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Mohsen Khalili, Mitra Alavi, Elham Esmaeil-Jamaat, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Brain inflammation is associated with cognitive dysfunction, especially in elderly. Trigonelline is a plant alkaloid and a major component of coffee and fenugreek with anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, the beneficial effect of trigonelline against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline was assessed in the rat. LPS was injected i.p. at a dose of 500 μg/kg to induce neuroinflammation and trigonelline was administered p.o. at doses of 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg/day 1 h after LPS that continued for one week...
June 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Carmen T Mulet, Luis E Arroyo-Mora, Lorena A Leon, Elizabeth Gnagy, Anthony P DeCaprio
Methylphenidate (MPH), which is metabolized into ritalinic acid (RA), is an amphetamine derivative largely used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a neurological condition commonly diagnosed in early childhood. Ensuring that patients comply with clinical treatment is crucial and compliance is generally monitored in blood or urine specimens which, especially in the case of children, can be challenging to obtain on a repetitive basis. Here we report validation of a specific, non-invasive, and rapid dilute-and-shoot analytical method for the detection and quantitation of MPH and RA in oral fluid (OF)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Kayoko Kato, Akil A Kalathil, Ayesha M Patel, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), man-made chemicals with variable length carbon chains containing the perfluoroalkyl moiety (Cn F2n+1 -), are used in many commercial applications. Since 1999-2000, several long-chain PFAS, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), have been detected at trace levels in the blood of most participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-representative samples of the U.S. general population-while short-chain PFAS have not...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Yang Yang, Ting Fong May Chui
Attention is increasingly being paid to low impact development (LID) practices in urban stormwater management. Because LID practices offer a wide variety of hydro-environmental benefits, it is often necessary to account for these benefits collectively in cost-benefit analysis and LID alternative selection. The conventional methods of quantifying these benefits, however, can hardly incorporate the preferences of decision makers, and commonly involve tedious parameter estimations. To address these shortcomings, this study adopts a relative performance evaluation method to assess the various hydro-environmental impacts of LID alternatives in small urban catchments...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Tianqi Zhang, Marnie E Shaw, Erin I Walsh, Perminder S Sachdev, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin
Previous studies have demonstrated associations between higher blood glucose and brain atrophy and functional deficits, however, little is known about the association between blood glucose, striatal volume and striatal function despite sensori-motor deficits being reported in diabetes. This study investigated the relationship between blood glucose levels, striatal volume and fine motor skills in a longitudinal cohort of cognitively healthy individuals living in the community with normal or impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes...
June 7, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Inga Korolczuk, Boris Burle, Jennifer T Coull
While the benefit of temporal predictability on sensorimotor processing is well established, it is still unknown whether this is due to efficient execution of an appropriate response and/or inhibition of an inappropriate one. To answer this question, we examined the effects of temporal predictability in tasks that required selective (Simon task) or global (Stop-signal task) inhibitory control of prepotent responses. We manipulated temporal expectation by presenting cues that either predicted (temporal cues) or not (neutral cues) when the target would appear...
June 20, 2018: Cognition
Eleanor Hutchinson, Susan Nayiga, Christine Nabirye, Lilian Taaka, Sarah G Staedke
In anthropology, interest in how values are created, maintained and changed has been reinvigorated. In this case study, we draw on this literature to interrogate concerns about the relationship between data collection and the delivery of patient care within global health. We followed a pilot study conducted in Kayunga, Uganda that aimed to improve the collection of health systems data in five public health centres. We undertook ethnographic research from July 2015 to September 2016 in health centres, at project workshops, meetings and training sessions...
May 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Louise M Stewart, Katrina Spilsbury, Susan Jordan, Colin Stewart, C D'Arcy J Holman, Aime Powell, Joanne Reekie, Paul Cohen
BACKGROUND: Ovarian carcinoma is not a single disease, but rather a collection of subtypes with differing molecular properties and risk profiles. The most common of these, and the subject of this work, is high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC). METHODS: In this population-based study we identified a cohort of 441,382 women resident in Western Australia who had ever been admitted to hospital in the State. Of these, 454 were diagnosed with HGSC. We used Cox regression to derive hazard ratios (HRs) comparing the risk of disease in women who had each of a range of medical diagnoses and surgical procedures with women who did not...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
P Pingitore, S Romeo
The human patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene encodes for a protein of 481 amino-acids. The variant rs738409 is a cytosine to guanine substitution, encoding for the isoleucine to methionine substitution at position 148 (I148M) of the protein. This variant is strongly associated with the entire spectrum of liver disease. Although this variant is one of the best characterized and deeply studied, the mechanism behind the PNPLA3 and the liver disease is still not well defined. Functionally, it has become clear that the PNPLA3 protein is an enzyme with lipase activity towards triglycerides and retinyl esters, and acyltransferase activity on phospholipids...
