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Mitochondria complex

Ronaldo Roberto Tait Caleffe, Stefany Rodrigues de Oliveira, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis Gigliolli, Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Helio Conte
Larval therapy (LT) comprises the application of sterile Calliphoridae larvae for wound debridement, disinfection, and healing in humans and animals. Larval digestion plays a key role in LT, where the salivary glands and gut produce and secrete proteolytic and antimicrobial substances. The objective of this work was to bioprospect the salivary glands of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) larvae, using ultrastructural, morphological, and histological observations, and the total protein electrophoretic profile...
June 8, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Desiree M Markantone, Atif Towheed, Aaron T Crain, Jessica M Collins, Alicia M Celotto, Michael J Palladino
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (MEs) result from mutations in mitochondrial genes critical to oxidative phosphorylation. Severe and untreatable ME results from mutations affecting each endogenous mitochondrial encoded gene, including all 13 established protein coding genes. Effective techniques to manipulate mitochondrial genome are limited and targeted mitochondrial protein expression is currently unavailable. Here we report the development of a mitochondrial-targeted RNA expression (mtTRES) vector capable of protein expression within mitochondria (mtTRESPro )...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Han Xu, Na Guan, Ya-Li Ren, Qi-Jiao Wei, Ying-Hong Tao, Guo-Sheng Yang, Xiao-Ya Liu, Ding-Fang Bu, Ying Zhang, Sai-Nan Zhu
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of podocyte apoptosis is not fully understood. In addition, the role of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3 R)/glucose-regulated protein 75 (Grp75)/voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1)/mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) calcium regulation axis, which is located at sites of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria coupling, in the mechanism of podocyte apoptosis is unclear. This study aimed to understand the roles of this axis in podocyte apoptosis and explore potential targets for podocyte protection...
June 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Midori Ishii, Vladimir V Lupashin, Akihiko Nakano
The Golgi apparatus is a central station for protein trafficking in eukaryotic cells. A widely accepted model of protein transport within the Golgi apparatus is cisternal maturation. Each cisterna has specific resident proteins, which are thought to be maintained by COPI-mediated transport. However, the mechanisms underlying specific sorting of these Golgi-resident proteins remain elusive. To obtain a clue to understand the selective sorting of vesicles between the Golgi cisterenae, we investigated the molecular arrangements of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) subunits in yeast cells...
June 14, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Raffaele Ferrari, Demis A Kia, James E Tomkins, John Hardy, Nicholas W Wood, Ruth C Lovering, Patrick A Lewis, Claudia Manzoni
BACKGROUND: Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have helped identify large numbers of genetic loci that significantly associate with increased risk of developing diseases. However, translating genetic knowledge into understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning disease (i.e. disease-specific impacted biological processes) has to date proved to be a major challenge. This is primarily due to difficulties in confidently defining candidate genes at GWAS-risk loci. The goal of this study was to better characterize candidate genes within GWAS loci using a protein interactome based approach and with Parkinson's disease (PD) data as a test case...
June 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Xiangang Hu, Chaoxiu Ren, Weilu Kang, Li Mu, Xiaowei Liu, Xiaokang Li, Tong Wang, Qixing Zhou
Much attention has been paid to extracting and isolating specific and well-known nanoparticles (especially for engineered nanomaterials) from complex environmental matrices. However, such research may not provide global information on actual contamination because nanoscale fragments exist as mixtures of various elements and matrices in the real environment. The present work first isolated and characterized nanoscale fragments in effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The nanoscale fragments were found to be composed of 70-85% carbon and low amounts of oxygen, heavy metals and other elements and exhibited nanosheet topographies (approximately 0...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guruprasada Reddy Sure, Anusheela Chatterjee, Nikhil Mishra, Vidur Sabharwal, Swathi Devireddy, Anjali Awasthi, Swetha Mohan, Sandhya P Koushika
We investigate the role of axonal transport in regulating neuronal mitochondrial density. We show that the density of mitochondria in the touch receptor neuron (TRN) of adult Caenorhabditis elegans is constant. Mitochondrial density and transport are controlled both by the Kinesin heavy chain and the Dynein-Dynactin complex. However, unlike in other models, the presence of mitochondria in C. elegans TRNs depends on a Kinesin light chain as well. Mutants in the three C. elegans miro genes do not alter mitochondrial density in the TRNs...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marthe H R Ludtmann, Plamena R Angelova, Mathew H Horrocks, Minee L Choi, Margarida Rodrigues, Artyom Y Baev, Alexey V Berezhnov, Zhi Yao, Daniel Little, Blerida Banushi, Afnan Saleh Al-Menhali, Rohan T Ranasinghe, Daniel R Whiten, Ratsuda Yapom, Karamjit Singh Dolt, Michael J Devine, Paul Gissen, Tilo Kunath, Morana Jaganjac, Evgeny V Pavlov, David Klenerman, Andrey Y Abramov, Sonia Gandhi
Protein aggregation causes α-synuclein to switch from its physiological role to a pathological toxic gain of function. Under physiological conditions, monomeric α-synuclein improves ATP synthase efficiency. Here, we report that aggregation of monomers generates beta sheet-rich oligomers that localise to the mitochondria in close proximity to several mitochondrial proteins including ATP synthase. Oligomeric α-synuclein impairs complex I-dependent respiration. Oligomers induce selective oxidation of the ATP synthase beta subunit and mitochondrial lipid peroxidation...
