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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343228/problematic-internet-use-and-psychiatric-co-morbidity-in-a-population-of-japanese-adult-psychiatric-patients
#1
Hille T de Vries, Takashi Nakamae, Kenji Fukui, Damiaan Denys, Jin Narumoto
BACKGROUND: Many studies reported the high prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents (13-50%), and PIU was associated with various psychiatric symptoms. In contrast, only a few studies investigated the prevalence among the adult population (6%). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PIU and psychiatric co-morbidity among adult psychiatric patients. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-three adult psychiatric patients were recruited over a 3-month period...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341497/defining-behavioral-components-of-social-functioning-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-as-targets-for-treatment
#2
Ashley A Pallathra, Monica E Calkins, Julia Parish-Morris, Brenna B Maddox, Leat S Perez, Judith Miller, Ruben C Gur, David S Mandell, Robert T Schultz, Edward S Brodkin
There is increasing recognition that adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would benefit from treatment to improve social functioning, a key factor in adults' overall quality of life. However, the various behavioral components of social functioning (i.e., categories of behaviors underlying social functioning), including social motivation, social anxiety, social cognition, and social skills, have not all been assessed together in any sample of adults with ASD, making it difficult to know the relative levels of impairment in these various categories, the relationships among these categories, or promising targets for treatments...
January 17, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331075/an-examination-of-the-clinical-outcomes-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-broad-autism-spectrum-traits-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-anorexia-nervosa-a-multi-centre-study
#3
Bruno Palazzo Nazar, Vanessa Peynenburg, Charlotte Rhind, Rebecca Hibbs, Ulrike Schmidt, Simon Gowers, Pamela Macdonald, Elizabeth Goddard, Gillian Todd, Nadia Micali, Janet Treasure
OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical outcomes of adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) comorbid with broad autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or ASD traits. METHOD: The developmental and well-being assessment and social aptitude scale were used to categorize adolescents and young adults with AN (N = 149) into those with ASD traits (N = 23), and those who also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a possible/probable ASD (N = 6). We compared both eating disorders specific measures and broader outcome measures at intake and 12 months follow-up...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327313/reduction-of-pain-sensitivity-after-somatosensory-therapy-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Inmaculada Riquelme, Samar M Hatem, Pedro Montoya
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often present with somatosensory dysfunction including an abnormal reactivity to tactile stimuli and altered pain perception. A therapy based on somatosensory stimuli has shown effectiveness in reducing pain sensitivity among adults with cerebral palsy. The present study aims at exploring the influence of somatosensory therapy on somatosensory parameters in children with ASD. Children with high-functioning ASD were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 29) or the control group (n = 30)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324255/aberrant-autistic-and-food-related-behaviors-in-adults-with-prader-willi-syndrome-the-comparison-between-young-adults-and-adults
#5
Hiroyuki Ogata, Hiroshi Ihara, Masao Gito, Masayuki Sayama, Nobuyuki Murakami, Tadayuki Ayabe, Yuji Oto, Toshiro Nagai, Kazutaka Shimoda
This study aims to explore the differences of age as well as genotype in regards to the severity of behavioral symptoms in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), with emphasis on the comparison between youngadults and adults.The Food Related Problem Questionnaire (FRPQ), the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Japanese Version (ABC-J), and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS) were administered to 46 PWS patients, including 33 young adults (ages 18-28) and 13 adults(ages 30-45). To examine the differences between young adults and adults, Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted...
January 8, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313177/high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-adults-consequences-for-primary-caregivers-compared-to-schizophrenia-and-depression
#6
Inge A C Grootscholten, Bob van Wijngaarden, Cornelis C Kan
Primary caregivers experience consequences from being in close contact to a person with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire to explore the level of consequences of 104 caregivers involved with adults with High Functioning ASD (HF-ASD) and compared these with the consequences reported by caregivers of patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia. Caregivers involved with adults with an HF-ASD experience overall consequences comparable to those involved with patients with depression or schizophrenia...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309878/altered-brain-cholesterol-isoprenoid-metabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Veronica Cartocci, Martina Catallo, Massimo Tempestilli, Marco Segatto, Frank W Pfrieger, Maria Rosanna Bronzuoli, Caterina Scuderi, Michela Servadio, Viviana Trezza, Valentina Pallottini
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) present a wide range of symptoms characterized by altered sociability, compromised communication and stereotypic/repetitive behaviors. These symptoms are caused by developmental changes, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Some lines of evidence suggest an impairment of the cholesterol/isoprenoid metabolism in the brain as possible cause, but systematic analyses in rodent models of ASDs are lacking. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproate (VPA) is a risk factor for ASDs in humans and generates a well-established model for the disease in rodents...
