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Mitochondria complex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109174/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-nac-cooperates-with-sam37-to-mediate-early-stages-of-mitochondrial-protein-import
#1
J Carlos Ponce-Rojas, M Clara Avendaño-Monsalve, A Roberto Yañez-Falcón, Fabiola Jaimes-Miranda, Erika Garay, Francisco Torres-Quiroz, Alexander DeLuna, Soledad Funes
The mitochondrial proteome is mostly composed of nuclear-encoded proteins. Such polypeptides are synthesized with signals that guide their intracellular transport to the surface of the organelle and later within the different mitochondrial sub-compartments until they reach their functional destination. It has been suggested that NAC - a cytosolic chaperone which recognizes nascent chains on translationally active ribosomes - has a role in the import of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the NAC-mediated co-translational import are still not clear...
January 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106547/phenotype-dependent-interactions-between-n-acetyl-l-aspartate-and-acetyl-coa-in-septal-sn56-cholinergic-cells-exposed-to-an-excess-of-zinc
#2
Marlena Zyśk, Hanna Bielarczyk, Sylwia Gul-Hinc, Aleksandra Dyś, Beata Gapys, Anna Ronowska, Monika Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Andrzej Szutowicz
Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction utilizing glucose-derived pyruvate is an almost exclusive source of acetyl-CoA in different cell mitochondrial compartments of the brain. In neuronal mitochondria, the largest fraction of acetyl-CoA is utilized for energy production and the much smaller one for N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) synthesis. Cholinergic neurons, unlike others, require additional amounts of acetyl-CoA for acetylcholine synthesis. Therefore, several neurotoxic signals, which inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase, generate deeper shortages of acetyl-CoA and greater mortality of cholinergic neurons than noncholinergic ones...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105746/mitochondrial-energetics-and-calcium-coupling-in-the-heart
#3
Michael Kohlhaas, Alexander G Nickel, Christoph Maack
Contraction and relaxation of the heart consume large amounts of energy that need to be replenished by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, and matching energy supply to demand involves the complimentary control of respiration through ADP and Ca(2+) . In heart failure, an imbalance between ADP and Ca(2+) oxidizes mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides, where NADH oxidation may limit ATP production and contractile function, while NADPH oxidation can induce oxidative stress with consecutive maladaptive remodeling...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104365/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-the-cancer-connection
#4
REVIEW
Satish Srinivasan, Manti Guha, Anna Kashina, Narayan G Avadhani
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of many diseases. The retrograde signaling initiated by dysfunctional mitochondria can bring about global changes in gene expression that alters cell morphology and function. Typically, this is attributed to disruption of important mitochondrial functions, such as ATP production, integration of metabolism, calcium homeostasis and regulation of apoptosis. Recent studies showed that in addition to these factors, mitochondrial dynamics might play an important role in stress signaling...
January 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101459/venlafaxine-induced-cytotoxicity-towards-isolated-rat-hepatocytes-involves-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-lysosomal-dysfunction
#5
Elham Ahmadian, Hossein Babaei, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi, Aziz Eftekhari, Mohammad Ali Eghbal
Purpose: Depression is a public disorder worldwide. Despite the widespread use of venlafaxine in the treatment of depression, it has been associated with the incidence of toxicities. Hence, the goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms of venlafaxine-induced cell death in the model of the freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Methods: Collagenase-perfused rat hepatocytes were treated with venlafaxine and other agents. Cell damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal damage, glutathione (GSH) level were analyzed...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098843/perm-hypothesis-the-fundamental-machinery-able-to-elucidate-the-role-of-xenobiotics-and-hormesis-in-cell-survival-and-homeostasis
#6
REVIEW
Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund
In this article the Proteasome, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria (PERM) hypothesis is discussed. The complex machinery made by three homeostatic mechanisms involving the proteasome (P), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria (M) is addressed in order to elucidate the beneficial role of many xenobiotics, either trace metals or phytochemicals, which are spread in the human environment and in dietary habits, exerting their actions on the mechanisms underlying cell survival (apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and turnover, autophagy) and stress response...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098219/combined-lrrk2-mutation-aging-and-chronic-low-dose-oral-rotenone-as-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Hui-Fang Liu, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Gideon Chi-Ting Leung, Colin Siu-Chi Lam, Shirley Yin-Yu Pang, Lingfei Li, Michelle Hiu-Wai Kung, David Boyer Ramsden, Shu-Leong Ho
