell, Don Mahad
The neuron is the target of inflammatory demyelinating processes in multiple sclerosis (MS). In progressive MS, however, there is a gathering body of evidence indicating that molecular changes converge on mitochondria within neuronal cell bodies. The most reproducible change relates to mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiency, which compromises the capacity of neurons to generate ATP. The resulting energy failure state is coupled with an increase in demand for energy by the demyelinated axon, being particularly relevant to the long tracts such as corticospinal tracts with long projection axons...
February 17, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452639/mitochondrial-mdm2-regulates-respiratory-complex-i-activity-independently-of-p53
#5
Giuseppe Arena, Madi Yann Cissé, Samuel Pyrdziak, Laurent Chatre, Romain Riscal, Maryse Fuentes, Jamie Jon Arnold, Markus Kastner, Laurie Gayte, Christelle Bertrand-Gaday, Kevin Nay, Claire Angebault-Prouteau, Kerren Murray, Beatrice Chabi, Christelle Koechlin-Ramonatxo, Béatrice Orsetti, Charles Vincent, François Casas, Jean-Christophe Marine, Sandrine Etienne-Manneville, Florence Bernex, Anne Lombès, Craig Eugene Cameron, Hervé Dubouchaud, Miria Ricchetti, Laetitia Karine Linares, Laurent Le Cam
Accumulating evidence indicates that the MDM2 oncoprotein promotes tumorigenesis beyond its canonical negative effects on the p53 tumor suppressor, but these p53-independent functions remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a fraction of endogenous MDM2 is actively imported in mitochondria to control respiration and mitochondrial dynamics independently of p53. Mitochondrial MDM2 represses the transcription of NADH-dehydrogenase 6 (MT-ND6) in vitro and in vivo, impinging on respiratory complex I activity and enhancing mitochondrial ROS production...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452094/evolving-mechanisms-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-contraction-highlight-key-targets-in-vascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Zhongwei Liu, Raouf A Khalil
Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular function. Identifying the mechanisms of VSM contraction has been a major research goal in order to determine the causes of vascular dysfunction and exaggerated vasoconstriction in vascular disease. Major discoveries over several decades have helped to better understand the mechanisms of VSM contraction. Ca 2+ has been established as a major regulator of VSM contraction, and its sources, cytosolic levels, homeostatic mechanisms and subcellular distribution have been defined...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451229/m-aaa-proteases-mitochondrial-calcium-homeostasis-and-neurodegeneration
#7
REVIEW
Maria Patron, Hans-Georg Sprenger, Thomas Langer
The function of mitochondria depends on ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved m-AAA proteases in the inner membrane. These ATP-dependent peptidases form hexameric complexes built up of homologous subunits. AFG3L2 subunits assemble either into homo-oligomeric isoenzymes or with SPG7 (paraplegin) subunits into hetero-oligomeric proteolytic complexes. Mutations in AFG3L2 are associated with dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) characterized by the loss of Purkinje cells, whereas mutations in SPG7 cause a recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP7) with motor neurons of the cortico-spinal tract being predominantly affected...
February 16, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451200/modulation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Isaac G Onyango
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an increasingly pressing worldwide public-health, social, political and economic concern. Despite significant investment in multiple traditional therapeutic strategies that have achieved success in preclinical models addressing the pathological hallmarks of the disease, these efforts have not translated into any effective disease-modifying therapies. This could be because interventions are being tested too late in the disease process. While existing therapies provide symptomatic and clinical benefit, they do not fully address the molecular abnormalities that occur in AD neurons...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449618/codon-based-co-occurrence-network-motifs-in-human-mitochondria
#9
Pramod Shinde, Camellia Sarkar, Sarika Jalan
The nucleotide polymorphism in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) tolled by codon position bias plays an indispensable role in human population dispersion and expansion. Herein, genome-wide nucleotide co-occurrence networks were constructed using data comprised of five different geographical regions and around 3000 samples for each region. We developed a powerful network model to describe complex mitochondrial evolutionary patterns among codon and non-codon positions. We found evidence that the evolution of human mitochondria DNA is dominated by adaptive forces, particularly mutation and selection, which was supported by many previous studies...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449054/second-generation-antipsychotic-induced-mitochondrial-alterations-implications-for-increased-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#10
Giselli Scaini, João Quevedo, Dawn Velligan, David L Roberts, Henriette Raventos, Consuelo Walss-Bass
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is seen more frequently in persons with schizophrenia than in the general population, and these metabolic abnormalities are further aggravated by second generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs. Although the underlying mechanisms responsible for the increased prevalence of MetS among patients under SGA treatment are not well understood, alterations in mitochondria function have been implicated. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of drug-induced MetS in schizophrenia...
February 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447379/acute-exercise-is-not-cardioprotective-and-may-induce-apoptotic-signalling-in-heart-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Benedikte T Smenes, Fredrik H Bækkerud, Katrine H Slagsvold, Erlend Hassel, Martin Wohlwend, Maria Pinho, Morten Høydal, Ulrik Wisløff, Øivind Rognmo, Alexander Wahba
OBJECTIVES: During open-heart surgery, the myocardium experiences ischaemia-reperfusion injury. A single bout of moderate, 30-min exercise induces preconditioning and protects the heart from ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats, but this has never been investigated in humans. We aimed to investigate whether 1 bout of moderate exercise 24 h prior to surgery protects against mitochondrial and cardiac damage. METHODS: Patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass were eligible for this pilot study...
