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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730417/patterns-of-age-related-cognitive-differences-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Patrick S Powell, Laura G Klinger, Mark R Klinger
Little is known about age-related cognitive differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, given the overlap in cognitive impairments in ASD to those seen in typical aging, it is possible that adults with ASD will face even greater cognitive difficulties as they age. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine age-related cognitive differences in adults with ASD and age and IQ-matched adults with typical development (age range 30-67 years). Results indicated that both age and diagnosis were related to poorer cognitive performance...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725136/sex-specific-effect-of-recalled-parenting-on-affective-and-cognitive-empathy-in-adulthood
#2
Minna T Lyons, Gayle Brewer, Emily J Bethell
Previous research has demonstrated the influence of parenting on the development of children's empathy. However, few studies have considered the impact of parents on empathy in adulthood, specific components of empathy, or the importance of parent and child biological sex. In the present study, 226 participants (71 men) completed online versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker et al. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10 1979), Empathy Quotient (Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175 2004), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85 1980)...
2017: Current Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724480/neuroticism-and-the-overlap-between-autistic-and-adhd-traits-findings-from-a-population-sample-of-young-adult-australian-twins
#3
Shin-Ho Park, Adam J Guastella, Michael Lynskey, Arpana Agrawal, John N Constantino, Sarah E Medland, Yun Ju C Song, Nicholas G Martin, Lucía Colodro-Conde
Neuroticism, a 'Big Five' personality trait, has been associated with sub-clinical traits of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the current study was to examine whether causal overlap between ASD and ADHD traits can be accounted for by genetic and environmental risk factors that are shared with neuroticism. We performed twin-based structural equation modeling using self-report data from 12 items of the Neo Five-Factor Inventory Neuroticism domain, 11 Social Responsiveness Scale items, and 12 Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale items obtained from 3,170 young adult Australian individual twins (1,081 complete pairs)...
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720619/predictors-of-emergency-department-use-by-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Yona Lunsky, Jonathan A Weiss, Melissa Paquette-Smith, Anna Durbin, Ami Tint, Anna M Palucka, Elspeth Bradley
OBJECTIVES: To determine predictors of emergency department (ED) visits in a cohort of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Community-based study from Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Parents reported on their adult sons and daughters with ASD living in the community (n=284). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ED visits for any reason, ED visits for medical reasons and ED visits for psychiatric reasons over 1 year...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720480/heart-rate-variability-predicts-inhibitory-control-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Marieke W M Kuiper, Elisabeth W M Verhoeven, Hilde M Geurts
Several studies suggest that inhibition difficulties among people with ASD might be related to atypical cardiac vagal control. We examined how low versus high baseline heart rate variability (HRV) influences prepotent response inhibition in 31 males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; mean age: 32.2; mean IQ: 107.8) compared to 39 typically developing (TD) males (mean age: 30.5; mean IQ: 102.0) by administering a stop signal task. Moreover, we examined whether adding an affective manipulation would alter findings and whether this manipulation affected HRV...
July 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719137/neocortical-developmental-analysis-of-vasculature-and-their-growth-factors-offer-new-insight-into-fragile-x-syndrome-abnormalities
#6
Amogh P Belagodu, Stephen Fleming, Roberto Galvez
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene cause for Autism Spectrum Disorder and the most prevalent form of inherited mental retardation. Our prior studies have demonstrated that adult FXS mice have abnormal blood vessel density (BVD) and elevated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A expression (VEGF-A). VEGF-A is one of the most prominent regulators of BVD, and its abnormal expression is the most likely cause for FXS BVD abnormalities. We have demonstrated that attenuating elevated VEGF-A expression can ameliorate many non-vascular FXS abnormalities(Belagodu et al...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717158/neural-processing-of-biological-motion-in-autism-an-investigation-of-brain-activity-and-effective-connectivity
#7
Kaat Alaerts, Stephan P Swinnen, Nicole Wenderoth
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) forms a key region for social information processing and disruptions of its function have been associated with socio-communicative impairments characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Task-based fMRI was applied in 15 adults with ASD and 15 matched typical-controls (TC) to explore differences in activity and effective connectivity of STS while discriminating either 'intact' versus 'scrambled' biological motion point light displays (explicit processing) or responding to a color-change while the 'intact' versus 'scrambled' nature of the stimulus was irrelevant for the task (implicit processing)...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710948/brainstem-auditory-evoked-potentials-for-diagnosing-autism-spectrum-disorder-adhd-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-in-adults-a-blinded-study
#8
Irina Manouilenko, Mats B Humble, Jeanette Georgieva, Susanne Bejerot
The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical utility of complex auditory brainstem response (c-ABR) and investigate if c-ABR is helpful in the diagnostic procedure. Thirty-one adult psychiatric patients, thoroughly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=16), ADHD (n=8), or schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) (n=7) and 15 healthy controls (HC), were blindly assessed with SensoDetect BERA. This c-ABR correctly identified psychiatric diagnoses in 4 patients (13%) and provided partially correct diagnoses in 11 more patients...
