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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822132/-13-co2-labeling-and-mass-spectral-analysis-of-photorespiration
#1
Leonardo Perez de Souza, Marek Szecówka, Alisdair R Fernie, Takayuki Tohge
Photorespiratory metabolism is compartmented over the chloroplast, peroxisome, cytosol, and mitochondria, and due to its complex structure it is often the case that metabolite levels alone are not able to fully describe photorespiration. Metabolic fluxes represent a more meaningful biological description of metabolism, adding to metabolite levels and often revealing different aspects of the system such as the presence of inactive metabolic pools of photorespiratory intermediates. We describe here a protocol for the (13)CO2 feeding of Arabidopsis and tracing of (13)C enriched metabolites for metabolic fluxes estimation, which allows high throughput analysis of labeling pattern on different metabolites involved in photorespiration and downstream processes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821867/identification-of-the-n-terminal-transmembrane-domain-of-stard7-and-its-importance-for-mitochondrial-outer-membrane-localization-and-phosphatidylcholine-transfer
#2
Yasuhiro Horibata, Hiromi Ando, Motoyasu Satou, Hiroaki Shimizu, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Yasuo Shimizu, Masahiko Itoh, Hiroyuki Sugimoto
StarD7 facilitates phosphatidylcholine (PC) transfer to mitochondria, and is essential for mitochondrial homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanism for PC transfer by protein remains poorly understood. Herein, we describe a putative novel transmembrane (TM) domain C-terminal to the mitochondria-targeting signal (MTS) sequence at the N-terminus of StarD7. The mature form of StarD7 is integrated and/or associated onto the outer leaflet of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) in HEPA-1 and HepG2 cells. A truncated form of StarD7 lacking the TM domain is distributed in the inner space of the mitochondria, and cannot reverse mitochondrial abnormalities, such as complex formation and PC content, when re-expressed in StarD7-KO HEPA-1 cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820965/systematic-identification-of-mcu-modulators-by-orthogonal-interspecies-chemical-screening
#3
Daniela M Arduino, Jennifer Wettmarshausen, Horia Vais, Paloma Navas-Navarro, Yiming Cheng, Anja Leimpek, Zhongming Ma, Alba Delrio-Lorenzo, Andrea Giordano, Cecilia Garcia-Perez, Guillaume Médard, Bernhard Kuster, Javier García-Sancho, Dejana Mokranjac, J Kevin Foskett, M Teresa Alonso, Fabiana Perocchi
The mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex is essential for calcium (Ca(2+)) uptake into mitochondria of all mammalian tissues, where it regulates bioenergetics, cell death, and Ca(2+) signal transduction. Despite its involvement in several human diseases, we currently lack pharmacological agents for targeting uniporter activity. Here we introduce a high-throughput assay that selects for human MCU-specific small-molecule modulators in primary drug screens. Using isolated yeast mitochondria, reconstituted with human MCU, its essential regulator EMRE, and aequorin, and exploiting a D-lactate- and mannitol/sucrose-based bioenergetic shunt that greatly minimizes false-positive hits, we identify mitoxantrone out of more than 600 clinically approved drugs as a direct selective inhibitor of human MCU...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820402/does-signaling-of-estrogen-related-receptors-affect-structure-and-function-of-bank-vole-leydig-cells
#4
P Pawlicki, A Milon, M Zarzycka, J Galas, W Tworzydlo, A Kaminska, L Pardyak, K Lesniak, A Pacwa, B Bilinska, E Gorowska-Wojtowicz, M Kotula-Balak
To get a deeper insight into the function of estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) and dissect underlying mechanism in Leydig cells, ERRs (type α, β and γ) were blocked or activated in testes of adult bank voles (Myodes glareolus) which show seasonal changes in the intratesticular sex hormones level. Both actively reproducing animals (long day conditions; LD) and those with regression of the reproductive system (short day conditions; SD) received intraperitoneal injections of selective ERRα antagonist 3-[4-(2,4-Bis-trifluoromethylbenzyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-2-cyano-N-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acrylamide (XCT 790) or selective ERRβ/ERRγ agonist N-(4-(Diethylaminobenzylidenyl)-N'-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-hydrazine (DY131) (50 μ/kg bw; six doses every other day)...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819924/dynamic-imaging-of-mitochondrial-membrane-proteins-in-specific-sub-organelle-membrane-locations
#5
REVIEW
Timo Appelhans, Karin B Busch
Mitochondria are cellular organelles with multifaceted tasks and thus composed of different sub-compartments. The inner mitochondrial membrane especially has a complex nano-architecture with cristae protruding into the matrix. Related to their function, the localization of mitochondrial membrane proteins is more or less restricted to specific sub-compartments. In contrast, it can be assumed that membrane proteins per se diffuse unimpeded through continuous membranes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching is a versatile technology used in mobility analyses to determine the mobile fraction of proteins, but it cannot provide data on subpopulations or on confined diffusion behavior...