February 13, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444156/protein-s-glutathionylation-lowers-superoxide-hydrogen-peroxide-release-from-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-through-modification-of-complex-i-and-inhibition-of-pyruvate-uptake
#12
Robert M Gill, Marisa O'Brien, Adrian Young, Danielle Gardiner, Ryan J Mailloux
Protein S-glutathionylation is a reversible redox modification that regulates mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in liver and cardiac tissue. However, whether or not it controls ROS release from skeletal muscle mitochondria has not been explored. In the present study, we examined if chemically-induced protein S-glutathionylation could alter superoxide (O2●-)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) release from isolated muscle mitochondria. Disulfiram, a powerful chemical S-glutathionylation catalyst, was used to S-glutathionylate mitochondrial proteins and ascertain if it can alter ROS production...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441716/behavioural-mating-displays-depend-on-mitochondrial-function-a-potential-mechanism-for-linking-behaviour-to-individual-condition
#13
Rebecca E Koch, Geoffrey E Hill
Males of many animal species court females using complex behavioural displays that are challenging to produce, and some of these displays have been shown to be associated with aspects of male quality. However, the mechanisms by which behavioural displays are linked to individual condition remain uncertain. Herein, we illustrate fundamental mechanistic connections between mitochondrial function and neurogenesis, energy production, and a variety of pathways that underlie the ability of an individual to perform complex behaviours...
February 13, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441058/regulation-of-the-stress-activated-degradation-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-complexes-in-yeast
#14
Alba Timón-Gómez, David Sanfeliu-Redondo, Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Markus Proft
Repair and removal of damaged mitochondria is a key process for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Here we investigate in the yeast model how different protein complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are subject to specific degradation upon high respiration load and organelle damage. We find that the turnover of subunits of the electron transport complex I equivalent and complex III is preferentially stimulated upon high respiration rates. Particular mitochondrial proteases, but not mitophagy, are involved in this activated degradation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440322/neurodegeneration-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Graham Campbell, Don Mahad
The neuron is the target of inflammatory demyelinating processes in multiple sclerosis (MS). In progressive MS, however, there is a gathering body of evidence indicating molecular changes within neuronal cell bodies. All of these molecular changes to intrinsic neurons converge on mitochondria, and the most reproduced change relates to mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiency. This compromise in the capacity to generate ATP in the neuronal cell body is coupled with an increased demand for energy by the demyelinated axon, which is particularly relevant to the long tracts such as corticospinal tracts with long projection axons...
February 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440232/noncoding-rnas-long-non-coding-rnas-and-micrornas-in-endocrine-related-cancers
#16
Carolyn M Klinge
The human genome is 'pervasively transcribed' leading to a complex array of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that far outnumber coding mRNAs. ncRNAs have regulatory roles in transcription and post-transcriptional processes as well numerous cellular functions that remain to be fully described. Best characterized of the 'expanding universe' of ncRNAs are the ~ 22 nucleotide microRNAs (miRNAs) that base-pair to target mRNA's 3' untranslated region within the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and block translation and may stimulate mRNA transcript degradation...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438325/untargeted-metabolomics-profiling-of-an-80-5-km-simulated-treadmill-ultramarathon
#17
Christopher C F Howe, Ahmed Alshehri, David Muggeridge, Alexander B Mullen, Marie Boyd, Owen Spendiff, Hannah J Moir, David G Watson
Metabolomic profiling of nine trained ultramarathon runners completing an 80.5 km self-paced treadmill-based time trial was carried out. Plasma samples were obtained from venous whole blood, collected at rest and on completion of the distance (post-80.5 km). The samples were analyzed by using high-resolution mass spectrometry in combination with both hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) and reversed phase (RP) chromatography. The extracted putatively identified features were modeled using Simca P 14.1 software (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden)...
February 13, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438088/prohibitin-3-forms-complexes-with-isochorismate-synthase-1-to-regulate-stress-induced-salicylic-acid-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis
#18
Aldo Luis Seguel, Joanna Jelenska, Ariel Herrera-Vásquez, Sharon K Marr, Michael B Joyce, Kelsey R Gagesch, Nadia Shakoor, Shang-Chuan Jiang, Alejandro Fonseca, Mary Wildermuth, Jean T Greenberg, Loreto Holuigue
Salicylic acid (SA) is a major defense signal in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the main source of SA biosynthesis during abiotic stress (such as UV-C) or pathogen infections is a chloroplast-localized pathway. The enzyme isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1) uses chorismate to produce isochorismate, which is subsequently converted to SA by an as yet unknown enzyme in higher plants.  We show here that ICS1 protein levels increased during UV-C stress. To identify additional proteins that play roles in SA production via regulation of ICS1, proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with ICS1 were analyzed by mass spectrometry...
February 1, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436254/therapeutic-targets-for-altering-mitochondrial-dysfunction-associated-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
Renu A Kowluru, Manish Mishra
Retinopathy remains as one of the most feared blinding complications of diabetes, and with the prevalence of this life-long disease escalating at an alarming rate, the incidence of retinopathy is also climbing. Although the cutting edge research has identified many molecular mechanisms associated with its development, the exact mechanism how diabetes damages the retina remains obscure, limiting therapeutic options for this devastating disease. Areas covered: This review focuses on the central role of mitochondrial dysfunction/damage in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and how damaged mitochondria initiates a self-perpetuating vicious cycles of free radicals...
February 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434989/expression-and-potential-mechanism-of-metabolism-related-genes-and-crls1-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Hai-Ming Feng, Ye Zhao, Jian-Ping Zhang, Jian-Hua Zhang, Peng Jiang, Bin Li, Cheng Wang
Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid localized in the mitochondria, which is essential for mitochondrial structure and function. Human cardiolipin synthase 1 (CRLS1) is important in regulating phosphatidylglycerol (PG) remodeling and CL biosynthesis. However, the expression and distinct prognostic value of CRLS1 in neoplasms, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is not well established. In the present study, the mRNA expression of CRLS1 was investigated using Oncomine analysis and the prognostic value was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier plotter database for patients with NSCLC...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
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