July 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710532/the-gap-between-adaptive-behavior-and-intelligence-in-autism-persists-into-young-adulthood-and-is-linked-to-psychiatric-co-morbidities
#9
Catherine K Kraper, Lauren Kenworthy, Haroon Popal, Alex Martin, Gregory L Wallace
For individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), long-term outcomes have been troubling, and intact IQ has not been shown to be protective. Nevertheless, relatively little research into adaptive functioning among adults with ASD has been completed to date. Therefore, both adaptive functioning and comorbid psychopathology were assessed among 52 adults with ASD without intellectual disability (ID). Adaptive functioning was found to substantially lag behind IQ, and socialization was a particular weakness. Comorbid psychopathology was significantly correlated with the size of IQ-adaptive functioning discrepancy...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705096/autism-spectrum-disorders-in-adult-outpatients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-uk
#10
Maheshi Wikramanayake, William Mandy, Sonia Shahper, Sukhwinder Kaur, Sangeetha Kolli, Selma Osman, Jemma Reid, Kiri Jefferies Sewell, Naomi Fineberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently show traits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is one of the first studies to explore the clinical impact of the overlap between OCD and ASD as a categorical diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in 73 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). A clinical estimate ASD diagnosis was made by interview using DSM-IV-TR criteria...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704446/a-specialist-peer-mentoring-program-for-university-students-on-the-autism-spectrum-a-pilot-study
#11
Choo Ting Siew, Trevor G Mazzucchelli, Rosanna Rooney, Sonya Girdler
INTRODUCTION: The provision of peer mentoring may improve tertiary education outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluated the pilot year of the Curtin Specialist Mentoring Program (CSMP), a specialised peer mentoring program for university students with ASD aimed at improving self-reported well-being, academic success and retention in university studies. METHODS: A single group pre-test, post-test design was employed. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were undertaken with 10 young adults with ASD to explore the effectiveness and acceptability of the CSMP program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701997/early-intranasal-vasopressin-administration-impairs-partner-preference-in-adult-male-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#12
Trenton C Simmons, Jessica F Balland, Janeet Dhauna, Sang Yun Yang, Jason L Traina, Jessica Vazquez, Karen L Bales
Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP) as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701745/a-single-dose-randomized-controlled-proof-of-mechanism-study-of-a-novel-vasopressin-1a-receptor-antagonist-rg7713-in-high-functioning-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Daniel Umbricht, Marta Del Valle Rubido, Eric Hollander, James T McCracken, Frederick Shic, Lawrence Scahill, Jana Noeldeke, Lauren Boak, Omar Khwaja, Lisa Squassante, Christophe Grundschober, Heidemarie Kletzl, Paulo Fontoura
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/npp.2016.232.
