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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891729/nos3-inhibition-confers-post-ischemic-protection-to-young-and-aging-white-matter-integrity-by-conserving-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-miro-2-levels
#1
Chinthasagar Bastian, Jane Zaleski, Katharine Stahon, Brandon Parr, Andrew McCray, Jerica Day, Sylvain Brunet, Selva Baltan
White matter (WM) damage following a stroke underlies a majority of the neurological disability that is subsequently observed. Although ischemic injury mechanisms are age-dependent, conserving axonal mitochondria provides consistent post-ischemic protection to young and aging WM. Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activation is a major cause of oxidative and mitochondrial injury in gray matter during ischemia; therefore, we used a pure WM tract, isolated male mouse optic nerve, to investigate whether NOS inhibition provides post-ischemic functional recovery by preserving mitochondria...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#2
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718255/mitochondrial-dna-is-a-pro-inflammatory-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-released-during-active-ibd
#3
Ray K Boyapati, David A Dorward, Arina Tamborska, Rahul Kalla, Nicholas T Ventham, Mary K Doherty, Philip D Whitfield, Mohini Gray, Joseph Loane, Adriano G Rossi, Jack Satsangi, Gwo-Tzer Ho
Background: Due to common evolutionary origins, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) shares many similarities with immunogenic bacterial DNA. MtDNA is recognized as a pro-inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) with a pathogenic role in several inflammatory diseases. We hypothesised that mtDNA is released during active disease, serving as a key pro-inflammatory factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Between 2014 and 2015, we collected plasma separated within 2 hours of sampling from 97 prospectively recruited IBD patients (67 ulcerative colitis [UC] and 30 Crohn's disease [CD]) and 40 non-IBD controls...
May 1, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692364/mitophagy-controls-beige-adipocyte-maintenance-through-a-parkin-dependent-and-ucp1-independent-mechanism
#4
Xiaodan Lu, Svetlana Altshuler-Keylin, Qiang Wang, Yong Chen, Carlos Henrique Sponton, Kenji Ikeda, Pema Maretich, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of mitochondria-enriched thermogenic adipocytes that emerge in response to external stimuli, such as chronic cold exposure. We have previously shown that after the withdrawal of external stimuli, beige adipocytes directly acquire a white fat-like phenotype through autophagy-mediated mitochondrial degradation. We investigated the upstream pathway that mediates mitochondrial clearance and report that Parkin-mediated mitophagy plays a key role in the beige-to-white adipocyte transition...
April 24, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674123/effects-of-dietary-toxic-cyanobacteria-and-ammonia-exposure-on-immune-function-of-blunt-snout-bream-megalabrama-amblycephala
#5
Hu Xia, Ting Song, Li Wang, Liangsen Jiang, Qiting Zhou, Weimin Wang, Liangguo Liu, Pinhong Yang, Xuezhen Zhang
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by water eutrophication have become a worldwide problem. During the degradation of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, elevated ammonia and microcystins concentrations co-occur and exert toxicity on fish. Up to now, the combined effect of microcystins and ammonia on fish immunotoxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated immune responses of blunt snout bream (Megalabrama amblycephala) to dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure. Megalobrama amblycephala were exposed to solutions with different concentrations of NH3 -N (0, 0...
July 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669585/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-promotes-destabilization-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-by-regulating-gm-csf-paracrine
#6
Ru Ying, Sheng-Wei Li, Jia-Yuan Chen, Hai-Feng Zhang, Ying Yang, Zhen-Jie Gu, Yang-Xin Chen, Jing-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) accelerates plaque progression and increases cardiovascular risk. We tested the hypothesis that PVAT contributed to plaque vulnerability and investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in PVAT played an important role in vulnerable plaque. METHODS: We transplanted thoracic aortic PVAT or subcutaneous adipose tissue as a control, from donor mice to carotid arteries of recipient apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/- ) mice after removing carotid artery collar placed for 6 weeks...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656200/photoinduced-anticancer-activity-studies-of-iridium-iii-complexes-targeting-mitochondria-and-tubules
#7
Wen-Yao Zhang, Qian-Yan Yi, Yang-Jie Wang, Fan Du, Miao He, Bing Tang, Dan Wan, Yun-Jun Liu, Hong-Liang Huang
Three new iridium (III) complexes [Ir (ppy)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (1), [Ir (bzq)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (2) and [Ir (piq)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (3) were designed and synthesized. All the complexes were tested for anticancer activity using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole)-2,5-diphenyltetraazolium bromide (MTT) method. The complexes show no cytotoxic activity toward cancer BEL-7402, SGC-7901, Eca-109, A549, HeLa and HepG2 cells. However, upon irradiation with white light, the complexes display high cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 cells with an IC50 value of 5...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599420/brown-adipose-tissue-whitening-leads-to-brown-adipocyte-death-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#8
Petra Kotzbeck, Antonio Giordano, Eleonora Mondini, Incoronata Murano, Ilenia Severi, Wiebe Venema, Maria Paola Cecchini, Erin E Kershaw, Giorgio Barbatelli, Guenter Haemmerle, Rudolf Zechner, Saverio Cinti
In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores and releases lipids, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes lipids to fuel thermogenesis. In obese individuals, WAT undergoes profound changes; it expands, becomes dysfunctional, and develops a low-grade inflammatory state. Importantly, BAT content and activity decline in obese subjects, mainly as a result of the conversion of brown adipocytes to white-like unilocular cells. Here, we show that BAT "whitening" is induced by multiple factors, including high ambient temperature, leptin receptor deficiency, β-adrenergic signaling impairment, and lipase deficiency, each of which is capable of inducing macrophage infiltration, brown adipocyte death, and crown-like structure (CLS) formation...
