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Mitochondria complex

Sang-Woo Kim, Yeon Kyung Lee, Jong Yeon Lee, Jeong Hee Hong, Dongwoo Khang
Although activating apoptosis in cancer cells by targeting the mitochondria is an effective strategy for cancer therapy, insufficient targeting of the mitochondria in cancer cells restricts the availability in clinical treatment. Here, we report on a polyethylene glycol-coated carbon nanotube (CNT)-ABT737 nanodrug that improves the mitochondrial targeting of lung cancer cells. The polyethylene glycol-coated CNT-ABT737 nanodrug internalized into the early endosomes via macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis in advance of early endosomal escape and delivered into the mitochondria...
October 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
Dongfang Hu, Shengliang Cao, Guihua Zhang, Yihong Xiao, Sidang Liu, Yingli Shang
Florfenicol (FLO) is one of the most popular antibiotics used in veterinary clinic and aquaculture. FLO can inhibit both bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis. However, the effects of FLO on mitochondrial function and cellular homeostasis remain unclear. Here we show that FLO inhibits expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins, decreases mitochondrial membrane potential, and promotes generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. As a result, activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I and IV and the cellular ATP level are decreased and mitochondrial morphology is damaged...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Danning Xu, Bingxin Li, Nan Cao, Wanyan Li, Yunbo Tian, Yunmao Huang
Heat stress can cause immune organ dysfunction and apoptosis. Polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz may have protective effects on immune organs. In this study, we established chicken models of Polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz-heat stress interaction and detected the oxidative index, activities of mitochondrial complexes and ATPases as well as the ultrastructure in chicken spleens. Expression levels of cytokines, mitochondrial dynamics- and apoptosis-related genes were also measured...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Jeremy P T Ward
Oxidant stress is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, including pulmonary hypertension, but antioxidant therapies have so far proven ineffective. This is partly due to a lack of understanding of the key role played by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in physiological cell signalling, and partly to the complex interrelationships between generators of ROS (e.g. mitochondria and NADPH oxidases, NOX), cellular antioxidant systems and indeed Ca(2+) signalling. At physiological levels ROS reversibly affect the function of numerous enzymes and transcription factors, most often via oxidation of specific protein thiols...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yifan Liu, Ming Han, Xiaoshuang Li, Hui Wang, Minyue Ma, Shihui Zhang, Yifan Guo, Shuling Wang, Yuanfen Wang, N Duan, Bing Xu, Jingwen Yin, Yuanqing Yao
STUDY QUESTION: What changes in the mitochondria of human mural granulosa cells (mGCs) with maternal aging? SUMMARY ANSWER: The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the ability of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) of mGCs declines with reproductive aging, accompanied with more abnormal mitochondria. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mitochondria play an important role in the dialogue between the mGCs and oocytes. However, the underlying mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in mGCs in aging is still poorly understood...
October 17, 2017: Human Reproduction
Bernard Korzeniewski
A computer model was used to simulate the dependence of protonmotive force (Δp), proton leak and phenomenological (involving proton leak) ATP/O2 ratio on work intensity in skeletal muscle. Δp, NADH and proton leak decreased with work intensity. The contribution of proton leak to oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) decreased from about 60% at rest to about 3 and 1% at moderate and heavy/severe exercise, respectively, while the ATP/O2 ratio increased from 2.1 to 5.5 and 5.7. A two-fold increase in proton leak activity or its decrease to zero decreased/increased the ATP/O2 ratio by only about 3 and 1% during moderate and heavy/severe exercise, respectively...
2017: PloS One
Timothée Vincent, Audrey Vingadassalon, Elodie Ubrig, Kevin Azeredo, Ola Srour, Valérie Cognat, Stéfanie Graindorge, Thalia Salinas, Laurence Maréchal-Drouard, Anne-Marie Duchêne
Intracellular sorting of mRNAs is an essential process to regulate gene expression and protein localization. Most of mitochondrial proteins are nuclear-encoded and imported into mitochondria, through post-translational or co-translational processes. In the latter case, mRNAs are found enriched in the vicinity of mitochondria. A genome-scale analysis of mRNAs associated with mitochondria has been performed to determine plant cytosolic mRNAs targeted to the mitochondrial surface. Many messengers encoding mitochondrial proteins were found associated with mitochondria...