August 17, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815531/mitochondria-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-sites-mediate-innate-immune-responses
#6
Takuma Misawa, Michihiro Takahama, Tatsuya Saitoh
Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are fundamental organelles that coordinate high-order cell functions. Mitochondria are centers of energy production, whereas the ER is responsible for folding, transport, and degradation of proteins. In addition to their specific functions, mitochondria and ER actively communicate with each other to promote a variety of cellular events, such as material transfer and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown the critical involvement of these organelles in regulation of the innate immune system, which functions in host defense...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815526/role-of-intra-and-inter-mitochondrial-membrane-contact-sites-in-yeast-phospholipid-biogenesis
#7
Yasushi Tamura, Toshiya Endo
Eukaryotic cells exhibit intracellular compartments called organelles wherein various specialized enzymatic reactions occur. Despite the specificity of the characteristic functions of organelles, recent studies have shown that distinct organelles physically connect and communicate with each other to maintain the integrity of their functions. In yeast, multiple inter- and intramitochondrial membrane contact sites (MCSs) were identified to date and were proposed to be involved in phospholipid biogenesis. In the present article, we focus on inter- and intra-organellar MCSs involving mitochondria and their tethering factors, such as the ERMES (endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria encounter structure) complex and EMC (conserved ER membrane protein complex) between mitochondria and the ER, vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch) between mitochondria and vacuoles, and the MICOS (mitochondrial contact site) complex between the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes (MOM and MIM)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814504/osm1-facilitates-the-transfer-of-electrons-from-erv1-to-fumarate-in-the-redox-regulated-import-pathway-in-the-mitochondrial-intermembrane-space
#8
Sonya E Neal, Deepa V Dabir, Juwina Wijaya, Cennyana Boon, Carla M Koehler
Prokaryotes have aerobic and anaerobic electron acceptors for oxidative folding of periplasmic proteins. The mitochondrial intermembrane space has an analogous pathway with the oxidoreductase Mia40 and sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1, termed the MIA pathway. The aerobic electron acceptors include oxygen and cytochrome c, but an acceptor that can function under anaerobic conditions has not been identified. Here we show that the fumarate reductase Osm1, which facilitates electron transfer from fumarate to succinate, fills this gap as a new electron acceptor...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813052/mixed-ligand-iridium-iii-complexes-as-photodynamic-anticancer-agents
#9
Yue Zheng, Liang He, Dong-Yang Zhang, Cai-Ping Tan, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
Many phosphorescent iridium complexes are potent candidates as photodynamic therapeutic agents. In this work, a series of mixed-ligand phosphorescent iridium complexes (Ir1: [Ir(L1)(bpy)Cl](PF6)2; Ir2: [Ir(L1)(ppy)Cl](PF6); Ir3: [Ir(L2)(bpy)Cl](PF6)2; Ir4: [Ir(L2)(ppy)Cl](PF6). L1 = 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; L2 = 2,6-bis(1-methyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) have been synthesized and characterized. These complexes display high luminescence quantum yields and long phosphorescence lifetimes...
