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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890358/nucleo-mitochondrial-interaction-of-yeast-in-response-to-cadmium-sulfide-quantum-dot-exposure
#1
Francesco Pasquali, Caterina Agrimonti, Luca Pagano, Andrea Zappettini, Marco Villani, Marta Marmiroli, Jason C White, Nelson Marmiroli
Cell sensitivity to quantum dots (QDs) has been attributed to a cascade triggered by oxidative stress leading to apoptosis. The role and function of mitochondria in animal cells are well understood but little information is available on the complex genetic networks that regulate nucleo-mitochondrial interaction. The effect of CdS QD exposure in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assessed under conditions of limited lethality (<10%), using cell physiological and morphological endpoints. Whole-genomic array analysis and the screening of a deletion mutant library were also carried out...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885633/oligodendrocytes-development-physiology-and-glucose-metabolism
#2
Ana I Amaral, Joana M Tavares, Ursula Sonnewald, Mark R N Kotter
The glutamate-glutamine cycle is an outstanding example of how essential neuronal-glial interactions are for brain function. For several decades, this and other metabolic cycles in the brain have only included neurons and astrocytes but not oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent data revealed that oligodendrocytes are highly metabolically active cells in the brain and, therefore, should not be ignored. Using (13)C-labelled glucose in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and/or mass spectrometry (MS) it is possible to characterize metabolic functions in primary oligodendrocyte cultures...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875543/irisin-ameliorates-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-injury-through-modulation-of-histone-deacetylase-4
#3
Yu Tina Zhao, Hao Wang, Shouyan Zhang, Jianfeng Du, Shougang Zhuang, Ting C Zhao
Irisin is a recently identified myokine which brings increases in energy expenditure and contributes to the beneficial effects of exercise through the browning of white adipose tissues. However, its effects in the heart remains unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of irisin on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and its relationship with HDAC4. Wild type and stable HDAC4-overexpression cells were generated from H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. HDAC4 overexpression cells and wild type H9c2 cells were exposed to 24 hours of hypoxia followed by one hour of reoxygenation in vitro in the presence or absence of irisin (5 ng/ml)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754258/os-36-09-deficiency-of-thermogenesis-and-heat-sensation-accelerates-obesity-and-high-blood-pressure
#4
Yuanting Cui, Li Li, Peng Gao, Liqun Ma, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is global healthy problem. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mainly expresses on brown adipose tissue (BAT), uncouples energy substrate oxidation from mitochondrial ATP production and results in the loss of potential energy as heat. Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1 (TRPV1) is the heat-gated cation ion channel. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo role of TRPV1 and UCP1 co-action in obesity. DESIGN AND METHOD: We generated and characterized UCP1 mice lacking TRPV1 activity (TRPV1/UCP1 mice)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696117/pathogenic-variants-in-htra2-cause-an-early-onset-mitochondrial-syndrome-associated-with-3-methylglutaconic-aciduria
#5
Monika Oláhová, Kyle Thompson, Steven A Hardy, Inês A Barbosa, Arnaud Besse, Maria-Eleni Anagnostou, Kathryn White, Tracey Davey, Michael A Simpson, Michael Champion, Greg Enns, Susan Schelley, Robert N Lightowlers, Zofia M A Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Robert McFarland, Charu Deshpande, Penelope E Bonnen, Robert W Taylor
Mitochondrial diseases collectively represent one of the most heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders. Symptoms can manifest at any age, presenting with isolated or multiple-organ involvement. Advances in next-generation sequencing strategies have greatly enhanced the diagnosis of patients with mitochondrial disease, particularly where a mitochondrial aetiology is strongly suspected yet OXPHOS activities in biopsied tissue samples appear normal. We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify the molecular basis of an early-onset mitochondrial syndrome-pathogenic biallelic variants in the HTRA2 gene, encoding a mitochondria-localised serine protease-in five subjects from two unrelated families characterised by seizures, neutropenia, hypotonia and cardio-respiratory problems...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679486/identification-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-human-cytochrome-c-oxidase-that-target-chemoresistant-glioma-cells
#6
Claudia R Oliva, Tahireh Markert, Larry J Ross, E Lucile White, Lynn Rasmussen, Wei Zhang, Maaike Everts, Douglas R Moellering, Shannon M Bailey, Mark J Suto, Corinne E Griguer
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) or complex IV (EC 1.9.3.1) is a large transmembrane protein complex that serves as the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of eukaryotic mitochondria. CcO promotes the switch from glycolytic to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) metabolism and has been associated with increased self-renewal characteristics in gliomas. Increased CcO activity in tumors has been associated with tumor progression after chemotherapy failure, and patients with primary glioblastoma multiforme and high tumor CcO activity have worse clinical outcomes than those with low tumor CcO activity...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643223/os-36-09-deficiency-of-thermogenesis-and-heat-sensation-accelerates-obesity-and-high-blood-pressure
#7