October 17, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Takashi Makiuchi, Herbert J Santos, Hiroshi Tachibana, Tomoyoshi Nozaki
Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protist and possesses mitosomes, one of the most highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs). Although unique metabolism and protein/metabolite transport machinery have been demonstrated in Entamoeba mitosomes, the mechanism of mitosomal fusion and fission remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that two dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) are cooperatively involved in the fission of Entamoeba mitosomes. Expression of a dominant negative form of EhDrpA and EhDrpB, and alternatively, repression of gene expression of EhDrpA and EhDrpB genes, caused elongation of mitosomes, reflecting inhibition of mitosomal fission...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alejandra Jiménez-Suárez, Miriam Vázquez-Acevedo, Héctor Miranda-Astudillo, Diego González-Halphen
Subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox2) is usually encoded in the mitochondrial genome, synthesized in the organelle, inserted co-translationally into the inner mitochondrial membrane, and assembled into the respiratory complex. In chlorophycean algae however, the cox2 gene was split into the cox2a and cox2b genes, and in some algal species like Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Polytomella sp. both fragmented genes migrated to the nucleus. The corresponding Cox2A and Cox2B subunits are imported into mitochondria forming a heterodimeric Cox2 subunit...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
S A Filimonova
Trombidiform mites are characterized by the presence of several paired glands in the anterior body portion united by a common conducting duct (podocephalic canal). Apart from the acinous (salivary) glands the podocephalic system includes a pair of tubular coxal glands (CGs)responsible for osmoregulation. The aim of the present study was to figure out how functional changes of acinous glands reflect on the corresponding CG. For this purpose, the anatomy and fine structure of the CG were analyzed in two mite species, Bakericheyla chanayi and Ornythocheyletia sp...
October 14, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
Qun Chen, Jeremy Thompson, Ying Hu, Anindita Das, Edward J Lesnefsky
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a disturbance of the ER function, contributes to cardiac injury. ER and mitochondria are closely connected organelles within cells. ER stress contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is a key factor to increase cardiac injury. Metformin, a traditional anti-diabetic drug, decreases cardiac injury during ischemia-reperfusion. Metformin also inhibits ER stress in cultured cells. We hypothesized that metformin can attenuate the ER stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent cardiac injury...
September 28, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Linda Reinhard, Sagar Sridhara, B Martin Hällberg
Mitochondrial polycistronic transcripts are extensively processed to give rise to functional mRNAs, rRNAs and tRNAs; starting with the release of tRNA elements through 5'-processing by RNase P (MRPP1/2/3-complex) and 3'-processing by RNase Z (ELAC2). Here, we show using in vitro experiments that MRPP1/2 is not only a component of the mitochondrial RNase P but that it retains the tRNA product from the 5'-processing step and significantly enhances the efficiency of ELAC2-catalyzed 3'-processing for 17 of the 22 tRNAs encoded in the human mitochondrial genome...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Yu Wang, Chunhui Xia, Yanxin Lv, Chengjun Li, Qingbu Mei, Hongmei Li, Haijun Wang, Shuang Li
Our previous study indicated that anti-Fas antibody/actinomycin D (AF/AD) induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells; however, crosstalk influence between P38MAPK and autophagy on mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by AF/AD in Bel-7402 cells remains unclear. Therefore, effect of AF/AD on apoptosis, autophagy, phosphorylated-P38MAPK (p-P38MAPK), and membrane potential (ΔΨm) with or without the P38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) in Bel-7402 cells was investigated in the present study...
