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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324251/simulating-changes-in-cropping-practises-in-conventional-and-glyphosate-tolerant-maize-i-effects-on-weeds
#1
Nathalie Colbach, Alice Fernier, Valérie Le Corre, Antoine Messéan, Henri Darmency
Herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops such as those tolerant to glyphosate simplify weed management and make it more efficient, at least at short-term. Overreliance on the same herbicide though leads to the spread of resistant weeds. Here, the objective was to evaluate, with simulations, the impact on the advent of glyphosate resistance in weeds of modifications in agricultural practises resulting from introducing HT maize into cropping systems. First, we included a single-gene herbicide resistance submodel in the existing multispecific FLORSYS model...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324249/evaluation-of-organic-amendment-on-the-effect-of-cadmium-bioavailability-in-contaminated-soils-using-the-dgt-technique-and-traditional-methods
#2
EDITORIAL
Yu Yao, Qin Sun, Chao Wang, Pei-Fang Wang, Shi-Ming Ding
Organic amendments have been widely proposed as a remediation technology for metal-contaminated soils, but there exist controversial results on their effectiveness. In this study, the effect of pig manure addition on cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soils was systematically evaluated by one dynamic, in situ technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and four traditional methods based on the equilibrium theory (soil solution concentration and the three commonly used extractants, i.e...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324190/exogenous-application-of-urea-and-a-urease-inhibitor-improves-drought-stress-tolerance-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#3
Wei Gou, Pufan Zheng, Li Tian, Mei Gao, Lixin Zhang, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Muhammad Ashraf
Drought is believed to cause many metabolic changes which affect plant growth and development. However, it might be mitigated by various inorganic substances, such as nitrogen. Thus, the study was carried out to investigate the effect of foliar-applied urea with or without urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) on a maize cultivar under drought stress simulated by 15% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000. Foliar-applied urea resulted in a significant increase in plant dry weight, relative water content, and photosynthetic pigments under water stress condition...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319708/effect-of-application-of-dairy-manure-effluent-and-inorganic-fertilizer-on-nitrogen-leaching-in-clayey-fluvo-aquic-soil-a-lysimeter-study
#4
Jianling Fan, Jiao Xiao, Deyan Liu, Guiping Ye, Jiafa Luo, David Houlbrooke, Seth Laurenson, Jing Yan, Lvjun Chen, Jinping Tian, Weixin Ding
Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316108/cry1a-b-16-toxin-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-theoretical-refinement-of-three-dimensional-structure-and-prediction-of-peptides-as-molecular-markers-for-detection-of-genetically-modified-organisms
#5
Alexandra Plácido, Andreia Coelho, Lucas Abreu do Nascimento, Andreanne Gomes Vasconcelos, Maria Fátima Barroso, Joilson Ramos-Jesus, Vladimir Costa, Francisco das Chagas Alves Lima, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Ricardo Martins Ramos, Mariela M Marani, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida Leite
Transgenic maize produced by the insertion of the Cry transgene into its genome became the second most cultivated crop worldwide. Cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki expresses protein derivatives of crystalline endotoxins which confer insect resistance onto the maize crop. Mandatory labeling of processed food containing or made by genetically modified organisms is in force in many countries, so, it is very urgent to develop fast and practical methods for GMO identification, e.g., biosensors. In the absence of an available empirical structure of Cry1A(b)16 protein, a theoretical model was effectively generated, in this work, by homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations based on two available homologous protein structures...
March 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316047/exogenous-application-of-plant-growth-regulators-pgrs-induces-chilling-tolerance-in-short-duration-hybrid-maize
#6
Muhammad Ahmed Waqas, Imran Khan, Muhammad Javaid Akhter, Mehmood Ali Noor, Umair Ashraf
Chilling stress hampers the optimal performance of maize under field conditions precipitously by inducing oxidative stress. To confer the damaging effects of chilling stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of some natural and synthetic plant growth regulators, i.e., salicylic acid (SA), thiourea (TU), sorghum water extract (SWE), and moringa leaf extract (MLE) on chilling stress tolerance in autumn maize hybrid. Foliar application of growth regulators at low concentrations was carried out at six leaf (V6) and tasseling stages...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315926/dissection-of-a-major-qtl-qhir1-conferring-maternal-haploid-induction-ability-in-maize
#7
Sudha K Nair, Willem Molenaar, Albrecht E Melchinger, Prasanna M Boddupalli, Leocadio Martinez, Luis Antonio Lopez, Vijay Chaikam
Among the qhir11 and qhir12 sub-regions of a major QTL qhir1, only qhir11 has significant effect on maternal haploid induction, segregation distortion and kernel abortion. In vivo haploid induction in maize can be triggered in high frequencies by pollination with special genetic stocks called haploid inducers. Several genetic studies with segregating populations from non-inducer x inducer crosses identified a major QTL, qhir1, on chromosome 1.04 contributing to in vivo haploid induction. A recent Genome Wide Association Study using 51 inducers and 1482 non-inducers also identified two sub-regions within the qhir1 QTL region, named qhir11 and qhir12; qhir12 was proposed to be mandatory for haploid induction because the haplotype of qhir11 was also present in some non-inducers and putative candidate genes coding for DNA and amino acid binding proteins were identified in the qhir12 region...
