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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212073/age-induced-changes-in-white-brite-and-brown-adipose-depots-a-mini-review
#1
Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Christian Wolfrum, Marcel Scheideler
Aging is a time-related process of functional decline at organelle, cellular, tissue, and organismal level that ultimately limits life. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent growth arrest in response to stress and one of the major drivers of aging and age-related disorders. Senescent cells accumulate with age, and removal of these cells delays age-related disorders in different tissues and prolongs healthy lifespan. One of the most studied aging mechanisms is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species damage in cells, organs, and organisms over time...
December 7, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203735/histomorphologic-changes-of-esophageal-mucosa-in-experimental-third-degree-stricture
#2
Volodymyr O Shaprynskyi, Yevgeniy V Shaprinskiy, Yaroslav V Karyi, Serhii A Lysenko
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays the level of early and late complications after the operations for esophageal corrosive strictures such as esophago-organ anastomotic leak, development of infections, pneumonia, pleural empyema, mediastinitis, peritonitis, postoperative corrosive stricture development etc. remains rather high. Besides, postoperative mortality rate is high as well - 3.5-30 %. For that reason, an experimental model of esophageal stricture was suggested and ultrastructural mucosal changes in the stricture itself were studied to elaborate the unified pathogenic approach in treatment of esophageal stricture and improvement of its results...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198749/mitochondrial-fission-is-associated-with-ucp1-activity-in-human-brite-beige-adipocytes
#3
Didier F Pisani, Valentin Barquissau, Jean-Claude Chambard, Diane Beuzelin, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Aline Mairal, Sophie Pagnotta, Saverio Cinti, Dominique Langin, Ez-Zoubir Amri
OBJECTIVE: Thermogenic adipocytes (i.e. brown or brite/beige adipocytes) are able to burn large amounts of lipids and carbohydrates as a result of highly active mitochondria and enhanced uncoupled respiration, due to UCP1 activity. Although mitochondria are the key organelles for this thermogenic function, limited human data are available. METHODS/RESULTS: We characterized changes in the mitochondrial function of human brite adipocytes, using hMADS cells as a model of white- to brite-adipocyte conversion...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141998/vanillic-acid-attenuates-obesity-via-activation-of-the-ampk-pathway-and-thermogenic-factors-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#4
Yunu Jung, Jinbong Park, Hye-Lin Kim, Jung-Eun Sim, Dong-Hyun Youn, JongWook Kang, Seona Lim, Mi-Young Jeong, Woong Mo Yang, Seok-Geun Lee, Kwang Seok Ahn, Jae-Young Um
Energy expenditure is a target gaining recent interest for obesity treatment. The antiobesity effect of vanillic acid (VA), a well-known flavoring agent, was investigated in vivo and in vitro High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and genetically obese db/db mice showed significantly decreased body weights after VA administration. Two major adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), were reduced while the key factor of energy metabolism, AMPKα, was increased in the white adipose tissue and liver tissue of VA-treated mice...
November 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078392/exploitation-of-an-iron-transporter-for-bacterial-protein-antibiotic-import
#5
Paul White, Amar Joshi, Patrice Rassam, Nicholas G Housden, Renata Kaminska, Jonathan D Goult, Christina Redfield, Laura C McCaughey, Daniel Walker, Shabaz Mohammed, Colin Kleanthous
Unlike their descendants, mitochondria and plastids, bacteria do not have dedicated protein import systems. However, paradoxically, import of protein bacteriocins, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood, underpins competition among pathogenic and commensal bacteria alike. Here, using X-ray crystallography, isothermal titration calorimetry, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo photoactivatable cross-linking of stalled translocation intermediates, we demonstrate how the iron transporter FpvAI in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is hijacked to translocate the bacteriocin pyocin S2 (pyoS2) across the outer membrane (OM)...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070699/inhibition-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-improves-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-genetically-susceptible-patients
#6
Evangelos D Michelakis, Vikram Gurtu, Linda Webster, Gareth Barnes, Geoffrey Watson, Luke Howard, John Cupitt, Ian Paterson, Richard B Thompson, Kelvin Chow, Declan P O'Regan, Lan Zhao, John Wharton, David G Kiely, Adam Kinnaird, Aristeidis E Boukouris, Chris White, Jayan Nagendran, Darren H Freed, Stephen J Wort, J Simon R Gibbs, Martin R Wilkins
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive vascular disease with a high mortality rate. It is characterized by an occlusive vascular remodeling due to a pro-proliferative and antiapoptotic environment in the wall of resistance pulmonary arteries (PAs). Proliferating cells exhibit a cancer-like metabolic switch where mitochondrial glucose oxidation is suppressed, whereas glycolysis is up-regulated as the major source of adenosine triphosphate production. This multifactorial mitochondrial suppression leads to inhibition of apoptosis and downstream signaling promoting proliferation...