January 5, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309796/prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid-alters-the-development-of-excitability-in-the-postnatal-rat-hippocampus
#8
Yukiko Fueta, Yuko Sekino, Sachiko Yoshida, Yasunari Kanda, Susumu Ueno
Prenatal valproic acid (VPA) exposure is a well-known animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that produces alterations in embryonic and adult neurogenesis as well as adolescent/adulthood neurobehavioral phenotypes. However, the effects of prenatal VPA exposure on neural network excitability, especially during the synaptogenic period around eye opening, are not fully understood. In this study, we orally administered VPA (300 mg/kg) to pregnant Wistar rats on gestation day 15 and subsequently performed field potential recording in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from control (saline-exposed) and VPA-exposed rat pups between postnatal day (PND) 13 and PND18...
January 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301738/second-version-of-google-glass-as-a-wearable-socio-affective-aid-positive-school-desirability-high-usability-and-theoretical-framework-in-a-sample-of-children-with-autism
#9
Ned T Sahin, Neha U Keshav, Joseph P Salisbury, Arshya Vahabzadeh
BACKGROUND: Computerized smartglasses are being developed as an assistive technology for daily activities in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While smartglasses may be able to help with educational and behavioral needs, their usability and acceptability in children with ASD is largely unknown. There have been reports of negative social perceptions surrounding smartglasses use in mainstream populations, a concern given that assistive technologies may already carry their own stigma...
January 4, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298278/the-impact-of-air-pollution-to-central-nervous-system-in-children-and-adults
#10
Radim J Sram, Milos Veleminsky, Milos Veleminsky, Jana Stejskalová
The aim of this paper was to review studies analyzing the associations between air pollution and neurodevelopment in children as well as the effect on adult population. Effect of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P) were already studied on cohorts from New York, Poland, China, and Spain. All results indicate changes of child behavior and neurodevelopment at the age of 3-9 years, decrease of IQ, increase of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), reduction of left hemisphere white matter...
December 4, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291476/neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-prison-inmates-comorbidity-and-combined-associations-with-psychiatric-symptoms-and-behavioural-disturbance
#11
Susan Young, Rafael A González, Hannah Mullens, Laura Mutch, Isabella Malet-Lambert, Gisli H Gudjonsson
The identification and management of inmates with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) has been insufficiently addressed in the literature. We estimated the proportion of cases with Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Intellectual disability (ID) in prison, their comorbidity, and associations with disruptive behaviours and with psychiatric symptoms. Further, we examined the role of coexisting ND on psychiatric symptoms and attitudes toward violence. All 390 male inmates underwent an assessment that included the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults 2...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289793/increasing-physical-activity-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-comparing-in-person-and-technology-delivered-praise
#12
Melissa N Savage, Teresa Taber-Doughty, Matthew T Brodhead, Emily C Bouck
BACKGROUND/AIMS/METHODS: While there are many benefits to regular engagement in physical activity, individuals with autism spectrum disorder often do not engage in healthy levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to compare praise delivered through multiple means on increasing engagement in physical activity for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. A single-case alternating treatment design was used to compare two conditions for delivering praise statements, in-person and through technology, for three young adults with autism spectrum disorder and accompanying intellectual disability...
December 28, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287246/neural-stem-cells-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Sacco, Emanuele Cacci, Gaia Novarino
The precise control of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation is crucial for the development and function of the human brain. Here, we review the emerging links between the alteration of embryonic and adult neurogenesis and the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia (SCZ), as well as the advances in stem cell-based modeling and the novel therapeutic targets derived from these studies.
December 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286586/cognitive-enhancement-therapy-for-adult-autism-spectrum-disorder-results-of-an-18-month-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Shaun M Eack, Susan S Hogarty, Deborah P Greenwald, Maralee Y Litschge, Shannondora A Porton, Carla A Mazefsky, Nancy J Minshew
Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to treating core cognitive deficits in adults with autism, but rigorously controlled trials of comprehensive interventions that target both social and non-social cognition over a sufficient period of time to impact functioning are lacking. This study examined the efficacy of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) for improving core cognitive and employment outcomes in adult autism. Verbal adult outpatients with autism spectrum disorder (N = 54) were randomized to an 18-month, single-blind trial of CET, a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer-based neurocognitive training with group-based training in social cognition, or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) comparison focused on psychoeducation and condition management...