June 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ha Lan Anh, Vo Thi Anh, Trinh Van Giap, Nguyen Thi Hong Thinh, Tran Khanh Minh, Vu Hoai
Tritium is a radioisotope of hydrogen and a component of the water molecule. It is a marker for reservoirs such as the stratosphere, troposphere, and oceans involved in the hydrological cycle. Tritium monitoring is an essential research tool in hydro-climate, dating for water and recharge groundwater. The Isotope Hydrology Laboratory has collected monthly precipitation samples in Hanoi for tritium concentration analysis. This paper reports the tritium concentrations in precipitation in the city from 2011 to 2016...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Cristina Imaginário, Magda Rocha, Paulo Machado, Cristina Antunes, Teresa Martins
The concept of self-care in the elderly has been frequently associated with autonomy, independence and personal accountability. Self-care practices are a result of individual lifestyles and paths adapted to the circumstances and expectations of the elderly. Based on the model by Backman and Hentinen (1999), the present study attempts to categorically describe the types of self-care of the elderly. This is an exploratory study, transversal, of a quantitative nature. The sample was comprised of 313 participants, randomly selected among Elderly Care Centres in the interior North of Portugal...
May 31, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
S Ganhão-Arranhado, C Paúl, R Ramalho, P Pereira
Nutritional status is important to elders to live without disabilities. Food Insecurity (FI) is a risk factor associated with poorer nutritional status among elderly as well as a social determinant. This research aimed to identify FI prevalence and to explore the relation between FI, weight status and socio-demographic factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to February 2016 in Lisbon. Malnutrition was determined using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)...
June 13, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Carolina Madeira, Vanessa Mendonça, Miguel C Leal, Augusto A V Flores, Henrique N Cabral, Mário S Diniz, Catarina Vinagre
According to climate science, ocean warming is one of the current and future greatest threats to coastal ecosystems. Projection scenarios for the end of this century show that tropical intertidal ecosystems are particularly at risk. In this study we optimized and tested a holistic method for bio-monitoring present and projected thermal pressure in such ecosystems, in order to assess organism vulnerability to ocean warming. Several species representative of different animal groups (fish, crustaceans and gastropods) were collected from the field and subjected to an experimental trial for 28 days, testing two temperatures: control (present seawater summer temperature) and elevated temperature (+3 °C, projected seawater temperature anomaly for 2100)...
June 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Crystal L Herron, K M Cogliati, B P Dolan, A Munakata, C B Schreck
When fish perceive stressful scenarios, their hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis is activated resulting in the release of corticotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and finally cortisol. The physiologic stress response of fish has most often been linked to the reduced performance of the immune system, with a few exceptions where the immune system is activated. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative burst activity levels in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are altered when the fish is presented with a stressor...
June 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Warawan Eiamphungporn, Sakda Yainoy, Chakornpat Jumderm, Rachanis Tan-Arsuwongkul, Surapee Tiengrim, Visanu Thamlikitkul
OBJECTIVES: Colistin has historically been considered a last-line therapeutic option against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, chromosomally-encoded and plasmid-mediated colistin resistance is increasingly being reported worldwide. The spread of the plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1 is of great concern since it can be transferred among bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in E...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Jacob Robson, Molly O'Gorman, Amber McClain, Krishna Mutyala, Cassandra Davis, Carlos Barbagelata, Justin Wheeler, Rafael Firszt, Ken Smith, Raza Patel, Kathryn Peterson, Amy Lowichik, Stephen Guthery
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is often detected in children and is considered to be a rare disease, with prevalence values reported to be below 60 cases per 100,000 persons. To determine whether the incidence of EoE in children in Utah exceeds estimates from regional reports, we calculated incidence and prevalence values over a 5-year period. METHODS: Using consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of EoE, we reviewed pathology records from in the Intermountain Healthcare pathology database, from July 1, 2011 through June 31, 2016...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Trilokesh D Kidambi, Jonathan P Terdiman, Najwa El-Nachef, Aparajita Singh, Michael G Kattah, Jeffrey K Lee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: I-scan is an electronic chromoendoscopy technology that improves resolution of epithelial and mucosal surfaces and vessels. We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare detection of adenomas by i-scan vs standard high-definition white-light (HDWL) colonoscopy. METHODS: From February 1 through December 31, 2017, 740 outpatients (50-75 years old) undergoing screening and surveillance for colorectal neoplasia were randomly assigned to groups that received colonoscopies with i-scan 1 (surface and contrast enhancement) or HDWL...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Zhiping Yu, Natalie Arce Indelicato, Paul Fuglestad, Michael Tan, Lindsay Bane, Caitlin Stice
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess sex differences and weight status differences in disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and food addiction (FA) along with their co-occurrence among college students. Self-reported demographic and weight information, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), and Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) were collected from 965 college students. Participants included 703 (72.8%) female, 720 (74.8%) white, and ranged in age from 18 to 25 years old. Female college students had a significantly higher prevalence of DEB (11...
June 20, 2018: Appetite
L R Koopmans, H Finlayson, A Whitelaw, E H Decloedt, A Dramowski
BACKGROUND: Data on antimicrobial use among hospitalised children in Africa is very limited owing to the absence of electronic prescription tracking. METHODS: We evaluated antimicrobial consumption rates, antimicrobial spectrum used and indications for therapy on a paediatric ward and the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Antimicrobial prescription and patient demographic data was prospectively collected from 10 May 2015 to 11 November 2015...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Drew R Van Orden
Mineral particles have long been observed in the ambient air and for >40 years, samples of these airborne particulate have been collected in attempt to identify and quantify the amount of asbestos particles in the air. For most of this time, regulated asbestos particles (in the shape of fibers) were the target for these analyses. However, since the turn of the century, more emphasis has been placed on finding and identifying elongate mineral particles (EMPs). For EMPs (particularly serpentine and amphibole minerals), these airborne particles have generally been associated with industrial activities and were reported as "asbestos"...
June 20, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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