October 25, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069446/6-4-pp-photolyase-encoded-by-atuvr3-is-localized-in-nuclei-chloroplasts-and-mitochondria-and-its-expression-is-down-regulated-by-light-in-a-photosynthesis-dependent-manner
#7
Agnieszka Katarzyna Banas, Pawel Hermanowicz, Olga Sztatelman, Justyna Labuz, Chhavi Aggarwal, Piotr Zglobicki, Dominika Jagiello-Flasinska, Wojciech Strzalka
Pyrimidine dimers are the most important DNA lesions induced by UVB irradiation. They can be repaired directly by photoreactivation or indirectly by the excision repair pathways. Photoreactivation is performed by photolyases, enzymes which bind to the dimers and use the energy of blue light or UVA to split bonds between adjacent pyrimidines. Arabidopsis thaliana has three known photolyases: AtPHR1, AtCRY3 and AtUVR3. Little is known about the cellular localization and regulation of AtUVR3 expression. We have found that its transcript level is down-regulated by light (red, blue or white) in a photosynthesis-dependent manner...
October 24, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053125/-ultrastructural-pathology-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-white-matter-in-continuous-paranoid-schizophrenia-a-role-for-microglia
#8
N A Uranova, O V Vikhreva, V I Rakhmanova, D D Orlovskaya
AIM: Previously the authors have reported the ultrastructural pathology and deficit of oligodendrocytes in gray and white matter of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to determine of the effects of microglia on the ultrastructure of oligodendrocytes in the white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex in continuous schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Postmortem morphometric electron microscopic study of oligodendrocytes in close apposition to microglia was performed in white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex (BA10)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031721/cdkal1-a-type-2-diabetes-susceptibility-gene-regulates-mitochondrial-function-in-adipose-tissue
#9
Colin J Palmer, Raphael J Bruckner, Joao A Paulo, Lawrence Kazak, Jonathan Z Long, Amir I Mina, Zhaoming Deng, Katherine B LeClair, Jessica A Hall, Shangyu Hong, Peter-James H Zushin, Kyle L Smith, Steven P Gygi, Susan Hagen, David E Cohen, Alexander S Banks
OBJECTIVES: Understanding how loci identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) contribute to pathogenesis requires new mechanistic insights. Variants within CDKAL1 are strongly linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity. Investigations in mouse models have focused on the function of Cdkal1 as a tRNA(Lys) modifier and downstream effects of Cdkal1 loss on pro-insulin translational fidelity in pancreatic β-cells. However, Cdkal1 is broadly expressed in other metabolically relevant tissues, including adipose tissue...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988965/do-estrogens-enhance-activation-of-brown-and-beiging-of-adipose-tissues
#10
Aaron P Frank, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Obesity and its associated co-morbidities are worldwide public health concerns. Obesity is characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation; however, it is important to recognize that human and rodent adipose tissues are made up of several distinct adipose tissue sub-types. White adipose tissue (WAT) is considered the prototypical fat cell, due to its capacity and capability to store large amounts of lipid. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes substrates to generate heat. BAT contains more mitochondria than WAT and express uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates BAT thermogenesis...
October 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988150/mesophyll-cell-ultrastructure-of-wheat-leaves-etiolated-by-lead-and-selenium
#11
Galina A Semenova, Irina R Fomina, Anatoly A Kosobryukhov, Valery Yu Lyubimov, Ekaterina S Nadezhkina, Tamara I Balakhnina
The ultrastructure of mesophyll cells was studied in leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Trizo" seedlings after two weeks of growth on soil contaminated by Pb and/or Se. The soil treatments: control; (Pb1) 50mgkg(-1); (Pb2) 100mgkg(-1); (Se1) 0.4mgkg(-1); (Se2) 0.8mgkg(-1); (Pb1+Se1); (Pb1+Se2); (P2+Se1); and (Pb2+Se2) were used. Light and other conditions were optimal for plant growth. The (Se1)-plants showed enhanced growth and biomass production; (Pb1+Se1)-plants did not lag behind the controls, though O2 evolution decreased; chlorophyll content did not differ statistically in these treatments...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985337/dars2-protects-against-neuroinflammation-and-apoptotic-neuronal-loss-but-is-dispensable-for-myelin-producing-cells
#12
Marijana Aradjanski, Sukru Anil Dogan, Stephan Lotter, Shuaiyu Wang, Steffen Hermans, Rolf Wibom, Elena Rugarli, Aleksandra Trifunovic
Although mitochondria are ubiquitous, each mitochondrial disease has surprisingly distinctly different pattern of tissue and organ involvement. Congruently, mutations in genes encoding for different mitochondrial tRNA synthetases result in the development of a very flamboyant group of diseases. Mutations in some of these genes, including aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (DARS2), lead to the onset of a white matter disease-leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement, and lactate elevation (LBSL) characterized by progressive spastic ataxia and characteristic leukoencephalopathy signature with multiple long-tract involvements...
