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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213838/brief-report-autism-like-traits-are-associated-with-enhanced-ability-to-disembed-visual-forms
#1
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio, Vanessa Troiani
Atypical visual perceptual skills are thought to underlie unusual visual attention in autism spectrum disorders. We assessed whether individual differences in visual processing skills scaled with quantitative traits associated with the broader autism phenotype (BAP). Visual perception was assessed using the Figure-ground subtest of the Test of visual perceptual skills-3rd Edition (TVPS). In a large adult cohort (n = 209), TVPS-Figure Ground scores were positively correlated with autistic-like social features as assessed by the Broader autism phenotype questionnaire...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213837/brief-report-meeting-the-needs-of-medically-hospitalized-adults-with-autism-a-provider-and-patient-toolkit
#2
Jocelyn Carter, Sarabeth Broder-Fingert, Ann Neumeyer, Ann Giauque, Ann Kao, Christiana Iyasere
In an effort to meet the needs of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) while hospitalized, a team of experts and providers from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), MGH for Children as well as parents of individuals with ASD was sparked in 2013. This became a multidisciplinary collaborative, the MGH Autism Care Collaborative, to improve adult care for inpatients with ASD. The collaborative was created with three goals in mind: (1) to educate internal medicine adult inpatient providers and staff on the unique needs of adults with ASD when hospitalized; (2) to create ASD specific resources for internal medicine adult inpatient providers; (3) to optimize patient care from admission to discharge among adults with ASD admitted to internal medicine services...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213835/fred-r-volkmar-brian-reichow-and-james-mcpartland-eds-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-springer-international-publishing-2014-337pp-isbn-978-1-4939-0506-5-59-99-hardcover
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211841/predictors-of-employment-status-among-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Alisha Ohl, Mira Grice Sheff, Sarah Little, Jamie Nguyen, Kelly Paskor, Aliza Zanjirian
BACKGROUND: In the United States, adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience high rates of unemployment and underemployment in relation to adults with other disabilities and the general population. Yet there is little research examining their employment experiences and the predictors of employment status. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the employment characteristics and histories of both employed and unemployed adults with ASD, and the factors that contributed to their employment status...
February 17, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#5
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208851/2d-4d-ratio-and-its-implications-in-medicine
#6
Saravanakumar Jeevanandam, Prathibha K Muthu
Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196230/association-between-the-probability-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-normative-sex-related-phenotypic-diversity-in-brain-structure
#7
Christine Ecker, Derek S Andrews, Christina M Gudbrandsen, Andre F Marquand, Cedric E Ginestet, Eileen M Daly, Clodagh M Murphy, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo, Amber N V Ruigrok, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling, Steven C R Williams, Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael C Craig, Declan G M Murphy
Importance: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is 2 to 5 times more common in male individuals than in female individuals. While the male preponderant prevalence of ASD might partially be explained by sex differences in clinical symptoms, etiological models suggest that the biological male phenotype carries a higher intrinsic risk for ASD than the female phenotype. To our knowledge, this hypothesis has never been tested directly, and the neurobiological mechanisms that modulate ASD risk in male individuals and female individuals remain elusive...