December 29, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281324/multimorbidity-and-polypharmacy-are-independently-associated-with-mortality-in-older-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-5-year-follow-up-from-the-ha-id-study
#15
Josje D Schoufour, Alyt Oppewal, Hanne J K van der Maarl, Heidi Hermans, Heleen M Evenhuis, Thessa I M Hilgenkamp, Dederieke A Festen
We studied the association between multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and mortality in 1,050 older adults (50+) with intellectual disability (ID). Multimorbidity (presence of ≥ 4 chronic health conditions) and polypharmacy (presence ≥ 5 chronic medication prescriptions) were collected at baseline. Multimorbidity included a wide range of disorders, including hearing impairment, thyroid dysfunction, autism, and cancer. Mortality data were collected during a 5-year follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the independent association between multimorbidity and polypharmacy with survival...
January 2018: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275843/transdiagnostic-deviant-facial-recognition-for-implicit-negative-emotion-in-autism-and-schizophrenia
#16
Angela Ciaramidaro, Sven Bölte, Sabine Schlitt, Daniela Hainz, Fritz Poustka, Bernhard Weber, Christine Freitag, Henrik Walter
Impaired facial affect recognition (FAR) is observed in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and has been linked to amygdala and fusiform gyrus dysfunction. ASD patient's impairments seem to be more pronounced during implicit rather than explicit FAR, whereas for schizophrenia data are inconsistent. However, there are no studies comparing both patient groups in an identical design. The aim of this three-group study was to identify (i) whether FAR alterations are equally present in both groups, (ii) whether they are present rather during implicit or explicit FAR, (iii) and whether they are conveyed by similar or disorder-specific neural mechanisms...
December 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274095/alterations-in-ca1-hippocampal-synapses-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#17
Safdar Jawaid, Grahame J Kidd, Jing Wang, Carrie Swetlik, Ranjan Dutta, Bruce D Trapp
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the major cause of inherited mental retardation and the leading genetic cause of Autism spectrum disorders. FXS is caused by mutations in the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (Fmr1) gene, which results in transcriptional silencing of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). To elucidate cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of FXS, we compared dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult wild-type (WT) and Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Using diolistic labeling, confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional electron microscopy, we show a significant increase in the diameter of secondary dendrites, an increase in dendritic spine density, and a decrease in mature dendritic spines in adult Fmr1-KO mice...
December 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274009/the-effects-of-a-peer-delivered-social-skills-intervention-for-adults-with-comorbid-down-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Matthew A Cody Davis, Amy Spriggs, Alexis Rodgers, Jonathan Campbell
Deficits in social skills are often exhibited in individuals with comorbid Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and there is a paucity of research to help guide intervention for this population. In the present study, a multiple probe study across behaviors, replicated across participants, assessed the effectiveness of peer-delivered simultaneous prompting in teaching socials skills to adults with DS-ASD using visual analysis techniques and Tau-U statistics to measure effect. Peer-mediators with DS and intellectual disability (ID) delivered simultaneous prompting sessions reliably (i...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247898/-i-m-a-normal-autistic-person-not-an-abnormal-neurotypical-autism-spectrum-disorder-diagnosis-as-biographical-illumination
#19
Catherine D Tan
Building on Michael Bury's "biographical disruption" and Kathy Charmaz's "loss of self," which describe the deteriorative impacts of chronic illness on perceptions of selfhood, I propose "biographical illumination"-a transformed conceptualization of self and identity that is facilitated by but extends beyond medical meaning, enriching personal biography and social relationships. The concept is perhaps most applicable to experiences with neurological and neurodevelopmental conditions in which brain difference and personhood are perceived to be closely intertwined...
January 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245045/relations-between-problem-behaviors-perceived-symptom-severity-and-parenting-in-adolescents-and-emerging-adults-with-asd-the-mediating-role-of-parental-psychological-need-frustration
#20
Lisa M Dieleman, Sarah S W De Pauw, Bart Soenens, Elien Mabbe, Rachel Campbell, Peter Prinzie
Research in parents of youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increasingly documents associations between children's problem behaviors and symptom severity and more dysfunctional and less adaptive parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations have not been examined thoroughly. This study examines the mediating role of parental need frustration in the relation between child maladjustment (i.e., problem behavior and autism severity) and parenting behavior (i.e., controlling and autonomy-supportive parenting)...
December 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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