November 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939335/post-embryonic-changes-in-the-hindgut-of-honeybee-apis-mellifera-workers-morphology-cuticle-deposition-apoptosis-and-cell-proliferation
#13
Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Kenner Morais Fernandes, Weyder Cristiano Santana, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
In insects, the hindgut is a homeostatic region of the digestive tract, divided into pylorus, ileum, and rectum, that reabsorbs water, ions, and small molecules produced during hemolymph filtration. The hindgut anatomy in bee larvae is different from that of adult workers. This study reports the morphological changes and cellular events that occur in the hindgut during the metamorphosis of the honeybee Apis mellifera. We describe the occurrence of autophagosomes and the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells and cuticle, suggesting that cuticular degradation begins in prepupae, with the cuticle being reabsorbed and recycled by autophagosomes in white- and pink-eyed pupae, followed by the deposition of new cuticle in light-brown-eyed pupae...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#14
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895584/effects-of-lobeglitazone-a-novel-thiazolidinedione-on-adipose-tissue-remodeling-and-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissue-development-in-db-db-mice
#15
G Kim, Y-H Lee, M R Yun, J-Y Lee, E G Shin, B-W Lee, E S Kang, B-S Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of long-term treatment with lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione-based activator of PPARγ, on adipose tissue (AT), focusing on its effects on insulin resistance in obese db/db mice. METHODS: Seven-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated (n=8) or lobeglitazone-treated (n=8) group. Lobeglitazone (1 mg/kg daily) was injected intraperitoneally for 20 weeks. RESULTS: Lobeglitazone treatment for 20 weeks resulted in a remarkably improved glycemic index, including significantly decreased glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and preserved pancreatic beta cells...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883211/cide-family-mediated-unique-lipid-droplet-morphology-in-white-adipose-tissue-and-brown-adipose-tissue-determines-the-adipocyte-energy-metabolism
#16
Yuki Nishimoto, Yoshikazu Tamori
White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy as triacylglycerol in preparation for fasting state. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes energy and produces heat in a cold environment. One of the major differences between these two adipose tissues is the morphology of the intracellular lipid droplet (LD), which is large and unilocular in WAT and small and multilocular in BAT. Although the fat-specific protein 27 alpha (FSP27α), belonging to the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor A (DFFA)-like effector (Cide) family, was known to be indispensable for large unilocular LD formation in WAT, the mechanism that regulated small multilocular LD formation in BAT remained unknown...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877488/caveolae-in-rabbit-ventricular-myocytes-distribution-and-dynamic-diminution-after-cell%C3%A2-isolation
#17
Rebecca A B Burton, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Alexander D Corbett, Rémi Peyronnet, Ilona Bodi, Martin Fink, Judith Sheldon, Andreas Hoenger, Sarah C Calaghan, Gil Bub, Peter Kohl
Caveolae are signal transduction centers, yet their subcellular distribution and preservation in cardiac myocytes after cell isolation are not well documented. Here, we quantify caveolae located within 100 nm of the outer cell surface membrane in rabbit single-ventricular cardiomyocytes over 8 h post-isolation and relate this to the presence of caveolae in intact tissue. Hearts from New Zealand white rabbits were either chemically fixed by coronary perfusion or enzymatically digested to isolate ventricular myocytes, which were subsequently fixed at 0, 3, and 8 h post-isolation...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818596/cardiometabolic-phenotypes-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-two-cohorts-of-uk-women
#18
Anna L Guyatt, Kimberley Burrows, Philip A I Guthrie, Sue Ring, Wendy McArdle, Ian N M Day, Raimondo Ascione, Debbie A Lawlor, Tom R Gaunt, Santiago Rodriguez
The mitochondrial genome is present at variable copy number between individuals. Mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress, and their dysfunction may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The association of mitochondrial DNA copy number with cardiometabolic risk factors (lipids, glycaemic traits, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and blood pressure) was assessed in two independent cohorts of European origin women, one in whom outcomes were measured at mean (SD) age 30 (4.3) years (N=2278) and the second at 69...
August 15, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757561/porcine-interferon-stimulated-gene-12a-restricts-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-replication-in-marc-145-cells
#19
Likai Ji, Xiang Zhou, Wan Liang, Jianjian Liu, Bang Liu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes severe losses in the global pig industry. In the present study, we investigated the molecular characterization of porcine interferon stimulated gene 12a (ISG12A) and confirmed its anti-PRRSV ability for the first time. We found that porcine ISG12A was localized in mitochondria and significantly decreased the number of cells in G2/S phase. Porcine ISG12A mRNA was up-regulated in cells/tissues of Tongcheng (TC) pigs and Large White (LW) pigs after PRRSV challenge...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751712/activation-of-mitophagy-leads-to-decline-in-mfn2-and-loss-of-mitochondrial-mass-in-fuchs-endothelial-corneal-dystrophy
#20
Anne-Sophie Benischke, Shivakumar Vasanth, Takashi Miyai, Kishore Reddy Katikireddy, Tomas White, Yuming Chen, Adna Halilovic, Marianne Price, Francis Price, Paloma B Liton, Ula V Jurkunas
Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEnCs) are terminally differentiated cells that have limited regenerative potential. The large numbers of mitochondria in HCEnCs are critical for pump and barrier function required for corneal hydration and transparency. Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD) is a highly prevalent late-onset oxidative stress disorder characterized by progressive loss of HCEnCs. We previously reported increased mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP and mtDNA copy number in FECD. Herein, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP)-induced mitochondrial depolarization decreased mitochondrial mass and Mfn2 levels, which were rescued with mitophagy blocker, bafilomycin, in FECD...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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