February 8, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194554/emotion-perception-mediates-the-predictive-relationship-between-verbal-ability-and-functional-outcome-in-high-functioning-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Sadao Otsuka, Shota Uono, Sayaka Yoshimura, Shuo Zhao, Motomi Toichi
The aim of this study was to identify specific cognitive abilities that predict functional outcome in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to clarify the contribution of those abilities and their relationships. In total, 41 adults with ASD performed cognitive tasks in a broad range of neuro- and social cognitive domains, and information concerning functional outcomes was obtained. Regression analyses revealed that emotion perception and verbal generativity predicted adaptive functioning directly, and the former mediated between the other two...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194129/simple-shapes-elicit-different-emotional-responses-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurotypical-children-and-adults
#9
Laurine Belin, Laurence Henry, Mélanie Destays, Martine Hausberger, Marine Grandgeorge
According to the literature, simple shapes induce emotional responses. Current evaluations suggest that humans consider angular shapes as "bad" and curvilinear forms as "good," but no behavioral data are available to support this hypothesis. Atypical development, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), could modify humans' perception of visual stimuli and thereby their emotional effect. This study assessed the effects of simple stimuli (i.e., jagged edges shape, disk, star, spiral, eye-like shape, and head character) on the emotional responses of different groups of humans...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193532/age-dependent-atypicalities-in-body-and-face-sensitive-activation-of-the-eba-and-ffa-in-individuals-with-asd
#10
Yuko Okamoto, Hirotaka Kosaka, Ryo Kitada, Ayumi Seki, Hiroki C Tanabe, Masamichi J Hayashi, Takanori Kochiyama, Daisuke N Saito, Hisakazu T Yanaka, Toshio Munesue, Makoto Ishitobi, Masao Omori, Yuji Wada, Hidehiko Okazawa, Tatsuya Koeda, Norihiro Sadato
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficuly in recognizing bodies and faces, which are more pronounced in children than adults. If such difficulties originate from dysfunction of the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the fusiform face area (FFA), activation in these regions might be more atypical in children than in adults. We preformed functional magnetic resonance imaging while children and adults with ASD and age-matched typically developed (TD) individuals observed face, body, car, and scene...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191890/refining-the-role-of-de-novo-protein-truncating-variants-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-by-using-population-reference-samples
#11
Jack A Kosmicki, Kaitlin E Samocha, Daniel P Howrigan, Stephan J Sanders, Kamil Slowikowski, Monkol Lek, Konrad J Karczewski, David J Cutler, Bernie Devlin, Kathryn Roeder, Joseph D Buxbaum, Benjamin M Neale, Daniel G MacArthur, Dennis P Wall, Elise B Robinson, Mark J Daly
Recent research has uncovered an important role for de novo variation in neurodevelopmental disorders. Using aggregated data from 9,246 families with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, or developmental delay, we found that ∼1/3 of de novo variants are independently present as standing variation in the Exome Aggregation Consortium's cohort of 60,706 adults, and these de novo variants do not contribute to neurodevelopmental risk. We further used a loss-of-function (LoF)-intolerance metric, pLI, to identify a subset of LoF-intolerant genes containing the observed signal of associated de novo protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in neurodevelopmental disorders...
February 13, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188687/the-influence-of-sex-and-age-on-prevalence-rates-of-comorbid-conditions-in-autism
#12
Kaustubh Supekar, Tara Iyer, Vinod Menon
Individuals with ASD frequently experience one or more comorbid conditions. Here, we investigate the influence of sex and age-two important, yet understudied factors-on ten common comorbid conditions in ASD, using cross-sectional data from 4790 individuals with ASD and 1,842,575 individuals without ASD. Epilepsy, ADHD, and CNS/cranial anomalies showed exceptionally large proportions in both male (>19%) and female (>15%), children/adolescents with ASD. Notably, these prevalence rates decreased drastically with age in both males and females...
February 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187695/learning-about-the-lived-experiences-of-women-with-autism-from-an-online-community
#13
Jolynn L Haney, Jennifer A Cullen
The experience of being an adult female with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been understudied in social work literature. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of females with ASD, from their perspective, by examining content from an online autism community Web site. Using a phenomenological approach, data analysis on content obtained from the forum revealed several themes about the women's experiences concerning the diagnostic process, managing and understanding symptoms, and the impact of ASD on their personal and work relationships...
