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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053125/-ultrastructural-pathology-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-white-matter-in-continuous-paranoid-schizophrenia-a-role-for-microglia
#1
N A Uranova, O V Vikhreva, V I Rakhmanova, D D Orlovskaya
AIM: Previously the authors have reported the ultrastructural pathology and deficit of oligodendrocytes in gray and white matter of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to determine of the effects of microglia on the ultrastructure of oligodendrocytes in the white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex in continuous schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Postmortem morphometric electron microscopic study of oligodendrocytes in close apposition to microglia was performed in white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex (BA10)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031721/cdkal1-a-type-2-diabetes-susceptibility-gene-regulates-mitochondrial-function-in-adipose-tissue
#2
Colin J Palmer, Raphael J Bruckner, Joao A Paulo, Lawrence Kazak, Jonathan Z Long, Amir I Mina, Zhaoming Deng, Katherine B LeClair, Jessica A Hall, Shangyu Hong, Peter-James H Zushin, Kyle L Smith, Steven P Gygi, Susan Hagen, David E Cohen, Alexander S Banks
OBJECTIVES: Understanding how loci identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) contribute to pathogenesis requires new mechanistic insights. Variants within CDKAL1 are strongly linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity. Investigations in mouse models have focused on the function of Cdkal1 as a tRNA(Lys) modifier and downstream effects of Cdkal1 loss on pro-insulin translational fidelity in pancreatic β-cells. However, Cdkal1 is broadly expressed in other metabolically relevant tissues, including adipose tissue...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988965/do-estrogens-enhance-activation-of-brown-and-beiging-of-adipose-tissues
#3
Aaron P Frank, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Obesity and its associated co-morbidities are worldwide public health concerns. Obesity is characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation; however, it is important to recognize that human and rodent adipose tissues are made up of several distinct adipose tissue sub-types. White adipose tissue (WAT) is considered the prototypical fat cell, due to its capacity and capability to store large amounts of lipid. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes substrates to generate heat. BAT contains more mitochondria than WAT and express uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates BAT thermogenesis...
October 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988150/mesophyll-cell-ultrastructure-of-wheat-leaves-etiolated-by-lead-and-selenium
#4
Galina A Semenova, Irina R Fomina, Anatoly A Kosobryukhov, Valery Yu Lyubimov, Ekaterina S Nadezhkina, Tamara I Balakhnina
The ultrastructure of mesophyll cells was studied in leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Trizo" seedlings after two weeks of growth on soil contaminated by Pb and/or Se. The soil treatments: control; (Pb1) 50mgkg(-1); (Pb2) 100mgkg(-1); (Se1) 0.4mgkg(-1); (Se2) 0.8mgkg(-1); (Pb1+Se1); (Pb1+Se2); (P2+Se1); and (Pb2+Se2) were used. Light and other conditions were optimal for plant growth. The (Se1)-plants showed enhanced growth and biomass production; (Pb1+Se1)-plants did not lag behind the controls, though O2 evolution decreased; chlorophyll content did not differ statistically in these treatments...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985337/dars2-protects-against-neuroinflammation-and-apoptotic-neuronal-loss-but-is-dispensable-for-myelin-producing-cells
#5
Marijana Aradjanski, Sukru Anil Dogan, Stephan Lotter, Shuaiyu Wang, Steffen Hermans, Rolf Wibom, Elena Rugarli, Aleksandra Trifunovic
Although mitochondria are ubiquitous, each mitochondrial disease has surprisingly distinctly different pattern of tissue and organ involvement. Congruently, mutations in genes encoding for different mitochondrial tRNA synthetases result in the development of a very flamboyant group of diseases. Mutations in some of these genes, including aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (DARS2), lead to the onset of a white matter disease-leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement, and lactate elevation (LBSL) characterized by progressive spastic ataxia and characteristic leukoencephalopathy signature with multiple long-tract involvements...
August 3, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939335/post-embryonic-changes-in-the-hindgut-of-honeybee-apis-mellifera-workers-morphology-cuticle-deposition-apoptosis-and-cell-proliferation
#6
Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Kenner Morais Fernandes, Weyder Cristiano Santana, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
In insects, the hindgut is a homeostatic region of the digestive tract, divided into pylorus, ileum, and rectum, that reabsorbs water, ions, and small molecules produced during hemolymph filtration. The hindgut anatomy in bee larvae is different from that of adult workers. This study reports the morphological changes and cellular events that occur in the hindgut during the metamorphosis of the honeybee Apis mellifera. We describe the occurrence of autophagosomes and the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells and cuticle, suggesting that cuticular degradation begins in prepupae, with the cuticle being reabsorbed and recycled by autophagosomes in white- and pink-eyed pupae, followed by the deposition of new cuticle in light-brown-eyed pupae...