Aging, genetics and environmental toxicity are important etiological factors in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its pathogenesis remains unclear. A major obstacle is the lack of an appropriate experimental model which incorporates genetic susceptibility, aging and prolonged environmental toxicity. Here, we explored the interplay amongst these factors using mutant LRRK2(R1441G) (leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2) knockin mice. We found that mutant primary cortical and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons were more susceptible to rotenone-induced ATP deficiency and cell death...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097863/mitochondria-targeted-protein-ruthenium-photosensitizer-for-efficient-photodynamic-applications
#8
Sabyasachi Chakrabortty, Bikram Keshari Agrawalla, Anne Stumper, Naidu M Vegi, Stephan Fischer, Christian Reichardt, Michael Kögler, Benjamin Dietzek, Michaela Feuring-Buske, Christian Buske, Sven Rau, Tanja Weil
Organelle-targeted photosensitization represents a promising approach in photodynamic therapy where the design of the active photosensitizer (PS) is very crucial. In this work, we developed a macromolecular PS with multiple copies of mitochondria-targeting groups and ruthenium complexes that displays highest phototoxicity towards several cancerous cell lines. In particu-lar, enhanced anti-cancer activity was demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines, where significant impairment of proliferation and clonogenicity occurs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096195/the-multifunctional-mitochondrial-epac1-controls-myocardial-cell-death
#9
Loubina Fazal, Marion Laudette, Sílvia Paula-Gomes, Sandrine Pons, Caroline Conte, Florence Tortosa, Pierre Sicard, Yannis Sainte-Marie, Malik Bisserier, Olivier Lairez, Alexandre Lucas, Jérôme Roy, Bijan Ghaleh, Jeremy Fauconnier, Jeanne Mialet-Perez, Frank Lezoualc'h
RATIONALE: Although the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) is physiologically beneficial in the heart, it largely contributes to cardiac disease progression when dysregulated. Current evidence suggests that cAMP is produced within mitochondria. However, mitochondrial cAMP signaling and its involvement in cardiac pathophysiology are far from being understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of mitochondrial exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (MitEpac1) in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
January 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095407/a-novel-imprinted-gene-nuwa-controls-mitochondrial-function-in-early-seed-development-in-arabidopsis
#10
Shan He, Yan Sun, Qian Yang, Xiangyu Zhang, Qingpei Huang, Peng Zhao, Mengxiang Sun, Jingjing Liu, Weiqiang Qian, Genji Qin, Hongya Gu, Li-Jia Qu
Imprinted genes display biased expression of paternal and maternal alleles- and are only found in mammals and flowering plants. Compared to several hundred imprinted genes that are functionally characterized in mammals, very few imprinted genes were confirmed in plants and even fewer of them have been functionally investigated. Here, we report a new imprinted gene, NUWA, in plants. NUWA is an essential gene, because loss of its function resulted in reduced transmission through the female gametophyte and defective cell/nuclear proliferation in early Arabidopsis embryo and endosperm...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095073/preclinical-and-potential-applications-of-common-western-herbal-supplements-as-complementary-treatment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Luke A Morgan, Oliver Grundmann
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder with a complex pathological etiology, which is not fully understood. Progression of PD may be the result of a buildup of iron in the substantia nigra, microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, dysfunctional mitochondria, or abnormal protein handling. Dopamine is the main neurotransmitter affected, but as the disease progresses, a decrease in all the brain's biogenic amines occurs. Current medication used in the treatment of PD aims to prevent the breakdown of dopamine or increase dopaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093764/pre-ischemic-mitochondrial-substrate-constraint-by-inhibition-of-malate-aspartate-shuttle-preserves-mitochondrial-function-after-ischemia-reperfusion
#12
Nichlas Riise Jespersen, Takashi Yokota, Nicolaj Brejnholt Støttrup, Andreas Bergdahl, Kim Bolther Paelestik, Jonas Agerlund Povlsen, Flemming Dela, Hans Erik Bøtker
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The pre-ischemic administration of aminooxyacetate (AOA), an inhibitor of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), provides cardioprotection against IR injury, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that a transient inhibition of the MAS during ischemia and early reperfusion could preserve mitochondrial function at later phase of reperfusion in IR-injured heart to the same extent as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), which is a well-validated cardioprotective strategy against IR injury...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093578/mouse-liver-mitochondria-isolation-size-fractionation-and-real-time-momp-measurement
#13
Thibaud T Renault, Mark P A Luna-Vargas, Jerry E Chipuk
The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis involves a complex interplay between dozens of proteins and lipids, and is also dependent on the shape and size of mitochondria. The use of cellular models in past studies has not been ideal for investigating how the complex multi-factor interplay regulates the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Isolated systems have proven to be a paradigm to deconstruct MOMP into individual steps and to study the behavior of each subset of MOMP regulators...