March 18, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314135/occurrence-leaching-and-degradation-of-cry1ab-protein-from-transgenic-maize-detritus-in-agricultural-streams
#8
Natalie A Griffiths, Jennifer L Tank, Todd V Royer, Emma J Rosi, Arial J Shogren, Therese C Frauendorf, Matt R Whiles
The insecticidal Cry1Ab protein expressed by transgenic (Bt) maize can enter adjacent water bodies via multiple pathways, but its fate in stream ecosystems is not as well studied as in terrestrial systems. In this study, we used a combination of field sampling and laboratory experiments to examine the occurrence, leaching, and degradation of soluble Cry1Ab protein derived from Bt maize in agricultural streams. We surveyed 11 agricultural streams in northwestern Indiana, USA, on 6 dates that encompassed the growing season, crop harvest, and snowmelt/spring flooding, and detected Cry1Ab protein in the water column and in flowing subsurface tile drains at concentrations of 3-60ng/L...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314133/effect-of-wheat-maize-straw-return-on-the-fate-of-nitrate-in-groundwater-in-the-huaihe-river-basin-china
#9
Rongfu Li, Xiaohong Ruan, Ying Bai, Tianhai Ma, Congqiang Liu
Straw return is becoming a routine practice in disposing of crop residues worldwide. However, the potential effect of such operation on the chemistry of local groundwater is not well documented. Here, shallow groundwater in an area where wheat-maize straw return is practiced was analyzed, and the seasonal changes in the nitrate concentration and the isotope compositions of NO3(-) and H2O were determined along two flow paths. Measured δD and δ(18)O in waters indicated that the groundwater was mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation, while measured δ(15)N and δ(18)O in nitrate suggested that the sources for groundwater NO3(-) included urea fertilizer, soil nitrogen, and sewage/manure...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303127/functional-characterization-of-endophytic-fungal-community-associated-with-oryza-sativa-l-and-zea-mays-l
#10
Momota Potshangbam, S Indira Devi, Dinabandhu Sahoo, Gary A Strobel
In a natural ecosystem, the plant is in a symbiotic relationship with beneficial endophytes contributing huge impact on its host plant. Therefore, exploring beneficial endophytes and understanding its interaction is a prospective area of research. The present work aims to characterize the fungal endophytic communities associated with healthy maize and rice plants and to study the deterministic factors influencing plant growth and biocontrol properties against phytopathogens, viz, Pythium ultimum, Sclerotium oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pyricularia oryzae...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302099/monthly-food-insecurity-assessment-in-rural-mkushi-district-zambia-a-longitudinal-analysis
#11
Muzi Na, Bess L Caswell, Sameera A Talegawkar, Amanda Palmer
BACKGROUND: Perception-based scales are widely used for household food insecurity (HFI) assessment but were only recently added in national surveys. The frequency of assessments needed to characterize dynamics in HFI over time is largely unknown. The study aims to examine longitudinal changes in monthly reported HFI at both population- and household-level. METHODS: A total of 157 households in rural Mkushi District whose children were enrolled in the non-intervened arm of an efficacy trial of biofortified maize were included in the analysis...
March 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301710/aflatoxin-contamination-of-groundnut-and-maize-in-zambia-observed-and-potential-concentrations
#12
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
AIMS: Quantify aflatoxins, the potent carcinogens associated with stunting and immune suppression, in maize and groundnut across Zambia's three agroecologies and determine vulnerability to aflatoxin increases after purchase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aflatoxin concentrations were determined for 334 maize and groundnut samples from 27 districts using lateral-flow immunochromatography. Seventeen percent of crops from markets contained aflatoxin concentrations above allowable levels in Zambia (10 μg kg(-1) )...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301472/independent-introductions-and-admixtures-have-contributed-to-adaptation-of-european-maize-and-its-american-counterparts
#13
Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Tristan Mary-Huard, Guillem Rigaill, Sarah J Hearne, Hélène Corti, Johann Joets, Clémentine Vitte, Alain Charcosset, Stéphane D Nicolas, Maud I Tenaillon
Through the local selection of landraces, humans have guided the adaptation of crops to a vast range of climatic and ecological conditions. This is particularly true of maize, which was domesticated in a restricted area of Mexico but now displays one of the broadest cultivated ranges worldwide. Here, we sequenced 67 genomes with an average sequencing depth of 18x to document routes of introduction, admixture and selective history of European maize and its American counterparts. To avoid the confounding effects of recent breeding, we targeted germplasm (lines) directly derived from landraces...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300780/simultaneous-determination-of-multi-mycotoxins-in-cereal-grains-collected-from-south-korea-by-lc-ms-ms
#14
Dong-Ho Kim, Sung-Yong Hong, Jea Woo Kang, Sung Min Cho, Kyu Ri Lee, Tae Kyung An, Chan Lee, Soo Hyun Chung