Yuanting Cui, Li Li, Peng Gao, Liqun Ma, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is global healthy problem. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mainly expresses on brown adipose tissue (BAT), uncouples energy substrate oxidation from mitochondrial ATP production and results in the loss of potential energy as heat. Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1 (TRPV1) is the heat-gated cation ion channel. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo role of TRPV1 and UCP1 co-action in obesity. DESIGN AND METHOD: We generated and characterized UCP1 mice lacking TRPV1 activity (TRPV1/UCP1 mice)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590850/circumventing-the-crabtree-effect-a-method-to-induce-lactate-consumption-and-increase-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-cell-culture
#8
Alexandra I Mot, Jeffrey R Liddell, Anthony R White, Peter J Crouch
Most cells grown in glucose-containing medium generate almost all their ATP via glycolysis despite abundant oxygen supply and functional mitochondria, a phenomenon known as the Crabtree effect. By contrast, most cells within the body rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to generate the bulk of their energy supply. Thus, when utilising the accessibility of cell culture to elucidate fundamental elements of mitochondria in health and disease, it is advantageous to adopt culture conditions under which the cells have greater reliance upon OXPHOS for the supply of their energy needs...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589085/the-cancer-drug-dasatinib-increases-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-adipose-tissue-but-has-adverse-effects-on-glucose-tolerance-in-obese-mice
#9
Lykke Sylow, Jonathan Z Long, Isha A Lokurkar, Xing Zeng, Erik A Richter, Bruce M Spiegelman
Dasatinib (Sprycel) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. In this study, we identify dasatinib as a potent inducer of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α mRNA. Dasatinib increased PGC-1α mRNA expression up to 6-fold in 3T3-F442A adipocytes, primary adipocytes, and epididymal white adipose tissue from lean and diet-induced obese mice. Importantly, gene expression translated into increased PGC-1α protein content analyzed in melanoma cells and isolated mitochondria from adipocytes...
November 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547848/endog-knockout-mice-show-increased-brown-adipocyte-recruitment-in-white-adipose-tissue-and-improved-glucose-homeostasis
#10
Rosario Pardo, Natividad Blasco, Maria Vilà, Daniel Beiroa, Rubén Nogueiras, Xavier Cañas, Rafael Simó, Daniel Sanchis, Josep A Villena
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a central role in the regulation of whole-body energy and glucose homeostasis owing to its elevated capacity for lipid and glucose oxidation. The BAT thermogenic function, which is essential for the defense of body temperature against exposure to low environmental temperatures, relies on the expression in the inner membrane of brown adipocyte's mitochondria of uncoupling protein-1, a protein that uncouples substrate oxidation from oxidative phosphorylation and leads to the production of heat instead of ATP...
October 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531111/-the-histopathological-observation-of-rabbit-corneas-after-small-incision-lenticule-extraction
#11
Z X Dong, L He, Z Y Sun, Y Shen, R Y Chu, X T Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the morphological changes during corneal wound healing after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: Twenty-one New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A of 12 rabbits and group B of 9 rabbits) using the toss of a coin. All the right eyes were treated. Group A underwent SMILE, and group B underwent femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), with the same refractive corrections of-6...
July 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522103/unresolved-clinical-aspects-and-safety-hazards-of-blood-derived-ev-mv-in-stored-blood-components-from-personal-memory-lanes-to-newer-perspectives-on-the-roles-of-ev-mv-in-various-biological-phenomena
#12
REVIEW
Jerard Seghatchian, Jean Amiral
Blood cells generate heterogeneous populations of vesicles that are delivered, as small-specialized packages of highly active cell fragments in blood circulation, having almost similar functional activities, as the mother cells. These so called extracellular vesicles are the essential part of an energy-dependent natural apoptotic process; hence their beneficial and harmful biological functions cannot be ignored. Evidence is accumulating, that cellular derived vesicles, originate from all viable cells including: megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells, the highest in proportions from platelets...
August 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516533/autophagy-provides-metabolic-substrates-to-maintain-energy-charge-and-nucleotide-pools-in-ras-driven-lung-cancer-cells
#13
Jessie Yanxiang Guo, Xin Teng, Saurabh V Laddha, Sirui Ma, Stephen C Van Nostrand, Yang Yang, Sinan Khor, Chang S Chan, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Eileen White
Autophagy degrades and is thought to recycle proteins, other macromolecules, and organelles. In genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) for Kras-driven lung cancer, autophagy prevents the accumulation of defective mitochondria and promotes malignancy. Autophagy-deficient tumor-derived cell lines are respiration-impaired and starvation-sensitive. However, to what extent their sensitivity to starvation arises from defective mitochondria or an impaired supply of metabolic substrates remains unclear. Here, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of wild-type or autophagy-deficient (Atg7(-/-)) Kras-driven lung tumors...
August 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422263/widening-spectrum-of-cellular-and-subcellular-expression-of-human-glud1-and-glud2-glutamate-dehydrogenases-suggests-novel-functions
#14
Cleanthe Spanaki, Dimitra Kotzamani, Andreas Plaitakis
Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GDH1) (E.C. 1.4.1.3) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD+ and/or NADP+ to NADH and/or NADPH. It links amino acid with carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to Krebs cycle anaplerosis, energy production, ammonia handling and redox homeostasis. Although GDH1 was one of the first major metabolic enzymes to be studied decades ago, its role in cell biology is still incompletely understood...