May 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594796/alternative-mitochondrial-respiratory-chains-from-two-crustaceans-artemia-franciscana-nauplii-and-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#9
Chrystian Rodriguez-Armenta, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Monica Rosas-Lemus, Natalia Chiquete-Felix, Jose Angel Huerta-Ocampo, Adriana Muhlia-Almazan
Mitochondrial ATP is synthesized by coupling between the electron transport chain and complex V. In contrast, physiological uncoupling of these processes allows mitochondria to consume oxygen at high rates without ATP synthesis. Such uncoupling mechanisms prevent reactive oxygen species overproduction. One of these mechanisms are the alternative redox enzymes from the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which may help cells to maintain homeostasis under stress independently of ATP synthesis. To date, no reports have been published on alternative redox enzymes in crustaceans mitochondria...
April 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576218/mutations-in-pmpcb-encoding-the-catalytic-subunit-of-the-mitochondrial-presequence-protease-cause-neurodegeneration-in-early-childhood
#10
F-Nora Vögtle, Björn Brändl, Austin Larson, Manuela Pendziwiat, Marisa W Friederich, Susan M White, Alice Basinger, Cansu Kücükköse, Hiltrud Muhle, Johanna A Jähn, Oliver Keminer, Katherine L Helbig, Carolyn F Delto, Lisa Myketin, Dirk Mossmann, Nils Burger, Noriko Miyake, Audrey Burnett, Andreas van Baalen, Mark A Lovell, Naomichi Matsumoto, Maie Walsh, Hung-Chun Yu, Deepali N Shinde, Ulrich Stephani, Johan L K Van Hove, Franz-Josef Müller, Ingo Helbig
Mitochondrial disorders causing neurodegeneration in childhood are genetically heterogeneous, and the underlying genetic etiology remains unknown in many affected individuals. We identified biallelic variants in PMPCB in individuals of four families including one family with two affected siblings with neurodegeneration and cerebellar atrophy. PMPCB encodes the catalytic subunit of the essential mitochondrial processing protease (MPP), which is required for maturation of the majority of mitochondrial precursor proteins...
April 5, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574488/simpson-golabi-behmel-syndrome-human-adipocytes-reveal-a-changing-phenotype-throughout-differentiation
#11
T Montanari, M Colitti
The Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) cell strain is widely considered to be a representative in vitro model of human subcutaneous white pre-adipocytes. These cells achieve a transient expression of classical brown markers, such as uncoupling protein 1, peaking at day 14 of differentiation and decreasing thereafter. Adipocyte browning process involves dynamic changes in lipid droplet (LD) dimension, in mitochondria morphology, and in the expression of brown-specific marker genes. This study analyzes SGBS transient phenotypic transformation by quantifying the heterogeneity of LDs, mitochondrial dynamics, and a panel of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and browning...
March 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567975/loss-of-idh2-accelerates-age-related-hearing-loss-in-male-mice
#12
Karessa White, Mi-Jung Kim, Chul Han, Hyo-Jin Park, Dalian Ding, Kevin Boyd, Logan Walker, Paul Linser, Zaimary Meneses, Cole Slade, Jonathan Hirst, Katherine Santostefano, Naohiro Terada, Takuya Miyakawa, Masaru Tanokura, Richard Salvi, Shinichi Someya
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 2 participates in the TCA cycle and catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate and NADP+ to NADPH. In the mitochondria, IDH2 also plays a key role in protecting mitochondrial components from oxidative stress by supplying NADPH to both glutathione reductase (GSR) and thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2). Here, we report that loss of Idh2 accelerates age-related hearing loss, the most common form of hearing impairment, in male mice. This was accompanied by increased oxidative DNA damage, increased apoptotic cell death, and profound loss of spiral ganglion neurons and hair cells in the cochlea of 24-month-old Idh2-/- mice...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550271/functional-characterization-of-the-clade-b-serine-protease-inhibitor-serpinb3-in-the-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#13
Yongjie Liu, Fujun Hou, Zhaoying Qian, Xiaolin Liu
The clade B serpins contain predominantly intracellular proteins and were reported to be involved in multiple biological functions, especially in inflammation and immune system function. However, studies about the role of the invertebrate intracellular serpins in immune responses were still deficient. Therefore, this paper focused on the functional characterization of LvserpinB3 in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The pAc5.1-LvserpinB3-EGFP vector was transfected into Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells to analyze the subcellular localization of LvserpinB3, and fluorescent imaging showed that LvserpinB3 were mainly localized to the mitochondria...
