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Acute respiratory distress system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099388/valproic-acid-mitigates-the-inflammatory-response-and-prevents-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-a-murine-model-of-escherichia-coli-pneumonia-at-the-expense-of-bacterial-clearance
#1
George Kasotakis, Manuel Galvan, Elizabeth King, Beda Sarkar, Arthur Stucchi, Joseph P Mizgerd, Peter A Burke, Daniel Remick
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) are members of a family of epigenetic modifying agents with broad anti-inflammatory properties. These anti-inflammatory properties may have important therapeutic implications in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). However, administration of HDACI may create an immunosuppressive environment conducive to bacterial growth. Accordingly, the aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of HDACI Valproic Acid (VPA) on host inflammatory response and bacterial burden in a murine model of E...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067830/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-long-term-pulmonary-outcomes
#2
REVIEW
Lauren M Davidson, Sara K Berkelhamer
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease most commonly seen in premature infants who required mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy for acute respiratory distress. While advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival rates of premature infants, limited progress has been made in reducing rates of BPD. Lack of progress may in part be attributed to the limited therapeutic options available for prevention and treatment of BPD. Several lung-protective strategies have been shown to reduce risks, including use of non-invasive support, as well as early extubation and volume ventilation when intubation is required...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062482/dysregulated-nox4-ubiquitination-contributes-to-redox-imbalance-and-age-related-severity-of-acute-lung-injury
#3
Sunmi Palumbo, Yoon-Joo Shin, Kareem Ahmad, Ankit A Desai, Hector Quijada, Mohamed Mohamed, Adam Knox, Saad Sammani, Brett A Colson, Ting Wang, Joe G N Garcia, Louise Hecker
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating critical illness disproportionately affecting the elderly population(higher incidence and mortality). The integrity of the lung endothelial cell (EC) monolayer is critical for preservation of lung function. However, mechanisms mediating EC barrier regulation in aging remain unclear. We assessed the severity of acute lung injury (ALI) in young (2 months) and aged (18 months) mice using a two-hit pre-clinical model. Compared to young cohorts, aged mice exhibited increased ALI severity, with greater vascular permeability characterized by elevated albumin influx, levels of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells (neutrophils) and protein...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054897/thrombosis-of-the-right-internal-jugular-vein-is-not-a-contraindication-to-ambulatory-veno-venous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-with-a-bicaval-dual-lumen-single-cannula-system
#4
Anthony Kronfli, Chetan Pasrija, Aakash Shah, Mehrdad Ghoreishi, Jose P Garcia, Si M Pham, Pablo G Sanchez, Zachary N Kon
BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is an ever-emerging method of managing respiratory failure in patients who are refractory to conventional mechanical ventilatory support. An increasingly common method of cannulation involves placement of a bicaval dual-lumen, single cannula via the right internal jugular (IJ) vein. Thrombus in this vein has been considered a contraindication for cannula placement. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old Hispanic male presented with bleomycin-induced respiratory failure resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
14, 2016: Heart Surgery Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054136/-role-of-imaging-procedures-in-clarification-of-complications-of-pneumonia
#5
K Lampichler
CLINICAL ISSUE: Despite a considerable number of antimicrobial agents and interdisciplinary treatment options, lower respiratory tract infections are still associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Infections of the respiratory tract can lead to severe complications, such as empyema, lung abscesses and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Besides intrapulmonary complications pneumonia can also impair other organs due to a systemic inflammatory response. Underlying cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure, arteriosclerosis and dysrhythmia can either deteriorate due to infections or be newly manifested as a result of pneumonia...
January 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049485/the-dangers-of-accepting-a-single-diagnosis-case-report-of-concurrent-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria-and-dengue-infection
#6
Soon Eu Chong, Rhendra Hardy Mohamad Zaini, Siti Suraiya, Kok Tong Lee, Jo Anne Lim
BACKGROUND: Dengue and malaria are two common, mosquito-borne infections, which may lead to mortality if not managed properly. Concurrent infections of dengue and malaria are rare due to the different habitats of its vectors and activities of different carrier mosquitoes. The first case reported was in 2005. Since then, several concurrent infections have been reported between the dengue virus (DENV) and the malaria protozoans, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Symptoms of each infection may be masked by a simultaneous second infection, resulting in late treatment and severe complications...