June 12, 2018: Nature Communications
S Wang, F Ma, L J Huang, Y Zhang, Y C Peng, C H Xing, Y P Feng, X L Wang, Y Peng
Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries all over the world. The only drug for ischemic stroke approved by FDA is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). However, only 2-5% stroke patients receive rtPAs treatment due to its strict therapeutic time window. As ischemic stroke is a complex disease involving in multiple mechanisms, medications with multi-targets may be more powerful compared with single-target drugs. Dl-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) is a synthetic compound based on l-3-n-Butylphthalide that is isolated from seeds of Apium graveolens...
June 12, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Carmen Priolo, Damir Khabibullin, Ed Reznik, Harilaos Filippakis, Barbara Ogórek, Taylor R Kavanagh, Julie Nijmeh, Zachary T Herbert, John M Asara, David J Kwiatkowski, Chin-Lee Wu, Elizabeth P Henske
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) accounts for 5% of all sporadic renal cancers and can also occur in genetic syndromes including Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). ChRCC has a distinct accumulation of abnormal mitochondria, accompanied by characteristic chromosomal imbalances and relatively few "driver" mutations. Metabolomic profiling of ChRCC and oncocytomas (benign renal tumors that share pathological features with ChRCC) revealed both similarities and differences between these tumor types, with principal component analysis (PCA) showing a distinct separation...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shuai Zong, Jinglei Li, Liu Yang, Qianli Huang, Ziyang Ye, Guohua Hou, Ming Ye
Combination therapy with chemotherapeutics is attracting increasing attention as an important treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to its complex pathological characteristics. In this study, as a new therapy strategy, combination treatment of LEP-2a (a non-toxic polysaccharide from Lachnum sp.) with cyclophosphamide (CTX) was investigated. Results showed that combination treatment with LEP-2a and CTX processed a significantly synergistic anti-tumor effect in H22 tumor-bearing mice through Fas/FasL mediated caspase-dependent death pathway and mitochondria apoptosis pathway...
September 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Su-Jeong Kim, Hemal H Mehta, Junxiang Wan, Chisaka Kuehnemann, Jingcheng Chen, Ji-Fan Hu, Andrew R Hoffman, Pinchas Cohen
Cellular senescence is a complex cell fate response that is thought to underlie several age-related pathologies. Despite a loss of proliferative potential, senescent cells are metabolically active and produce energy-consuming effectors, including senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs). Mitochondria play crucial roles in energy production and cellular signaling, but the key features of mitochondrial physiology and particularly of mitochondria-derived peptides (MDPs), remain underexplored in senescence responses...
June 10, 2018: Aging
Marine Oberkampf, Camille Guillerey, Juliette Mouriès, Pierre Rosenbaum, Catherine Fayolle, Alexandre Bobard, Ariel Savina, Eric Ogier-Denis, Jost Enninga, Sebastian Amigorena, Claude Leclerc, Gilles Dadaglio
Cross-presentation allows exogenous antigen presentation in association with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, a process crucial for the priming of CD8+ T-cell responses against viruses and tumors. By contrast to conventional dendritic cells (cDC), which cross-present antigens in the steady state, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) acquire this ability only after stimulation by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. The intracellular pathways accounting for this functional difference are still unknown...