September 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#7
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895584/effects-of-lobeglitazone-a-novel-thiazolidinedione-on-adipose-tissue-remodeling-and-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissue-development-in-db-db-mice
#8
G Kim, Y-H Lee, M R Yun, J-Y Lee, E G Shin, B-W Lee, E S Kang, B-S Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of long-term treatment with lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione-based activator of PPARγ, on adipose tissue (AT), focusing on its effects on insulin resistance in obese db/db mice. METHODS: Seven-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated (n=8) or lobeglitazone-treated (n=8) group. Lobeglitazone (1 mg/kg daily) was injected intraperitoneally for 20 weeks. RESULTS: Lobeglitazone treatment for 20 weeks resulted in a remarkably improved glycemic index, including significantly decreased glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and preserved pancreatic beta cells...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883211/cide-family-mediated-unique-lipid-droplet-morphology-in-white-adipose-tissue-and-brown-adipose-tissue-determines-the-adipocyte-energy-metabolism
#9
Yuki Nishimoto, Yoshikazu Tamori
White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy as triacylglycerol in preparation for fasting state. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes energy and produces heat in a cold environment. One of the major differences between these two adipose tissues is the morphology of the intracellular lipid droplet (LD), which is large and unilocular in WAT and small and multilocular in BAT. Although the fat-specific protein 27 alpha (FSP27α), belonging to the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor A (DFFA)-like effector (Cide) family, was known to be indispensable for large unilocular LD formation in WAT, the mechanism that regulated small multilocular LD formation in BAT remained unknown...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877488/caveolae-in-rabbit-ventricular-myocytes-distribution-and-dynamic-diminution-after-cell%C3%A2-isolation
#10
Rebecca A B Burton, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Alexander D Corbett, Rémi Peyronnet, Ilona Bodi, Martin Fink, Judith Sheldon, Andreas Hoenger, Sarah C Calaghan, Gil Bub, Peter Kohl
Caveolae are signal transduction centers, yet their subcellular distribution and preservation in cardiac myocytes after cell isolation are not well documented. Here, we quantify caveolae located within 100 nm of the outer cell surface membrane in rabbit single-ventricular cardiomyocytes over 8 h post-isolation and relate this to the presence of caveolae in intact tissue. Hearts from New Zealand white rabbits were either chemically fixed by coronary perfusion or enzymatically digested to isolate ventricular myocytes, which were subsequently fixed at 0, 3, and 8 h post-isolation...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818596/cardiometabolic-phenotypes-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-two-cohorts-of-uk-women
#11
Anna L Guyatt, Kimberley Burrows, Philip A I Guthrie, Sue Ring, Wendy McArdle, Ian N M Day, Raimondo Ascione, Debbie A Lawlor, Tom R Gaunt, Santiago Rodriguez
The mitochondrial genome is present at variable copy number between individuals. Mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress, and their dysfunction may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The association of mitochondrial DNA copy number with cardiometabolic risk factors (lipids, glycaemic traits, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and blood pressure) was assessed in two independent cohorts of European origin women, one in whom outcomes were measured at mean (SD) age 30 (4.3) years (N=2278) and the second at 69...
August 15, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757561/porcine-interferon-stimulated-gene-12a-restricts-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-replication-in-marc-145-cells
#12
Likai Ji, Xiang Zhou, Wan Liang, Jianjian Liu, Bang Liu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes severe losses in the global pig industry. In the present study, we investigated the molecular characterization of porcine interferon stimulated gene 12a (ISG12A) and confirmed its anti-PRRSV ability for the first time. We found that porcine ISG12A was localized in mitochondria and significantly decreased the number of cells in G2/S phase. Porcine ISG12A mRNA was up-regulated in cells/tissues of Tongcheng (TC) pigs and Large White (LW) pigs after PRRSV challenge...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751712/activation-of-mitophagy-leads-to-decline-in-mfn2-and-loss-of-mitochondrial-mass-in-fuchs-endothelial-corneal-dystrophy
#13
Anne-Sophie Benischke, Shivakumar Vasanth, Takashi Miyai, Kishore Reddy Katikireddy, Tomas White, Yuming Chen, Adna Halilovic, Marianne Price, Francis Price, Paloma B Liton, Ula V Jurkunas
Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEnCs) are terminally differentiated cells that have limited regenerative potential. The large numbers of mitochondria in HCEnCs are critical for pump and barrier function required for corneal hydration and transparency. Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD) is a highly prevalent late-onset oxidative stress disorder characterized by progressive loss of HCEnCs. We previously reported increased mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP and mtDNA copy number in FECD. Herein, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP)-induced mitochondrial depolarization decreased mitochondrial mass and Mfn2 levels, which were rescued with mitophagy blocker, bafilomycin, in FECD...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742600/cholesterol-reduction-and-macrophage-function-role-of-paraoxonases
#14
C Roger White, G M Anantharamaiah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Unregulated uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages to form foam cells is the hallmark for atherosclerosis. The paraoxonase (PON) family of enzymes plays a critical role in attenuating atherosclerotic lesion formation by hydrolyzing lipid peroxides (LOOHs) and preventing the oxidation of LDL particles and by enhancing HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Findings in recent years suggest novel mechanisms by which PON isoforms interact with macrophages to regulate cholesterol metabolism and cellular function...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711624/curcumin-attenuates-oxidative-stress-induced-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-dependent-apoptosis-of-splenocytes-in-diabetes
#15
Kahkashan Rashid, Sayantani Chowdhury, Sumit Ghosh, Parames C Sil
The present study was aimed to determine the curative role of curcumin against diabetes induced oxidative stress and its associated splenic complications. Diabetes was induced in the experimental rats via the intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of STZ (65mgkg(-1)body weight). Increased blood glucose and intracellular ROS levels along with decreased body weight, the activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in the diabetic animals. Histological assessment showed white pulp depletion and damaged spleen anatomy in these animals...
