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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656200/photoinduced-anticancer-activity-studies-of-iridium-iii-complexes-targeting-mitochondria-and-tubules
#1
Wen-Yao Zhang, Qian-Yan Yi, Yang-Jie Wang, Fan Du, Miao He, Bing Tang, Dan Wan, Yun-Jun Liu, Hong-Liang Huang
Three new iridium (III) complexes [Ir (ppy)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (1), [Ir (bzq)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (2) and [Ir (piq)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (3) were designed and synthesized. All the complexes were tested for anticancer activity using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole)-2,5-diphenyltetraazolium bromide (MTT) method. The complexes show no cytotoxic activity toward cancer BEL-7402, SGC-7901, Eca-109, A549, HeLa and HepG2 cells. However, upon irradiation with white light, the complexes display high cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 cells with an IC50 value of 5...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599420/brown-adipose-tissue-whitening-leads-to-brown-adipocyte-death-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#2
Petra Kotzbeck, Antonio Giordano, Eleonora Mondini, Incoronata Murano, Ilenia Severi, Wiebe Venema, Maria Paola Cecchini, Erin E Kershaw, Giorgio Barbatelli, Guenter Haemmerle, Rudolf Zechner, Saverio Cinti
In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores and releases lipids, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes lipids to fuel thermogenesis. In obese individuals WAT undergoes profound changes; it expands, becomes dysfunctional, and develops a low-grade inflammatory state. Importantly, BAT content and activity decline in obese subjects, mainly as a result of the conversion of brown adipocytes to white-like unilocular cells. Here, we show that BAT ″whitening″ is induced by multiple factors, including high ambient temperature, leptin receptor deficiency, beta-adrenergic signaling impairment, and lipase deficiency, each of which is capable of inducing macrophage infiltration, brown adipocyte death, and crown-like structure (CLS) formation...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594796/alternative-mitochondrial-respiratory-chains-from-two-crustaceans-artemia-franciscana-nauplii-and-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#3
Chrystian Rodriguez-Armenta, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Monica Rosas-Lemus, Natalia Chiquete-Felix, Jose Angel Huerta-Ocampo, Adriana Muhlia-Almazan
Mitochondrial ATP is synthesized by coupling between the electron transport chain and complex V. In contrast, physiological uncoupling of these processes allows mitochondria to consume oxygen at high rates without ATP synthesis. Such uncoupling mechanisms prevent reactive oxygen species overproduction. One of these mechanisms are the alternative redox enzymes from the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which may help cells to maintain homeostasis under stress independently of ATP synthesis. To date, no reports have been published on alternative redox enzymes in crustaceans mitochondria...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576218/mutations-in-pmpcb-encoding-the-catalytic-subunit-of-the-mitochondrial-presequence-protease-cause-neurodegeneration-in-early-childhood
#4
F-Nora Vögtle, Björn Brändl, Austin Larson, Manuela Pendziwiat, Marisa W Friederich, Susan M White, Alice Basinger, Cansu Kücükköse, Hiltrud Muhle, Johanna A Jähn, Oliver Keminer, Katherine L Helbig, Carolyn F Delto, Lisa Myketin, Dirk Mossmann, Nils Burger, Noriko Miyake, Audrey Burnett, Andreas van Baalen, Mark A Lovell, Naomichi Matsumoto, Maie Walsh, Hung-Chun Yu, Deepali N Shinde, Ulrich Stephani, Johan L K Van Hove, Franz-Josef Müller, Ingo Helbig
Mitochondrial disorders causing neurodegeneration in childhood are genetically heterogeneous, and the underlying genetic etiology remains unknown in many affected individuals. We identified biallelic variants in PMPCB in individuals of four families including one family with two affected siblings with neurodegeneration and cerebellar atrophy. PMPCB encodes the catalytic subunit of the essential mitochondrial processing protease (MPP), which is required for maturation of the majority of mitochondrial precursor proteins...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574488/simpson-golabi-behmel-syndrome-human-adipocytes-reveal-a-changing-phenotype-throughout-differentiation
#5
T Montanari, M Colitti
The Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) cell strain is widely considered to be a representative in vitro model of human subcutaneous white pre-adipocytes. These cells achieve a transient expression of classical brown markers, such as uncoupling protein 1, peaking at day 14 of differentiation and decreasing thereafter. Adipocyte browning process involves dynamic changes in lipid droplet (LD) dimension, in mitochondria morphology, and in the expression of brown-specific marker genes. This study analyzes SGBS transient phenotypic transformation by quantifying the heterogeneity of LDs, mitochondrial dynamics, and a panel of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and browning...
