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bacteremia guidelines

Alexander G Athey, Megan E Mignemi, William T Gheen, Eduardo A Lindsay, Chan-Hee Jo, Lawson A Copley
BACKGROUND: Children with osteomyelitis demonstrate a wide spectrum of illness. Objective measurement of severity is important to guide resource allocation and treatment decisions, particularly for children with advanced illness. The purpose of this study is to validate and improve a previously published severity of illness scoring system for children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO). METHODS: Children with AHO were prospectively studied during evaluation and treatment by a multidisciplinary team who provided care according to evidence-based guidelines to reduce variation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Raquel M Martinez, Donna M Wolk
Bacteremia and sepsis are conditions associated with high mortality and are of great impact to health care operations. Among the top causes of mortality in the United States, these conditions cause over 600 fatalities each day. Empiric, broad-spectrum treatment is a common but often a costly approach that may fail to effectively target the correct microbe, may inadvertently harm patients via antimicrobial toxicity or downstream antimicrobial resistance. To meet the diagnostic challenges of bacteremia and sepsis, laboratories must understand the complexity of diagnosing and treating septic patients, in order to focus on creating algorithms that can help direct a more targeted approach to antimicrobial therapy and synergize with existing clinical practices defined in new Surviving Sepsis Guidelines...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Vanessa Poliquin, Elissa Cohen, Philippe Guillaume Poliquin, Carol Schneider, Savas Menticoglou
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed cases of group B Streptococcus (GBS) sepsis in term infants at our institution to identify areas for potential prevention. METHODS: We identified cases by searching our institution's microbiology databases for all positive GBS blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures taken from infants between 2008 and 2013. Patients were included if the timing of the positive culture met the criteria for early-onset GBS disease (age 7 days or under). Charts that met inclusion criteria were abstracted for details related to antepartum screening, intrapartum care, and postpartum outcome...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Jason P Burnham, John P Kirby, Marin H Kollef
PURPOSE: To review the salient features of the diagnosis and management of the most common skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). This review focuses on severe SSTIs that require care in an intensive care unit (ICU), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis. METHODS: Guidelines, expert opinion, and local institutional policies were reviewed. RESULTS: Severe SSTIs are common and their management complex due to regional variation in predominant pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns, as well as variations in host immune responses...
October 3, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
María Luisa Martínez, Ricard Ferrer, Eva Torrents, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Gemma Gomà, David Suárez, Luis Álvarez-Rocha, Juan Carlos Pozo Laderas, Ignacio Martín-Loeches, Mitchell M Levy, Antonio Artigas
OBJECTIVES: Time to clearance of pathogens is probably critical to outcome in septic shock. Current guidelines recommend intervention for source control within 12 hours after diagnosis. We aimed to determine the epidemiology of source control in the management of sepsis and to analyze the impact of timing to source control on mortality. DESIGN: Prospective observational analysis of the Antibiotic Intervention in Severe Sepsis study, a Spanish national multicenter educational intervention to improve antibiotherapy in sepsis...
September 8, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Gaurav Chand, Leonid Shamban, Adam Forman, Prabhat Sinha
Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies (subsp.) gallolyticus (formerly bovis biotype I) bacteremia has been associated with colonic adenocarcinoma. The bovis species underwent reclassification in 2003. Subtypes of gallolyticus are associated with colonic malignancy but are less frequent, resulting in less awareness. A 71-year-old male admitted with worsening lower back pain and fevers. Initial vital signs and laboratory data were within normal limits. MRI revealed lumbosacral osteomyelitis and antibiotics were initiated...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Sophie Bauer, Carole E Aubert, Mischa Richli, Christian Chuard
PURPOSE: The frequency of bacteremia and the array of microorganisms involved in cellulitis vary greatly among studies. Although current guidelines do not recommend routine blood culture in uncomplicated cellulitis, their implementation in clinical practice remains challenging. We therefore aimed to assess the frequency, determinants and microbiology of bacteremia in hospitalized patients with uncomplicated cellulitis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adult patients admitted at a primary-care hospital with a diagnosis of community-acquired uncomplicated cellulitis during a 4-year period...
August 12, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Heba Hussein, Ronald S Brown
A review of the published literature revealed that discourse on the topic of antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines for the asplenic dental patient is limited and that guidelines regarding this issue have not been updated for years. The review determined that the professional protocol for the treatment of asplenic dental patients has changed over the last 30 years, particularly with reference to adult patients. Furthermore, as dentists and physicians now understand that blood-borne bacteremias are produced from everyday occurrences such as chewing and toothbrushing, bacteremias secondary to dental procedures are no longer viewed as seriously as in the past; therefore, the guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis have changed...
July 2016: General Dentistry
Thomas M Baker, Michael J Satlin
Prolonged neutropenia and chemotherapy-induced mucositis render patients with hematologic malignancies highly vulnerable to Gram-negative bacteremia. Unfortunately, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria are increasingly encountered globally, and current guidelines for empirical antibiotic coverage in these patients may not adequately treat these bacteria. This expansion of resistance, coupled with traditional culturing techniques requiring 2-4 days for bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility results, have grave implications for these immunocompromised hosts...
October 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
O O Okunola, J O Olaitan
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) is the most common method of renal replacement therapy for patients with either acute kidney injury in the failure stage or end stage kidney failure in Nigeria. The number of dialysis centers in Nigeria has risen exponentially from 10 centers two decades ago to more than 120 centers in 2015. The number of patients needing renal replacement therapy in the country in the form of HD has also risen close to a projected 2000/year. The outcome from HD in Nigeria is poor as a result of a myriad of interwoven factors such as complications of cardiovascular diseases and suboptimal dialysis dose primarily due to economic factors...