January 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049396/oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-potential-of-one-hundred-medicinal-plants
#7
Waseem Hassan, Hamsa Noreen, Shakila Rehman, Shehnaz Gul, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Jean Paul Kamdem, Bakht Zaman, Joao B T da Rocha
Reactive species are produced in biological system because of redox reactions. The imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Inactivation of metabolic enzymes, oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage are some of the prominent characteristics of reactive species. Similarly, oxidative stress has been associated with more than one hundred (100) pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatic and liver diseases, joint disorders, cardiac fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disorder, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease), ageing and cancer etc...
January 2, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040752/predictors-for-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-a-portable-out-of-centre-implanted-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-device
#8
Florian Rückert, Thomas Steinke, Lilit Flöther, Michael Bucher, Dietrich Metz, Stefan Frantz, Efstratios I Charitos, Hendrik Treede, Christoph Raspé
OBJECTIVES: Despite progress in the treatment of cardiopulmonary organ failure, the mortality rate for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cardiogenic shock remains high. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a promising treatment option, but long-term outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are unknown. METHODS: Detailed information related to pre- and post-device data and outcomes from a consecutive sample of 71 patients treated with ECMO was analysed...
December 31, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036088/current-concepts-of-ards-a-narrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Michele Umbrello, Paolo Formenti, Luca Bolgiaghi, Davide Chiumello
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009154/high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-therapy-work-in-progress-in-respiratory-critical-care
#10
Annia Schreiber, Fabiano DI Marco, Fulvio Braido, Paolo Solidoro
After a planned extubation, the re-occurrence of acute respiratory distress needing the restoration of invasive mechanical support is a severe phenomenon associated with several important consequences, including increased morbidity, Intensive Care Unit mortality, and an enormous financial burden. So far, the most commonly used techniques to ameliorate gas exchange in the postextubation period were low-flow oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation (NIV). High flows through nasal cannulae (HFNC) is a system which allows increased CO2 wash-out of anatomical dead space, positive nasopharyngeal pressure, a relatively constant FiO2, and an improvement of mucociliary function...
December 2016: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004376/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-modelling-of-dilmapimod-in-severe-trauma-subjects-at-risk-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#11
Shuying Yang, Teodora Pene Dumitrescu
INTRODUCTION: Dilmapimod is a potent p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor and was investigated in a study (NCT00996840) for its anti-inflammatory effect in non-head injury trauma patients at risk for developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the development of a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model, an empirical population placebo response model, and the exploration of a PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) model of dilmapimod...
December 21, 2016: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986185/postoperative-infection-in-the-setting-of-massive-intraoperative-blood-loss
#12
Melike Leylek, Vanessa Poliquin, Ahmad Al-Wazzan, Erin Dean, Alon D Altman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the local rates of massive intraoperative blood loss and subsequent infectious morbidity for patients undergoing gynaecologic laparotomy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing gynaecologic laparotomy between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013 to identify cases of massive intraoperative blood loss (defined as ≥1 L estimated intraoperative blood loss, a postoperative reduction in hemoglobin concentration of ≥40 g/L, or a perioperative blood transfusion)...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939824/pulmonary-platelet-accumulation-induced-by-catecholamines-its-involvement-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-anaphylaxis-like-shock
#13
Zhiqian Yu, Hiroko Saito, Hirotada Otsuka, Yosuke Shikama, Hiromi Funayama, Mai Sakai, Shigeo Murai, Masanori Nakamura, Takashi Yokochi, Haruhiko Takada, Shunji Sugawara, Yasuo Endo
Intravenously injected lipopolysaccharides (LPS) rapidly induce pulmonary platelet accumulation (PPA) and anaphylaxis-like shock (ALS) in mice. Macrophages reportedly release catecholamines rapidly upon stimulation with LPS. Here, we examined the involvement of macrophage-derived catecholamines in LPS-induced PPA and ALS. A catecholamine or Klebsiella O3 (KO3) LPS was intravenously injected into mice, with 5-hydroxytryptamine in the lung being measured as a platelet marker. The tested catecholamines induced PPA, leading to shock...