August 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699052/young-adults-on-the-autism-spectrum-at-college-successes-and-stumbling-blocks
#14
Connie Anderson, Catherine Butt
There is limited information on outcomes for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including achievement at college. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 families reporting a degree-seeking college experience for their young adult with ASD. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Four themes surrounding success and failure at college emerged. Preparation Beyond Academics involved challenges associated with ASD, such as social, executive functioning, and mental health issues, and to what extent these had been addressed prior to leaving high school...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691500/factors-associated-with-sustained-community-employment-among-adults-with-autism-and-co-occurring-intellectual-disability
#15
Wai Chan, Leann E Smith, Jinkuk Hong, Jan S Greenberg, Julie Lounds Taylor, Marsha R Mailick
Sustaining community employment is a challenge for adults with autism spectrum disorders, especially for those who have co-occurring intellectual disability, but factors contributing to this employment outcome have not been fully evaluated. This study utilized longitudinal data to explore the impact of contextual influences, family factors, and individual characteristics on sustained employment over approximately 18 months ( N = 105). Very few adults with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability achieved sustained employment (14...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691086/serotonin-rebalances-cortical-tuning-and-behavior-linked-to-autism-symptoms-in-15q11-13-cnv-mice
#16
Nobuhiro Nakai, Masatoshi Nagano, Fumihito Saitow, Yasuhito Watanabe, Yoshinobu Kawamura, Akiko Kawamoto, Kota Tamada, Hiroshi Mizuma, Hirotaka Onoe, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Hiromu Monai, Hajime Hirase, Jin Nakatani, Hirofumi Inagaki, Tomoyuki Kawada, Taisuke Miyazaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Yuka Sato, Shigeo Okabe, Kazuo Kitamura, Masanobu Kano, Kouichi Hashimoto, Hidenori Suzuki, Toru Takumi
Serotonin is a critical modulator of cortical function, and its metabolism is defective in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) brain. How serotonin metabolism regulates cortical physiology and contributes to the pathological and behavioral symptoms of ASD remains unknown. We show that normal serotonin levels are essential for the maintenance of neocortical excitation/inhibition balance, correct sensory stimulus tuning, and social behavior. Conversely, low serotonin levels in 15q dup mice (a model for ASD with the human 15q11-13 duplication) result in impairment of the same phenotypes...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688076/an-eye-movement-study-of-relational-memory-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Melanie Ring, Dermot M Bowler, Sebastian B Gaigg
Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate good memory for single items but difficulties remembering contextual information related to these items. Recently, we found compromised explicit but intact implicit retrieval of object-location information in ASD (Ring et al. Autism Res 8(5):609-619, 2015). Eye-movement data collected from a sub-sample of the participants are the focus of the current paper. At encoding, trial-by-trial viewing durations predicted subsequent retrieval success only in typically developing (TD) participants...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688073/the-integration-of-occlusion-and-disparity-information-for-judging-depth-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Danielle Smith, Danielle Ropar, Harriet A Allen
In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), atypical integration of visual depth cues may be due to flattened perceptual priors or selective fusion. The current study attempts to disentangle these explanations by psychophysically assessing within-modality integration of ordinal (occlusion) and metric (disparity) depth cues while accounting for sensitivity to stereoscopic information. Participants included 22 individuals with ASD and 23 typically developing matched controls. Although adults with ASD were found to have significantly poorer stereoacuity, they were still able to automatically integrate conflicting depth cues, lending support to the idea that priors are intact in ASD...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685996/are-autistic-traits-associated-with-suicidality-a-test-of-the-interpersonal-psychological-theory-of-suicide-in-a-non-clinical-young-adult-sample
#19
M K Pelton, S A Cassidy
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has recently been associated with increased risk of suicidality. However, no studies have explored how autistic traits may interact with current models of suicidal behavior in a non-clinical population. The current study therefore explored how self-reported autistic traits interact with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in predicting suicidal behavior, in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 163 young adults (aged 18-30 years) completed an online survey including measures of thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire), self-reported autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient), current depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and lifetime suicidality (Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised)...
July 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685412/discriminative-and-criterion-validity-of-the-autism-spectrum-identity-scale-asis
#20
T A M McDonald
Individuals on the autism spectrum face stigma that can influence identity development. Previous research on the 22-item Autism Spectrum Identity Scale (ASIS) reported a four-factor structure with strong split-sample cross-validation and good internal consistency. This study reports the discriminative and criterion validity of the ASIS with other measures. Adults (n = 1139) who have, or identify with, an autism spectrum diagnosis took a nationally distributed online survey that also included demographic questions and measures for stigma, self-esteem, and quality of life (QoL)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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