August 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812748/cyclometalated-iridium-iii-n-heterocyclic-carbene-complexes-as-potential-mitochondrial-anticancer-and-photodynamic-agents
#10
Yi Li, Bing Liu, Xin-Ran Lu, Meng-Feng Li, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
Metal N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes represent a promising class of anticancer therapeutic agents. In this work, four cyclometalated iridium(iii) complexes (Ir1-Ir4) containing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands have been explored as mitochondrial anticancer and photodynamic agents. These complexes are more cytotoxic than cisplatin against the cancer cells screened, can quickly penetrate into A549 cells and are mainly localized in the mitochondria. Mechanism studies show that these complexes exert their anticancer efficacy by increasing the intracellular ROS level, reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and inducing apoptosis...
August 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811869/pro-and-antioxidant-functions-of-the-peroxisome-mitochondria-connection-and-its-impact-on-aging-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Markus Proft
Peroxisomes and mitochondria are the main intracellular sources for reactive oxygen species. At the same time, both organelles are critical for the maintenance of a healthy redox balance in the cell. Consequently, failure in the function of both organelles is causally linked to oxidative stress and accelerated aging. However, it has become clear that peroxisomes and mitochondria are much more intimately connected both physiologically and structurally. Both organelles share common fission components to dynamically respond to environmental cues, and the autophagic turnover of both peroxisomes and mitochondria is decisive for cellular homeostasis...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811220/euphorbia-lunulata-extract-acts-on-multidrug-resistant-gastric-cancer-cells-to-inhibit-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-arrest-cell-cycle-progression-and-induce-apoptosis
#12
Zhaoying Fu, Xiaodong Han, Juan Du, Xiaoxiao Han, Weipeng Liu, Shumei Shao, Xiaobin Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The milky sap or the aboveground part of the plant Euphorbia lunulata has long been used by Chinese people to treat noncancerous growths and cancerous ailments but the specific mode of action and the action mechanism remain to be elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of Euphorbia lunulata extract on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis of multidrug resistant human gastric cancer cells; To study the mechanism of apoptosis induction by Euphorbia lunulata extract in multidrug resistant human gastric cancer cells...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808058/reductions-in-the-mitochondrial-abc-transporter-abcb10-affect-the-transcriptional-profile-of-heme-biosynthesis-genes
#13
Alexandra Seguin, Naoko Takahashi-Makise, Yvette Y Yien, Nicholas C Huston, Jared C Whitman, Gabriel Musso, Jared A Wallace, Thomas Bradley, Hector Bergonia, Martin D Kafina, Mitsuyo Matsumoto, Kazuhiko Igarashi, John D Phillips, Barry H Paw, Jerry Kaplan, Diane M Ward
ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 10 (Abcb10) is a mitochondrial ABC transporter that complexes with mitoferrin1 and ferrochelatase to enhance heme biosynthesis in developing red blood cells. Reductions in Abcb10 levels have been shown to reduce mitoferrin1 protein levels and iron import into mitochondria resulting in reduced heme biosynthesis. As an ABC transporter, Abcb10 binds and hydrolyzes ATP, but its transported substrate is unknown. Here, we determined that decreases in Abcb10 did not result in protoporphyrin IX accumulation in morphant treated zebrafish embryos nor in differentiated Abcb10-specific shRNA murine Friend erythroleukemia (MEL) cells in which Abcb10 was specifically silenced with shRNA...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806058/metalloproteases-of-the-inner-mitochondrial-membrane
#14
Roman Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk
The inner mitochondrial membrane (IM) is among most protein-rich cellular compartments. The metastable IM sub-proteome where the concentration of proteins is approaching oversaturation creates a challenging protein folding environment with high probability for protein malfunction or aggregation. Failure to maintain protein homeostasis in such a setting can impair functional integrity of the mitochondria and drive clinical manifestations. The IM is equipped with a series of highly conserved, proteolytic complexes dedicated to the maintenance of normal protein homeostasis within this mitochondrial sub-compartment...