March 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567975/loss-of-idh2-accelerates-age-related-hearing-loss-in-male-mice
#6
Karessa White, Mi-Jung Kim, Chul Han, Hyo-Jin Park, Dalian Ding, Kevin Boyd, Logan Walker, Paul Linser, Zaimary Meneses, Cole Slade, Jonathan Hirst, Katherine Santostefano, Naohiro Terada, Takuya Miyakawa, Masaru Tanokura, Richard Salvi, Shinichi Someya
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 2 participates in the TCA cycle and catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate and NADP+ to NADPH. In the mitochondria, IDH2 also plays a key role in protecting mitochondrial components from oxidative stress by supplying NADPH to both glutathione reductase (GSR) and thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2). Here, we report that loss of Idh2 accelerates age-related hearing loss, the most common form of hearing impairment, in male mice. This was accompanied by increased oxidative DNA damage, increased apoptotic cell death, and profound loss of spiral ganglion neurons and hair cells in the cochlea of 24-month-old Idh2-/- mice...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550271/functional-characterization-of-the-clade-b-serine-protease-inhibitor-serpinb3-in-the-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#7
Yongjie Liu, Fujun Hou, Zhaoying Qian, Xiaolin Liu
The clade B serpins contain predominantly intracellular proteins and were reported to be involved in multiple biological functions, especially in inflammation and immune system function. However, studies about the role of the invertebrate intracellular serpins in immune responses were still deficient. Therefore, this paper focused on the functional characterization of LvserpinB3 in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The pAc5.1-LvserpinB3-EGFP vector was transfected into Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells to analyze the subcellular localization of LvserpinB3, and fluorescent imaging showed that LvserpinB3 were mainly localized to the mitochondria...
March 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425508/%C3%AE-aminoisobutyric-acid-l-baiba-is-a-muscle-derived-osteocyte-survival-factor
#8
Yukiko Kitase, Julian A Vallejo, William Gutheil, Harika Vemula, Katharina Jähn, Jianxun Yi, Jingsong Zhou, Marco Brotto, Lynda F Bonewald
Exercise has beneficial effects on metabolism and on tissues. The exercise-induced muscle factor β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) plays a critical role in the browning of white fat and in insulin resistance. Here we show another function for BAIBA, that of a bone-protective factor that prevents osteocyte cell death induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). l-BAIBA was as or more protective than estrogen or N-acetyl cysteine, signaling through the Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor Type D (MRGPRD) to prevent the breakdown of mitochondria due to ROS...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341317/apoptosis-induction-in-k562-human-myelogenous-leukaemia-cells-is-connected-to-the-modulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-by-bhx-a-novel-pyrazoline-derivative
#9
Hanmei Bao, Qing Zhang, Yibo Du, Cai Zhang, Hui Xu, Zhongling Zhu, Zhao Yan
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to explore the effects of BHX on human chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cells and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CML cell line K562 cells were treated with BHX. The effects of BHX on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle were detected. Subsequently, the caspase, ATP activity, Ca2+ , ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels treated with various concentrations of BHX were analysed...