February 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935773/lung-protective-ventilation
#14
Rex A Marley, Kaycee Simon
Historically, mechanical ventilation of the lungs utilizing relatively large tidal volumes was common practice in the operating room and intensive care unit (ICU). The rationale behind this treatment strategy was to yield better patient outcomes, that is, fewer pulmonary complications, and a reduction in morbidity and mortality. As evidence-based practice has evolved, potential harmful effects of traditional, nonphysiological mechanical ventilation (ventilation with larger tidal volumes and the tolerance of high airway pressures) even in shortterm treatment have been shown to correlate with systemic inflammation and the development of ventilator-associated lung injury...
January 2017: Annual Review of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925054/prone-position-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#15
Mariano Setten, Gustavo Adrián Plotnikow, Matías Accoce
Acute respiratory distress syndrome occupies a great deal of attention in intensive care units. Despite ample knowledge of the physiopathology of this syndrome, the focus in intensive care units consists mostly of life-supporting treatment and avoidance of the side effects of invasive treatments. Although great advances in mechanical ventilation have occurred in the past 20 years, with a significant impact on mortality, the incidence continues to be high. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially the most severe cases, often present with refractory hypoxemia due to shunt, which can require additional treatments beyond mechanical ventilation, among which is mechanical ventilation in the prone position...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923944/membrane-oxygenator-use-with-biventricular-assist-device-facilitation-of-support-and-lung-recovery
#16
Kristen Nelson-McMillan, William J Ravekes, William R Thompson, Kristen M Brown, Larry Wolff, Rajeev S Wadia, LeAnn M McNamara, Donald H Shaffner, Ivor D Berkowitz, Marshall L Jacobs, Luca A Vricella
We present the use of a low-resistance membrane oxygenator (Quadrox D, Maquet) in series with a pulsatile right ventricular assist device (Berlin Heart EXCOR, Berlin Heart) in a patient with biventricular support who required high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), due to refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with Cytomegalovirus pneumonia. The high mean airway pressure associated with the use of HFOV resulted in a significant negative impact on left ventricular assist device (LVAD) filling that led to a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis and the need for vasopressor support...
December 6, 2016: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921210/tight-junctions-in-pulmonary-epithelia-during-lung-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Oliver H Wittekindt
Inflammatory lung diseases like asthma bronchiale, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergic airway inflammation are widespread public diseases that constitute an enormous burden to the health systems. Mainly classified as inflammatory diseases, the treatment focuses on strategies interfering with local inflammatory responses by the immune system. Inflammatory lung diseases predispose patients to severe lung failures like alveolar oedema, respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. These life-threatening syndromes are caused by increased permeability of the alveolar and airway epithelium and exudate formation...
January 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904536/a-review-on-human-respiratory-modeling
#18
REVIEW
Pardis Ghafarian, Hamidreza Jamaati, Seyed Mohammadreza Hashemian
Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy...
2016: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903208/early-experience-of-a-new-extracorporeal-carbon-dioxide-removal-device-for-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure
#19
Ravindranath Tiruvoipati, Hergen Buscher, James Winearls, Jeff Breeding, Debasish Ghosh, Shimonti Chaterjee, Gary Braun, Eldho Paul, John F Fraser, John Botha
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the technology of extracorporeal respiratory assist systems have led to a renewed interest in extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCOR). The Hemolung is a new, low-flow, venovenous, minimally invasive, partial ECCOR device that has recently been introduced to clinical practice to aid in avoiding invasive ventilation or to facilitate lung-protective ventilation. OBJECTIVE: We report our early experience on use, efficacy and safety of the Hemolung in three Australian intensive care units...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902615/the-prognostic-significance-of-the-birmingham-vasculitis-activity-score-bvas-with-systemic-vasculitis-patients-transferred-to-the-intensive-care-unit-icu
#20
Federico Biscetti, Angela Carbonella, Federico Parisi, Silvia Laura Bosello, Franco Schiavon, Roberto Padoan, Elisa Gremese, Gianfranco Ferraccioli
Systemic vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that share clinical features including respiratory distress, renal dysfunction, and neurologic disorders. These diseases may often cause life-threatening complications requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) score to predict survival in patients with systemic vasculitides admitted to ICU.A retrospective study was carried out from 2004 to 2014 in 18 patients with systemic vasculitis admitted to 2 different Rheumatology divisions and transferred to ICU due to clinical worsening, with a length of stay beyond 24 hours...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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