August 5, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088333/mitochondrial-uncoupling-in-cancer-cells-liabilities-and-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
Gyorgy Baffy
Acquisition of the endosymbiotic ancestor of mitochondria was a critical event in eukaryote evolution. Mitochondria offered an unparalleled source of metabolic energy through oxidative phosphorylation and allowed the development of multicellular life. However, as molecular oxygen had become the terminal electron acceptor in most eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain proved to be the largest intracellular source of superoxide, contributing to macromolecular injury, aging, and cancer. Hence, the 'contract of endosymbiosis' represents a compromise between the possibilities and perils of multicellular life...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087257/calcium-regulates-cell-death-in-cancer-roles-of-the-mitochondria-and-mitochondria-associated-membranes-mams
#15
REVIEW
Alberto Danese, Simone Patergnani, Massimo Bonora, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Maurizio Previati, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo Pinton
Until 1972, the term 'apoptosis' was used to differentiate the programmed cell death that naturally occurs in organismal development from the acute tissue death referred to as necrosis. Many studies on cell death and programmed cell death have been published and most are, at least to some degree, related to cancer. Some key proteins and molecular pathways implicated in cell death have been analyzed, whereas others are still being actively researched; therefore, an increasing number of cellular compartments and organelles are being implicated in cell death and cancer...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081268/the-rice-dynamin-related-protein-osdrp1e-negatively-regulates-programmed-cell-death-by-controlling-the-release-of-cytochrome-c-from-mitochondria
#16
Zhiqiang Li, Bo Ding, Xueping Zhou, Guo-Liang Wang
Programmed cell death (PCD) mediated by mitochondrial processes has emerged as an important mechanism for plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. However, the role of translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol during PCD remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the rice dynamin-related protein 1E (OsDRP1E) negatively regulates PCD by controlling mitochondrial structure and cytochrome c release. We used a map-based cloning strategy to isolate OsDRP1E from the lesion mimic mutant dj-lm and confirmed that the E409V mutation in OsDRP1E causes spontaneous cell death in rice...
January 12, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077389/enhanced-oxidative-capacity-of-ground-squirrel-brain-mitochondria-during-hibernation
#17
Mallory A Ballinger, Christine Schwartz, Matthew T Andrews
During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA).  Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor, but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation.  We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared to spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation.  To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076767/-s-pot-on-mitochondria-cannabinoids-disrupt-cellular-respiration-to-limit-neuronal-activity
#18
Tibor Harkany, Tamas L Horvath
Classical views posit G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor 1s (CB1Rs) at the cell surface with cytosolic Giα-mediated signal transduction. Hebert-Chatelain et al. (2016) instead place CB1Rs at mitochondria limiting neuronal respiration by soluble adenylyl cyclase-dependent modulation of complex I activity. Thus, neuronal bioenergetics link to synaptic plasticity and, globally, learning and memory.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076404/combined-inhibition-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-neprilysin-positively-influences-complex-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-progressive-experimental-heart-failure
#19
Laura Grois, Julian Hupf, Jörg Reinders, Josef Schröder, Alexander Dietl, Peter M Schmid, Carsten Jungbauer, Markus Resch, Lars S Maier, Andreas Luchner, Christoph Birner
BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system and neprilysin (RAS-/NEP-inhibitors) proved to be extraordinarily beneficial in systolic heart failure. Furthermore, compelling evidence exists that impaired mitochondrial pathways are causatively involved in progressive left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Consequently, we aimed to assess whether RAS-/NEP-inhibition can attenuate mitochondrial adaptations in experimental heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: By progressive right ventricular pacing, distinct HF stages were induced in 15 rabbits, and 6 animals served as controls (CTRL)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073503/the-fate-of-cryptophyte-cell-organelles-in-the-ciliate-mesodinium-cf-rubrum-subjected-to-starvation
#20
Seung Won Nam, Jong Woo Park, Wonho Yih, Myung Gil Park, Woongghi Shin
Mesodinium rubrum Lohmann is a mixotrophic ciliate and one of the best studied species exhibiting acquired phototrophy. To investigate the fate of cryptophyte organelles in the ciliate subjected to starvation, we conducted ultrastructural studies of a Korean strain of M. cf. rubrum during a 10 week starvation experiments. Ingested cells of the cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia were first enveloped by ciliate membrane, and then prey organelles, including ejectisomes, flagella, basal bodies and flagellar roots, were digested...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
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