January 16, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338152/generation-and-characterization-of-siglec-f-specific-monoclonal-antibodies
#10
Sima Shahmohammadi-Farid, Roya Ghods, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Ali-Ahmad Bayat, Nazanin Mojtabavi, Alireza Razavi, Amir-Hassan Zarnani
Siglec-F (SF) is a surface glycoprotein expressed by mouse eosinophils and induces caspase- and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis after engagement with its cognate ligand or specific antibodies. This targeting eosinophils by monoclonal antibodies may help diverse diseases associated with increased frequency of eosinophils including allergy and asthma. In this paper, production of murine and rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Siglec-F has been addressed. Balb/c mice were immunized with siglec-F1 (SF1) and siglec-F2 (SF2) synthetic peptides conjugated to a carrier protein...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334400/oolong-tea-and-lr-white-resin-a-new-method-of-plant-sample-preparation-for-transmission-electron-microscopy
#11
Xiaohua He, Fuzhen Guo, Bin Liu
Simplifying sample processing, shortening the sample preparation time, and adjusting procedures to suitable for new health and safety regulations, these issues are the current challenges which electron microscopic examinations need to face. In order to resolve these problems, new plant tissue sample processing protocols for transmission electron microscopy should be developed. In the present study, we chose the LR-White resin-assisted processing protocol for the ultrastructural observation of different types of plant tissues...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212073/age-induced-changes-in-white-brite-and-brown-adipose-depots-a-mini-review
#12
Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Christian Wolfrum, Marcel Scheideler
Aging is a time-related process of functional decline at organelle, cellular, tissue, and organismal level that ultimately limits life. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent growth arrest in response to stress and one of the major drivers of aging and age-related disorders. Senescent cells accumulate with age, and removal of these cells delays age-related disorders in different tissues and prolongs healthy lifespan. One of the most studied aging mechanisms is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species damage in cells, organs, and organisms over time...
December 7, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203735/histomorphologic-changes-of-esophageal-mucosa-in-experimental-third-degree-stricture
#13
Volodymyr O Shaprynskyi, Yevgeniy V Shaprinskiy, Yaroslav V Karyi, Serhii A Lysenko
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays the level of early and late complications after the operations for esophageal corrosive strictures such as esophago-organ anastomotic leak, development of infections, pneumonia, pleural empyema, mediastinitis, peritonitis, postoperative corrosive stricture development etc. remains rather high. Besides, postoperative mortality rate is high as well - 3.5-30 %. For that reason, an experimental model of esophageal stricture was suggested and ultrastructural mucosal changes in the stricture itself were studied to elaborate the unified pathogenic approach in treatment of esophageal stricture and improvement of its results...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198749/mitochondrial-fission-is-associated-with-ucp1-activity-in-human-brite-beige-adipocytes
#14
Didier F Pisani, Valentin Barquissau, Jean-Claude Chambard, Diane Beuzelin, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Aline Mairal, Sophie Pagnotta, Saverio Cinti, Dominique Langin, Ez-Zoubir Amri
OBJECTIVE: Thermogenic adipocytes (i.e. brown or brite/beige adipocytes) are able to burn large amounts of lipids and carbohydrates as a result of highly active mitochondria and enhanced uncoupled respiration, due to UCP1 activity. Although mitochondria are the key organelles for this thermogenic function, limited human data are available. METHODS/RESULTS: We characterized changes in the mitochondrial function of human brite adipocytes, using hMADS cells as a model of white- to brite-adipocyte conversion...
January 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141998/vanillic-acid-attenuates-obesity-via-activation-of-the-ampk-pathway-and-thermogenic-factors-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#15
Yunu Jung, Jinbong Park, Hye-Lin Kim, Jung-Eun Sim, Dong-Hyun Youn, JongWook Kang, Seona Lim, Mi-Young Jeong, Woong Mo Yang, Seok-Geun Lee, Kwang Seok Ahn, Jae-Young Um
Energy expenditure is a target gaining recent interest for obesity treatment. The antiobesity effect of vanillic acid (VA), a well-known flavoring agent, was investigated in vivo and in vitro High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and genetically obese db/db mice showed significantly decreased body weights after VA administration. Two major adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), were reduced while the key factor of energy metabolism, AMPKα, was increased in the white adipose tissue and liver tissue of VA-treated mice...