July 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Kari Neemann, Alexandra B Yonts, Fang Qiu, Kari Simonsen, Stefanie Lowas, Alison Freifeld
The incidence of bacteremia at the onset of pediatric febrile neutropenia (FN) at 2 academically linked institutions was 9.84%, and subsequent blood cultures performed for children with persistent FN yielded an incidence of 4.21%. Until the risk factors for new-onset bacteremia in patients being treated for FN can be identified and diagnostic methods can be improved, compliance with national guidelines is recommended.
June 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
S Alfandari, P Cabaret, S Nguyen, D Descamps, A Vachée, C Cattoen, N Van Grunderbeeck
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to update the epidemiology of bacteremia and evaluate their management and short-term outcome. METHODS: We conducted a prospective multicenter survey from October to November 2011. Consecutive patients with at least one positive blood culture (BC) were included in the study. We evaluated the type and adequacy of empirical and documented antibiotic therapy, time to active antibiotic therapy, compliance with guidelines, and 10-day outcome. RESULTS: A total of 23 public and private hospitals and 633 patients (493 true pathogens and 140 contaminants) were included in the study...
June 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Chih-Chuan Hsu, Jeng-Dau Tsai, Min-Sho Ku, Shan-Ming Chen, Pei-Fen Liao, Tung-Wei Hung, Min-Ling Tsai, Ji-Nan Sheu
BACKGROUND: Data on urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants ≤2 months of age are limited. We examined clinical characteristics, antimicrobial resistance, imaging findings and clinical outcomes in infants ≤2 months of age and children 2-24 months of age hospitalized with the first febrile UTI. METHODS: Children ≤24 months of age hospitalized with their first-diagnosed febrile UTI were prospectively studied. Renal ultrasonography, Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning and voiding cystourethrography were performed in all children...
August 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
F Poizeau, C Droitcourt, C Saillard, M Poirot, T Le Gallou, A Perlat, A Dupuy
BACKGROUND: In cases of immunodeficiency, a systemic infection may be revealed by atypical symptoms, particularly those involving the skin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present case describes a 19-year-old male with X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia, or Bruton agammaglobulinemia, treated with intravenous immunoglobulin G antibodies. Over a 6-week period, the patient developed recurrent plaques in both legs, first on one and then on the other, without fever. Blood cultures were repeated and the fifth pair proved positive for Campylobacter jejuni...
June 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Maria Teresa Gallo, Enea Gino Di Domenico, Luigi Toma, Francesco Marchesi, Lorella Pelagalli, Nicola Manghisi, Fiorentina Ascenzioni, Grazia Prignano, Andrea Mengarelli, Fabrizio Ensoli
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) bacteremia is difficult to diagnose in individuals with hematological disorders undergoing chemotherapy. The cause can be attributed to the rarity of this infection, to the variable clinical presentation, and to the partial overlapping symptoms underlying the disease. Here, we report a case of a fatal sepsis caused by C. jejuni in a 76-year-old Caucasian man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. After chemotherapeutic treatment, the patient experienced fever associated with severe neutropenia and thrombocytopenia without hemodynamic instability, abdominal pain, and diarrhea...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Namrata Krishnan
Hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is the most common complication associated with catheter use in dialysis patients and portends a high morbidity and mortality. Current CDC and KDIGO guidelines recommend treating CRBs with systemic antibiotics in conjunction with catheter replacement, although the latter has limitations. Antibiotic lock solutions (ABLs) are very effective in both prevention and treatment of CRBs in hemodialysis patients and may be a preferred alternative to catheter replacement especially in patients where catheter salvage is a priority...
July 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a major pathogen for diarrhea in hospitalized patients and because of outbreak of highly virulent strain in EU and US, increased length of hospital stay and increased numbers of severe patients and deaths have become major challenges. In recent years, transmissions through community-acquired or food-borne infections are reported. National surveillance has been already performed overseas. Guidelines for preventing C. difficile infection (CDI) is available, and education activities are promoted for preventing the infection spread...
December 2015: Japanese Journal of Antibiotics
Lindsay A Petty, Elizabeth A Sokol, Allison H Bartlett, Jennifer L McNeer, Kenneth A Alexander, Jennifer Pisano
BACKGROUND: The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines recommend collecting blood cultures for the first 3 days of febrile neutropenia (FN) in the clinically stable oncology patient with persistent fevers. Nonetheless, many physicians send daily blood cultures beyond 3 days, and the impact of that practice is uncertain. PROCEDURE: We reviewed pediatric FN episodes from July 2009 to May 2014 at University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital. For each positive culture, we determined if it was a pathogen or a contaminant...
July 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Samreen Sarwar, Abdul Hannan, Qamar Sultana, Sidrah Saleem, Muhammad Sohail, Muhammad Usman Arshad, Karam Rasool
To the best of our knowledge, Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae (NOVC) bacteremia has never been documented in Pakistan. This case report is the first reported case of bacteremia in an infant due to NOVC in Pakistan. A neonate was admitted to a hospital with fever and no history of diarrhea. The isolate was identified biochemically and serologically and was sensitive to all the drugs tested as per CLSI 2014 guidelines.
February 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Matthew P Cheng, Pierre René, Alexandre P Cheng, Todd C Lee
BACKGROUND: Widespread penicillin usage rapidly resulted in the emergence of penicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. However, new data suggests that penicillin susceptibility may be in a period of renaissance. The objective of our study was to quantify penicillin resistance in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult MSSA bacteremia from April 2010 to April 2015 at the McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, Canada)...
February 25, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
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