July 16, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422255/fluorescence-imaging-of-atp-in-neutrophils-from-patients-with-sepsis-using-organelle-localizable-fluorescent-chemosensors
#15
Koichiro Sueyoshi, Yuka Sumi, Yoshiaki Inoue, Yoko Kuroda, Kumiko Ishii, Hitoshi Nakayama, Kazuhisa Iwabuchi, Yasutaka Kurishita, Hajime Shigemitsu, Itaru Hamachi, Hiroshi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: The activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) plays an important role in sepsis. Previously, we showed that ATP release and feedback via ATP receptors are essential for PMN activation; however, the dynamics remain poorly understood. Two new fluorescent chemosensors, PMAP-1 and MitoAP-1, were developed to detect ATP in the plasma membrane and mitochondria of living cells, respectively. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ATP localization using these chemosensors in PMNs of sepsis patients...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408775/agpat2-is-essential-for-postnatal-development-and-maintenance-of-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue
#16
Kelly M Cautivo, Carlos O Lizama, Pablo J Tapia, Anil K Agarwal, Abhimanyu Garg, Jay D Horton, Víctor A Cortés
OBJECTIVE: Characterize the cellular and molecular events responsible for lipodystrophy in AGPAT2 deficient mice. METHODS: Adipose tissue and differentiated MEF were assessed using light and electron microscopy, followed by protein (immunoblots) and mRNA analysis (qPCR). Phospholipid profiling was determined by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). RESULTS: In contrast to adult Agpat2 (-/-) mice, fetuses and newborn Agpat2 (-/-) mice have normal mass of white and brown adipose tissue...
July 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393099/perfusion-of-gastrodin-in-abdominal-aorta-for-alleviating-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
Hua Fang, Jing-Chao Zhang, Miao Yang, Hua-Feng Li, Jian-Ping Zhang, Fang-Xiang Zhang, Quan-Yun Wang, Ru-Rong Wang, Jin Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of perfusion of the gastrodin in abdominal aorta for alleviating the spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury (SCIRI). METHODS: A total of 36 New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into sham-operated group (group S), control group (group C) and gastrodin group (group G), 12 rabbits for each group. Aorta abdominalis infrarenalis blocking method was applied to establish the SCIRI model. The changes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) before the ischemia and on 30 min, 60 min, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of reperfusion of the gastrodin were respectively recorded, and the neurologic function score before the ischemia, on the 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of the reperfusion of the gastrodin were assessed...
July 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283328/blood-spinal-cord-barrier-alterations-in-subacute-and-chronic-stages-of-a-rat-model-of-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#18
Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, Edward Haller, Naoki Tajiri, Avery Thomson, Jennifer Barretta, Stephanie N Williams, Eithan D Haim, Hua Qin, Aric Frisina-Deyo, Jerry V Abraham, Paul R Sanberg, Harry Van Loveren, Cesario V Borlongan
We previously demonstrated blood-brain barrier impairment in remote contralateral brain areas in rats at 7 and 30 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), indicating ischemic diaschisis. Here, we focused on effects of subacute and chronic focal cerebral ischemia on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). We observed BSCB damage on both sides of the cervical spinal cord in rats at 7 and 30 days post-tMCAO. Major BSCB ultrastructural changes in spinal cord gray and white matter included vacuolated endothelial cells containing autophagosomes, pericyte degeneration with enlarged mitochondria, astrocyte end-feet degeneration and perivascular edema; damaged motor neurons, swollen axons with unraveled myelin in ascending and descending tracts and astrogliosis were also observed...
July 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269970/mitochondrial-stat3-powering-up-a-potent-factor
#19
Daniel J Garama, Christine L White, Jesse J Balic, Daniel J Gough
The JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway is engaged by many cytokines and growth factor stimuli to control diverse biological processes including proliferation, angiogenesis, survival, immune modulation, and metabolism. For over two decades it has been accepted that STAT3-dependent biology is due to its potency as a transcription factor capable of regulating the expression of many hundreds of genes. However, recent evidence of non-canonical and non-genomic activities of STAT3 has emerged. The most exciting of these activities is its capacity to translocate into the mitochondria where it regulates the activity of the electron transport chain and the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore...
November 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183225/cyclophilin-d-knock-out-mice-show-enhanced-resistance-to-osteoporosis-and-to-metabolic-changes-observed-in-aging-bone
#20
Laura C Shum, Noelle S White, Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Paul S Brookes, Jennifer H Jonason, Roman A Eliseev
Pathogenic factors associated with aging, such as oxidative stress and hormone depletion converge on mitochondria and impair their function via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). The MPTP is a large non-selective pore regulated by cyclophilin D (CypD) that disrupts mitochondrial membrane integrity. MPTP involvement has been firmly established in degenerative processes in heart, brain, and muscle. Bone has high energy demands and is therefore expected to be highly sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
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