November 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078392/exploitation-of-an-iron-transporter-for-bacterial-protein-antibiotic-import
#16
Paul White, Amar Joshi, Patrice Rassam, Nicholas G Housden, Renata Kaminska, Jonathan D Goult, Christina Redfield, Laura C McCaughey, Daniel Walker, Shabaz Mohammed, Colin Kleanthous
Unlike their descendants, mitochondria and plastids, bacteria do not have dedicated protein import systems. However, paradoxically, import of protein bacteriocins, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood, underpins competition among pathogenic and commensal bacteria alike. Here, using X-ray crystallography, isothermal titration calorimetry, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo photoactivatable cross-linking of stalled translocation intermediates, we demonstrate how the iron transporter FpvAI in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is hijacked to translocate the bacteriocin pyocin S2 (pyoS2) across the outer membrane (OM)...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070699/inhibition-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-improves-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-genetically-susceptible-patients
#17
Evangelos D Michelakis, Vikram Gurtu, Linda Webster, Gareth Barnes, Geoffrey Watson, Luke Howard, John Cupitt, Ian Paterson, Richard B Thompson, Kelvin Chow, Declan P O'Regan, Lan Zhao, John Wharton, David G Kiely, Adam Kinnaird, Aristeidis E Boukouris, Chris White, Jayan Nagendran, Darren H Freed, Stephen J Wort, J Simon R Gibbs, Martin R Wilkins
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive vascular disease with a high mortality rate. It is characterized by an occlusive vascular remodeling due to a pro-proliferative and antiapoptotic environment in the wall of resistance pulmonary arteries (PAs). Proliferating cells exhibit a cancer-like metabolic switch where mitochondrial glucose oxidation is suppressed, whereas glycolysis is up-regulated as the major source of adenosine triphosphate production. This multifactorial mitochondrial suppression leads to inhibition of apoptosis and downstream signaling promoting proliferation...
October 25, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069446/6-4-pp-photolyase-encoded-by-atuvr3-is-localized-in-nuclei-chloroplasts-and-mitochondria-and-its-expression-is-down-regulated-by-light-in-a-photosynthesis-dependent-manner
#18
Agnieszka Katarzyna Banas, Pawel Hermanowicz, Olga Sztatelman, Justyna Labuz, Chhavi Aggarwal, Piotr Zglobicki, Dominika Jagiello-Flasinska, Wojciech Strzalka
Pyrimidine dimers are the most important DNA lesions induced by UVB irradiation. They can be repaired directly by photoreactivation or indirectly by the excision repair pathways. Photoreactivation is performed by photolyases, enzymes which bind to the dimers and use the energy of blue light or UVA to split bonds between adjacent pyrimidines. Arabidopsis thaliana has three known photolyases: AtPHR1, AtCRY3 and AtUVR3. Little is known about the cellular localization and regulation of AtUVR3 expression. We have found that its transcript level is down-regulated by light (red, blue or white) in a photosynthesis-dependent manner...
October 24, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053125/-ultrastructural-pathology-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-white-matter-in-continuous-paranoid-schizophrenia-a-role-for-microglia
#19
N A Uranova, O V Vikhreva, V I Rakhmanova, D D Orlovskaya
AIM: Previously the authors have reported the ultrastructural pathology and deficit of oligodendrocytes in gray and white matter of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to determine of the effects of microglia on the ultrastructure of oligodendrocytes in the white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex in continuous schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Postmortem morphometric electron microscopic study of oligodendrocytes in close apposition to microglia was performed in white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex (BA10)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031721/cdkal1-a-type-2-diabetes-susceptibility-gene-regulates-mitochondrial-function-in-adipose-tissue
#20
Colin J Palmer, Raphael J Bruckner, Joao A Paulo, Lawrence Kazak, Jonathan Z Long, Amir I Mina, Zhaoming Deng, Katherine B LeClair, Jessica A Hall, Shangyu Hong, Peter-James H Zushin, Kyle L Smith, Steven P Gygi, Susan Hagen, David E Cohen, Alexander S Banks
OBJECTIVES: Understanding how loci identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) contribute to pathogenesis requires new mechanistic insights. Variants within CDKAL1 are strongly linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity. Investigations in mouse models have focused on the function of Cdkal1 as a tRNALys modifier and downstream effects of Cdkal1 loss on pro-insulin translational fidelity in pancreatic β-cells. However, Cdkal1 is broadly expressed in other metabolically relevant tissues, including adipose tissue...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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