June 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Irina Odinokova, Yulia Baburina, Alexey Kruglov, Irina Fadeeva, Alena Zvyagina, Linda Sotnikova, Vladimir Akatov, Olga Krestinina
Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria and the opening of the nonselective mitochondrial permeability transition pore are important factors that promote cardiac pathologies and dysfunction. The hormone melatonin (MEL) is known to improve the functional state of mitochondria via an antioxidant effect. Here, the effect of MEL administration on heart mitochondria from aged rats with acute cardiac failure caused by isoprenaline hydrochloride (ISO) was studied. A histological analysis revealed that chronic intake of MEL diminished the age-dependent changes in the structure of muscle fibers of the left ventricle, muscle fiber swelling, and injury zones characteristic of acute cardiac failure caused by ISO...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ayenachew Bezawork-Geleta, He Wen, LanFeng Dong, Bing Yan, Jelena Vider, Stepana Boukalova, Linda Krobova, Katerina Vanova, Renata Zobalova, Margarita Sobol, Pavel Hozak, Silvia Magalhaes Novais, Veronika Caisova, Pavel Abaffy, Ravindra Naraine, Ying Pang, Thiri Zaw, Ping Zhang, Radek Sindelka, Mikael Kubista, Steven Zuryn, Mark P Molloy, Michael V Berridge, Karel Pacak, Jakub Rohlena, Sunghyouk Park, Jiri Neuzil
Cell growth and survival depend on a delicate balance between energy production and synthesis of metabolites. Here, we provide evidence that an alternative mitochondrial complex II (CII) assembly, designated as CIIlow , serves as a checkpoint for metabolite biosynthesis under bioenergetic stress, with cells suppressing their energy utilization by modulating DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. Depletion of CIIlow leads to an imbalance in energy utilization and metabolite synthesis, as evidenced by recovery of the de novo pyrimidine pathway and unlocking cell cycle arrest from the S-phase...
June 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Ying-Chu Chen, Yu-Hsiang Yu
Brown adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation are under complex regulation. Brown adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Whether porcine bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) possess the potential to differentiate into brown adipocytes remains unclear. In the current study, we evaluated the ability of porcine BM-MSCs to differentiate into brown adipocytes and browning of differentiated adipocytes. We found that similar to rodent models, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) was able to trigger the commitment of BM-MSCs to the brown adipocyte lineage by elevating expression of marker genes, nrf-1, tfam, zic1 and pgc-1α (P < 0...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
András Spät, Gergő Szanda
The biological effects of physiological stimuli of adrenocortical glomerulosa cells are predominantly mediated by the Ca2+ and the cAMP signal transduction pathways. The complex interplay between these signalling systems fine-tunes aldosterone secretion. In addition to the well-known cytosolic interactions, a novel intramitochondrial Ca2+ -cAMP interplay has been recently recognised. The cytosolic Ca2+ signal is rapidly transferred into the mitochondrial matrix where it activates Ca2+ -sensitive dehydrogenases, thus enhancing the formation of NADPH, a cofactor of steroid synthesis...
June 6, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
M Kotula-Balak, P Pawlicki, A Milon, W Tworzydlo, M Sekula, A Pacwa, E Gorowska-Wojtowicz, B Bilinska, B Pawlicka, J Wiater, M Zarzycka, J Galas
In this study, G-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) was inactivated, by treatment with antagonist (G-15), in testes of C57BL/6 mice: immature (3 weeks old), mature (3 months old) and aged (1.5 years old) (50 μg/kg bw), as well as MA-10 mouse Leydig cells (10 nM/24 h) alone or in combination with 17β-estradiol or antiestrogen (ICI 182,780). In G-15-treated mice, overgrowth of interstitial tissue was found in both mature and aged testes. Depending on age, differences in structure and distribution of various Leydig cell organelles were observed...
June 6, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Ning Zhang, R S P Rao, Fernanda Salvato, Jesper F Havelund, Ian M Møller, Jay J Thelen, Dong Xu
Targeting and translocation of proteins to the appropriate subcellular compartments are crucial for cell organization and function. Newly synthesized proteins are transported to mitochondria with the assistance of complex targeting sequences containing either an N-terminal pre-sequence or a multitude of internal signals. Compared with experimental approaches, computational predictions provide an efficient way to infer subcellular localization of a protein. However, it is still challenging to predict plant mitochondrially localized proteins accurately due to various limitations...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Olga Zurita Rendón, Eric K Fredrickson, Conor J Howard, Jonathan Van Vranken, Sarah Fogarty, Neal D Tolley, Raghav Kalia, Beatriz A Osuna, Peter S Shen, Christopher P Hill, Adam Frost, Jared Rutter
Eukaryotic cells employ the ribosome-associated quality control complex (RQC) to maintain homeostasis despite defects that cause ribosomes to stall. The RQC comprises the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ltn1p, the ATPase Cdc48p, Rqc1p, and Rqc2p. Upon ribosome stalling and splitting, the RQC assembles on the 60S species containing unreleased peptidyl-tRNA (60S:peptidyl-tRNA). Ltn1p and Rqc1p facilitate ubiquitination of the incomplete nascent chain, marking it for degradation. Rqc2p stabilizes Ltn1p on the 60S and recruits charged tRNAs to the 60S to catalyze elongation of the nascent protein with carboxy-terminal alanine and threonine extensions (CAT tails)...
June 6, 2018: Nature Communications
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