October 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Md Imamul Islam, Md Golam Sharoar, Eun-Kyoung Ryu, Il-Seon Park
Amyloid-β (Aβ), a main pathogenic factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), induces apoptosis accompanied by caspase activation. However, limited caspase activation and the suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway (IAPW) are frequently observed upon Aβ treatment. In this study, we investigated whether these suppressive effects of Aβ can be overcome; we also examined the death-related pathways. Single treatments of cells with Aβ42 for up to 48 h barely induced caspase activation. In cells treated with Aβ42 twice for 2 h followed by 22 h (2+22 h) or for longer durations, the apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) apoptosome was formed and caspases-3 and -9 were activated to a certain extent, suggesting the activation of the IAPW...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Wenjuan Tang, Sunyinyan Tang, Hongdong Wang, Zhijuan Ge, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
An early insulin regimen ameliorates glucotoxicity but also lipotoxicity in type 2 diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondria in lipid regulation following early insulin administration in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells. Male C57BL/6 mice, fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, were treated with insulin for 3 weeks, and L6 myotubes cultured with palmitate (PA) for 24 h were incubated with insulin for another 12 h. The results showed that insulin facilitated systemic glucose disposal and attenuated muscular triglyceride accumulation in vivo...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
S A Kake-Guena, K Touisse, B E Warren, K Y Scott, F Dufresne, P U Blier, H Lemieux
This study assessed the thermal sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration in the small crustacean Daphnia pulex. More specifically, we wanted to determine if clones that inhabit different latitudes and habitats showed differences in the thermal sensitivity of their mitochondrial function. The experimental design included two clones from temperate environments (Fence from Ontario and Hawrelak from Alberta) and two clones from subarctic environments (A24 from Manitoba and K154 from Quebec). The integrated mitochondrial function was measured with high-resolution respirometry following whole-animal permeabilization...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
L S Khailova, T I Rokitskaya, E A Kotova, Y N Antonenko
In this work, it was found that the ability of common uncouplers - carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) - to reduce membrane potential of isolated rat liver mitochondria was diminished in the presence of millimolar concentrations of the known cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor - cyanide. In the experiments, mitochondria were energized by addition of ATP in the presence of rotenone, inhibiting oxidation of endogenous substrates via respiratory complex I. Cyanide also reduced the uncoupling effect of FCCP and DNP on mitochondria energized by succinate in the presence of ferricyanide...
October 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Meng-Liang Lin, Shih-Shun Chen
Induction of the generation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(++))-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) by gallic acid (GA) has been implicated in the mitochondrial apoptotic death of human oral cancer (OC) cells, but the molecular mechanism by which GA causes ER Ca(++) release of OC cells to undergo cell death remains unclear. Here, we report that GA-induced phosphorylation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)-interacting killer (BIK) (threonine (Thr) 33/Serine (Ser) 35) and p53 (Ser 15 and Ser 392), Bcl-2-associated x protein (BAX)/BCL-2 antagonist killer 1 (BAK) oligomerization on the ER and mitochondria, rising of cytosolic Ca(+)(+) and ROS, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release from the mitochondria, Ψm loss, and apoptosis were suppressed in cells co-treated with a specific inhibitor of casein kinase II (CK II) (4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Hauke S Hillen, Andrey V Parshin, Karen Agaronyan, Yaroslav I Morozov, James J Graber, Aleksandar Chernev, Kathrin Schwinghammer, Henning Urlaub, Michael Anikin, Patrick Cramer, Dmitry Temiakov
In human mitochondria, transcription termination events at a G-quadruplex region near the replication origin are thought to drive replication of mtDNA by generation of an RNA primer. This process is suppressed by a key regulator of mtDNA-the transcription factor TEFM. We determined the structure of an anti-termination complex in which TEFM is bound to transcribing mtRNAP. The structure reveals interactions of the dimeric pseudonuclease core of TEFM with mobile structural elements in mtRNAP and the nucleic acid components of the elongation complex (EC)...
October 7, 2017: Cell
Jeremy A Ross, Elisa Robles-Escajeda, Derrick M Oaxaca, Diana L Padilla, Robert A Kirken
Prohibitins (PHB1 and PHB2) have been proposed to play important roles in cancer development and progression, however their oncogenic mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. Previously, we showed that the PHB1 and PHB2 protein complex is required for mitochondrial homeostasis and survival of normal human lymphocytes. In this study, novel evidence is provided that indicates mitochondrial prohibitins are overexpressed in hematologic tumor cells and promote cell survival under conditions of oxidative stress...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
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