An improved analytical method compared with conventional ones was developed for simultaneous determination of 13 mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetylnivalenol, aflatoxin B₁, aflatoxin B₂, aflatoxin G₁, aflatoxin G₂, fumonisin B₁, fumonisin B₂, T-2, HT-2, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A) in cereal grains by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) after a single immunoaffinity column clean-up. The method showed a good linearity, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in mycotoxin determination by LC/MS/MS...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300767/consumption-of-bt-maize-pollen-containing-cry1ie-does-not-negatively-affect-propylea-japonica-thunberg-coleoptera-coccinellidae
#15
Yonghui Li, Yanmin Liu, Xinming Yin, Jörg Romeis, Xinyuan Song, Xiuping Chen, Lili Geng, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300727/in%C3%A2-vivo-transport-of-three-radioactive-18-f-fluorinated-deoxysucrose-analogs-by-the-maize-sucrose-transporter-zmsut1
#16
Thu M Tran, Carissa S Hampton, Tom W Brossard, Michael Harmata, J David Robertson, Silvia S Jurisson, David M Braun
Sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins translocate sucrose across cell membranes; however, mechanistic aspects of sucrose binding by SUTs are not well resolved. Specific hydroxyl groups in sucrose participate in hydrogen bonding with SUT proteins. We previously reported that substituting a radioactive fluorine-18 [(18)F] at the C-6' position within the fructosyl moiety of sucrose did not affect sucrose transport by the maize (Zea mays) ZmSUT1 protein. To determine how (18)F substitution of hydroxyl groups at two other positions within sucrose, the C-1' in the fructosyl moiety or the C-6 in the glucosyl moiety, impact sucrose transport, we synthesized 1'-[F(18)]fluoro-1'-deoxysucrose and 6-[F(18)]fluoro-6-deoxysucrose ([(18)F]FDS) analogs...
March 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300202/thermoalign-a-genome-aware-primer-design-tool-for-tiled-amplicon-resequencing
#17
Felix Francis, Michael D Dumas, Randall J Wisser
Isolating and sequencing specific regions in a genome is a cornerstone of molecular biology. This has been facilitated by computationally encoding the thermodynamics of DNA hybridization for automated design of hybridization and priming oligonucleotides. However, the repetitive composition of genomes challenges the identification of target-specific oligonucleotides, which limits genetics and genomics research on many species. Here, a tool called ThermoAlign was developed that ensures the design of target-specific primer pairs for DNA amplification...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300078/altered-expression-of-maize-plastochron1-enhances-biomass-and-seed-yield-by-extending-cell-division-duration
#18
Xiaohuan Sun, James Cahill, Tom Van Hautegem, Kim Feys, Clinton Whipple, Ondrej Novák, Sofie Delbare, Charlot Versteele, Kirin Demuynck, Jolien De Block, Veronique Storme, Hannes Claeys, Mieke Van Lijsebettens, Griet Coussens, Karin Ljung, Alex De Vliegher, Michael Muszynski, Dirk Inzé, Hilde Nelissen
Maize is the highest yielding cereal crop grown worldwide for grain or silage. Here, we show that modulating the expression of the maize PLASTOCHRON1 (ZmPLA1) gene, encoding a cytochrome P450 (CYP78A1), results in increased organ growth, seedling vigour, stover biomass and seed yield. The engineered trait is robust as it improves yield in an inbred as well as in a panel of hybrids, at several locations and over multiple seasons in the field. Transcriptome studies, hormone measurements and the expression of the auxin responsive DR5rev:mRFPer marker suggest that PLA1 may function through an increase in auxin...
March 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299866/effects-of-moringa-oleifera-silage-on-milk-yield-nutrient-digestibility-and-serum-biochemical-indexes-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#19
B Zeng, J J Sun, T Chen, B L Sun, Q He, X Y Chen, Y L Zhang, Q Y Xi
This study investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) as a partial substitute of alfalfa hay on milk yield, nutrient apparent digestibility and serum biochemical indexes of dairy cows. MO was harvested at 120 days post-seeding. Fresh MO was cut, mixed with chopped oat hay (425:575 on a DM basis), ensiled and stored for 60 days. Sixty healthy Holstein dairy cows were allocated to one of three groups: NM (no MO or control), LM (low MO; 25% alfalfa hay and 50% maize silage were replaced by MO silage) or HM (high MO; 50% alfalfa hay and 100% maize silage were replaced by MO silage)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298920/transcriptomic-profiling-of-the-maize-zea-mays-l-leaf-response-to-abiotic-stresses-at-the-seedling-stage
#20
Pengcheng Li, Wei Cao, Huimin Fang, Shuhui Xu, Shuangyi Yin, Yingying Zhang, Dezhou Lin, Jianan Wang, Yufei Chen, Chenwu Xu, Zefeng Yang
Abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, heat, and cold, negatively affect maize (Zea mays L.) development and productivity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to abiotic stresses in maize, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of B73 seedling leaves exposed to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stress. A total of 5,330 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in differential comparisons between the control and each stressed sample, with 1,661, 2,019, 2,346, and 1,841 DEGs being identified in comparisons of the control with salinity, drought, heat, and cold stress, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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