August 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802916/brain-region-and-sex-specific-alterations-in-mitochondrial-function-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-the-tgcrnd8-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Wanda M Snow, Claudia Perez, Tak Pan Wong, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common late onset neurodegenerative disorder with indications that women are disproportionally affected. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been one of the most discussed hypotheses associated with the early onset and progression of AD, and it has been attributed to intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ). It was suggested that one of the possible mediators for Aβ-impaired mitochondrial function is the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. NF-κB plays important roles in brain inflammation and antioxidant defense, as well as in the regulation of mitochondrial function, and studies have confirmed altered NF-κB signaling in AD brain...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802666/humanin-directly-protects-cardiac-mitochondria-against-dysfunction-initiated-by-oxidative-stress-by-decreasing-complex-i-activity
#16
Savitree Thummasorn, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Humanin (HN) is an endogenous peptide that exerts cytoprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis. We recently reported that Humanin analogue (HNG) pretreatment can reduce reactive oxygen species production in the heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is unclear if HNG has direct effects on mitochondrial function against oxidative stress. Thus, we sought to determine the effects of HNG on mitochondrial function under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress in isolated cardiac mitochondria...
August 9, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802041/cryo-em-structure-of-the-tom-core-complex-from-neurospora-crassa
#17
Thomas Bausewein, Deryck J Mills, Julian D Langer, Beate Nitschke, Stephan Nussberger, Werner Kühlbrandt
The TOM complex is the main entry gate for protein precursors from the cytosol into mitochondria. We have determined the structure of the TOM core complex by cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM). The complex is a 148 kDa symmetrical dimer of ten membrane protein subunits that create a shallow funnel on the cytoplasmic membrane surface. In the core of the dimer, the β-barrels of the Tom40 pore form two identical preprotein conduits. Each Tom40 pore is surrounded by the transmembrane segments of the α-helical subunits Tom5, Tom6, and Tom7...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801771/morphology-and-ultrastructure-of-the-tarsal-adhesive-organs-of-the-madagascar-hissing-cockroach-gromphadorhina-portentosa
#18
Christian Schmitt, Oliver Betz
The present transmission and scanning electron microscopic study of the ultramorphology of the pliable attachment pads (arolium, euplantulae) of the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa reveals structural evidence for their function in producing, storing, and secreting an adhesion-mediating secretion and releasing it to the exterior. The exocrine epidermal tissue of both the arolium and the euplantula is significantly enlarged by numerous invaginations stretching into the hemolymph cavity...
August 12, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801230/a-mitochondrial-proteomics-view-of-complex-i-deficiency-in-candida-albicans
#19
Xiaodong She, Pengyi Zhang, Ying Gao, Lulu Zhang, Qiong Wang, Hui Chen, Richard Calderone, Weida Liu, Dongmei Li
Proteomic analyses were carried out on isolated mitochondrial samples of C. albicans from gene-deleted mutants (nuo1Δ, nuo2Δ and goa1Δ) as well as the parental strain in order to better understand the contribution of these three fungal-specific mitochondrial ETC complex I (CI) subunits to cellular activities. Herein, we identify 2333 putative proteins from four strains, in which a total of 663 proteins (28.5%) are putatively located in mitochondria. Comparison of protein abundances between mutants and the parental strain reveal 146 differentially-expressed proteins, of which 78 are decreased and 68 are increased in at least one mutant...
August 8, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800639/mitochondrial-impairment-and-melatonin-protection-in-parkinsonian-mice-do-not-depend-of-inducible-or-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthases
#20
Ana López, Francisco Ortiz, Carolina Doerrier, Carmen Venegas, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, Paula Aranda, María E Díaz-Casado, Beatriz Fernández-Gil, Eliana Barriocanal-Casado, Germaine Escames, Luis C López, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
MPTP-mouse model constitutes a well-known model of neuroinflammation and mitochondrial failure occurring in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although it has been extensively reported that nitric oxide (NO●) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PD, the relative roles of nitric oxide synthase isoforms iNOS and nNOS in the nigrostriatal pathway remains, however, unclear. Here, the participation of iNOS/nNOS isoforms in the mitochondrial dysfunction was analyzed in iNOS and nNOS deficient mice. Our results showed that MPTP increased iNOS activity in substantia nigra and striatum, whereas it sharply reduced complex I activity and mitochondrial bioenergetics in all strains...
2017: PloS One
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