January 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183735/new-insights-into-the-regulatory-function-of-cyfip1-in-the-context-of-wave-and-fmrp-containing-complexes
#14
Sabiha Abekhoukh, H Bahar Sahin, Mauro Grossi, Samantha Zongaro, Thomas Maurin, Irene Madrigal, Daniele Kazue-Sugioka, Annick Raas-Rothschild, Mohamed Doulazmi, Pilar Carrera, Andrea Stachon, Steven Scherer, Maria Rita Drula Do Nascimento, Alain Trembleau, Ignacio Arroyo, Szatmari Peter, Isabel M Smith, Montserrat Milà, Adam C Smith, Angela Giangrande, Isabelle Caillé, Barbara Bardoni
CYtoplasmic FMRP Interacting Protein 1 (CYFIP1) is a candidate gene for intellectual disability (ID), autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. It is a member of a family of proteins that is very conserved during evolution, sharing high homology with dCYFIP, its Drosophila homolog. CYFIP1 interacts with the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), whose absence causes the Fragile X Syndrome, and with the translation initiation factor eIF4E. It is a member of the WAVE Regulatory Complex (WRC), thus representing a link between translational regulation and actin cytoskeleton...
February 9, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180069/young-adolescents-with-autism-show-abnormal-joint-attention-network-a-gaze-contingent-fmri-study
#15
E Oberwelland, L Schilbach, I Barisic, S C Krall, K Vogeley, G R Fink, B Herpertz-Dahlmann, K Konrad, M Schulte-Rüther
Behavioral research has revealed deficits in the development of joint attention (JA) as one of the earliest signs of autism. While the neural basis of JA has been studied predominantly in adults, we recently demonstrated a protracted development of the brain networks supporting JA in typically developing children and adolescents. The present eye-tracking/fMRI study now extends these findings to adolescents with autism. Our results show that in adolescents with autism JA is subserved by abnormal activation patterns in brain areas related to social cognition abnormalities which are at the core of ASD including the STS and TPJ, despite behavioral maturation with no behavioral differences...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176032/individual-placement-and-support-for-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-pilot-program
#16
Jennifer McLaren, Jonathan D Lichtenstein, Daniel Lynch, Deborah Becker, Robert Drake
Young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience significant rates of unemployment and underemployment, and the field needs an inexpensive, evidence-based vocational intervention. We examined an approach developed for people with serious mental illness, IPS supported employment, for young adults with ASD. We described a pilot IPS program for young adults with ASD and evaluated the first five participants over 1 year. The first five IPS participants succeeded in competitive employment, expanded independence, and achieved broad psychosocial gains...
February 7, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174552/measuring-mindreading-a-review-of-behavioral-approaches-to-testing-cognitive-and-affective-mental-state-attribution-in-neurologically-typical-adults
#17
REVIEW
Rose Turner, Fatima M Felisberti
Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168960/sex-specific-neurodevelopmental-programming-by-placental-insulin-receptors-on-stress-reactivity-and-sensorimotor-gating
#18
Stefanie L Bronson, Jennifer C Chan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk...
December 30, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167115/association-between-autistic-traits-and-emotion-adaptation-to-partially-occluded-faces
#19
Chengwen Luo, Edwin Burns, Hong Xu
Prolonged exposure to an emotional face (e.g., a happy face) leads to a repulsive bias in the emotion perception of subsequently presented faces (e.g., they are perceived as sadder). These shifts in perception are known as facial emotion aftereffects (FEA). People with autism spectrum disorders and their relatives have diminished holistic perception of complex objects. Levels of autism can be measured continuously in the general population in the form of autistic traits. Prior work has failed to find any association between levels of autism and FEA in adults, possibly due to non-holistic processing strategies employed by those at the higher end of the spectrum...
February 3, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160224/examining-the-behavioural-sleep-wake-rhythm-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-no-comorbid-intellectual-disability
#20
Emma K Baker, Amanda L Richdale
This study aimed to examine the behavioural sleep-wake rhythm in 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to determine the prevalence of circadian sleep-wake rhythm disorders compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Participants completed an online questionnaire battery, a 14-day sleep-wake diary and 14-day actigraphy assessment. The results indicated that a higher proportion of adults with ASD met criteria for a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder compared to control adults. In particular, delayed sleep-wake phase disorder was particularly common in adults with ASD...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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