November 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646096/heat-stress-causes-dysfunctional-autophagy-in-oxidative-skeletal-muscle
#16
Alexandra J Brownstein, Shanthi Ganesan, Corey M Summers, Sarah Pearce, Benjamin J Hale, Jason W Ross, Nicholas Gabler, Jacob T Seibert, Robert P Rhoads, Lance H Baumgard, Joshua T Selsby
We have previously established that 24 h of environmental hyperthermia causes oxidative stress and have implicated mitochondria as likely contributors to this process. Given this, we hypothesized that heat stress would lead to increased autophagy/mitophagy and a reduction in mitochondrial content. To address this hypothesis pigs were housed in thermoneutral (TN; 20°C) or heat stress (35°C) conditions for 1- (HS1) or 3- (HS3) days and the red and white portions of the semitendinosus collected. We did not detect differences in glycolytic muscle...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570579/global-transcriptome-profiling-identifies-klf15-and-slc25a10-as-modifiers-of-adipocytes-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-women
#17
Agné Kulyté, Anna Ehrlund, Peter Arner, Ingrid Dahlman
Although the mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are not entirely understood, it is likely that alterations of adipose tissue function are involved. The aim of this study was to identify new genes controlling insulin sensitivity in adipocytes from obese women with either insulin resistant (OIR) or sensitive (OIS) adipocytes. Insulin sensitivity was first determined by measuring lipogenesis in isolated adipocytes from abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) in a large observational study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490632/cell-death-inducing-dna-fragmentation-factor-a-like-effector-a-and-fat-specific-protein-27%C3%AE-coordinately-control-lipid-droplet-size-in-brown-adipocytes
#18
Yuki Nishimoto, Shinsuke Nakajima, Sanshiro Tateya, Masayuki Saito, Wataru Ogawa, Yoshikazu Tamori
Adipose tissue stores neutral lipids and is a major metabolic organ involved in regulating whole-body energy homeostasis. Triacylglycerol is stored as unilocular large lipid droplets (LDs) in white adipocytes and as multilocular small LDs in brown adipocytes. Proteins of the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor A-like effector (Cide) family include CideA, CideB, and fat-specific protein of 27 (FSP27). Of these, FSP27 has been shown to play a crucial role in the formation of unilocular large LDs in white adipocytes...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488768/mild-mitochondrial-uncoupling-induces-hsl-atgl-independent-lipolysis-relying-on-a-form-of-autophagy-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#19
Stéphane Demine, Silvia Tejerina, Benoît Bihin, Marc Thiry, Nagabushana Reddy, Patricia Renard, Martine Raes, Michel Jadot, Thierry Arnould
Obesity is characterized by an excessive triacylglycerol accumulation in white adipocytes. Various mechanisms allowing the tight regulation of triacylglycerol storage and mobilization by lipid droplet-associated proteins as well as lipolytic enzymes have been identified. Increasing energy expenditure by inducing a mild uncoupling of mitochondria in adipocytes might represent a putative interesting anti-obesity strategy as it reduces the adipose tissue triacylglycerol content (limiting alterations caused by cell hypertrophy) by stimulating lipolysis through yet unknown mechanisms, limiting the adverse effects of adipocyte hypertrophy...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435771/brown-adipose-tissue-bioenergetics-a-new-methodological-approach
#20
María Calderon-Dominguez, Martín Alcalá, David Sebastián, Antonio Zorzano, Marta Viana, Dolors Serra, Laura Herrero
The rediscovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans and its capacity to oxidize fat and dissipate energy as heat has put the spotlight on its potential as a therapeutic target in the treatment of several metabolic conditions including obesity and diabetes. To date the measurement of bioenergetics parameters has required the use of cultured cells or extracted mitochondria with the corresponding loss of information in the tissue context. Herein, we present a method to quantify mitochondrial bioenergetics directly in BAT...
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
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