August 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425508/%C3%AE-aminoisobutyric-acid-l-baiba-is-a-muscle-derived-osteocyte-survival-factor
#14
Yukiko Kitase, Julian A Vallejo, William Gutheil, Harika Vemula, Katharina Jähn, Jianxun Yi, Jingsong Zhou, Marco Brotto, Lynda F Bonewald
Exercise has beneficial effects on metabolism and on tissues. The exercise-induced muscle factor β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) plays a critical role in the browning of white fat and in insulin resistance. Here we show another function for BAIBA, that of a bone-protective factor that prevents osteocyte cell death induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). l-BAIBA was as or more protective than estrogen or N-acetyl cysteine, signaling through the Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor Type D (MRGPRD) to prevent the breakdown of mitochondria due to ROS...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341317/apoptosis-induction-in-k562-human-myelogenous-leukaemia-cells-is-connected-to-the-modulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-by-bhx-a-novel-pyrazoline-derivative
#15
Hanmei Bao, Qing Zhang, Yibo Du, Cai Zhang, Hui Xu, Zhongling Zhu, Zhao Yan
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to explore the effects of BHX on human chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cells and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CML cell line K562 cells were treated with BHX. The effects of BHX on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle were detected. Subsequently, the caspase, ATP activity, Ca2+ , ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels treated with various concentrations of BHX were analysed...
January 16, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338152/generation-and-characterization-of-siglec-f-specific-monoclonal-antibodies
#16
Sima Shahmohammadi-Farid, Roya Ghods, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Ali-Ahmad Bayat, Nazanin Mojtabavi, Alireza Razavi, Amir-Hassan Zarnani
Siglec-F (SF) is a surface glycoprotein expressed by mouse eosinophils and induces caspase- and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis after engagement with its cognate ligand or specific antibodies. This targeting eosinophils by monoclonal antibodies may help diverse diseases associated with increased frequency of eosinophils including allergy and asthma. In this paper, production of murine and rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Siglec-F has been addressed. Balb/c mice were immunized with siglec-F1 (SF1) and siglec-F2 (SF2) synthetic peptides conjugated to a carrier protein...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334400/oolong-tea-and-lr-white-resin-a-new-method-of-plant-sample-preparation-for-transmission-electron-microscopy
#17
Xiaohua He, Fuzhen Guo, Bin Liu
Simplifying sample processing, shortening the sample preparation time, and adjusting procedures to suitable for new health and safety regulations, these issues are the current challenges which electron microscopic examinations need to face. In order to resolve these problems, new plant tissue sample processing protocols for transmission electron microscopy should be developed. In the present study, we chose the LR-White resin-assisted processing protocol for the ultrastructural observation of different types of plant tissues...
May 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212073/age-induced-changes-in-white-brite-and-brown-adipose-depots-a-mini-review
#18
Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Christian Wolfrum, Marcel Scheideler
Aging is a time-related process of functional decline at organelle, cellular, tissue, and organismal level that ultimately limits life. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent growth arrest in response to stress and one of the major drivers of aging and age-related disorders. Senescent cells accumulate with age, and removal of these cells delays age-related disorders in different tissues and prolongs healthy lifespan. One of the most studied aging mechanisms is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species damage in cells, organs, and organisms over time...
2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203735/histomorphologic-changes-of-esophageal-mucosa-in-experimental-third-degree-stricture
#19
Volodymyr O Shaprynskyi, Yevgeniy V Shaprinskiy, Yaroslav V Karyi, Serhii A Lysenko
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays the level of early and late complications after the operations for esophageal corrosive strictures such as esophago-organ anastomotic leak, development of infections, pneumonia, pleural empyema, mediastinitis, peritonitis, postoperative corrosive stricture development etc. remains rather high. Besides, postoperative mortality rate is high as well - 3.5-30 %. For that reason, an experimental model of esophageal stricture was suggested and ultrastructural mucosal changes in the stricture itself were studied to elaborate the unified pathogenic approach in treatment of esophageal stricture and improvement of its results...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198749/mitochondrial-fission-is-associated-with-ucp1-activity-in-human-brite-beige-adipocytes
#20
Didier F Pisani, Valentin Barquissau, Jean-Claude Chambard, Diane Beuzelin, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Aline Mairal, Sophie Pagnotta, Saverio Cinti, Dominique Langin, Ez-Zoubir Amri
OBJECTIVE: Thermogenic adipocytes (i.e. brown or brite/beige adipocytes) are able to burn large amounts of lipids and carbohydrates as a result of highly active mitochondria and enhanced uncoupled respiration, due to UCP1 activity. Although mitochondria are the key organelles for this thermogenic function, limited human data are available. METHODS/RESULTS: We characterized changes in the mitochondrial function of human brite adipocytes, using hMADS cells as a model of white- to brite-adipocyte conversion...
January 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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