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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821770/drought-and-exogenous-abscisic-acid-alter-hydrogen-peroxide-accumulation-and-differentially-regulate-the-expression-of-two-maize-rd22-like-genes
#1
Kyle Phillips, Ndiko Ludidi
Increased biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) occurs in plants in response to water deficit, which is mediated by changes in the levels of reactive oxygen species such as H2O2. Water deficit and ABA induce expression of some RD22-like proteins. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of water deficit and exogenous ABA (50 µM ABA applied every 24 hours for a total of 72 hours) on H2O2 content in Zea mays (maize) and to characterise genes encoding two putative maize RD22-like proteins (designated ZmRD22A and ZmRD22B)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821130/reaction-pattern-differences-impact-physical-properties-of-starches-derivatized-to-the-same-extent-in-a-model-cross-linking-system
#2
Jung Sun Hong, Sara V Gomand, Kerry C Huber, Jan A Delcour
This study investigated the physical properties of maize (MS) and wheat (WS) starches derivatized with 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl)aminofluorescein (model cross-linking system) to have the same overall fluorescence intensity on starch molecules, but reacted either more uniformly throughout granules (UD) or more at granule surfaces (SD). Both MS and WS derivatives had lower swelling powers (SP) at 90°C than their respective native starches. The UD derivatives had lower SP (90°C) and greater retrogradation enthalpies than did SD derivatives, consistent with their lower peak and higher setback pasting viscosities...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820425/bioinformatics-analysis-of-phylogeny-and-transcription-of-taa-yuc-auxin-biosynthetic-genes
#3
Axel Poulet, Verena Kriechbaumer
Auxin is a main plant growth hormone crucial in a multitude of developmental processes in plants. Auxin biosynthesis via the tryptophan aminotransferase of arabidopsis (TAA)/YUCCA (YUC) route involving tryptophan aminotransferases and YUC flavin-dependent monooxygenases that produce the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan is currently the most researched auxin biosynthetic pathway. Previous data showed that, in maize and arabidopsis, TAA/YUC-dependent auxin biosynthesis can be detected in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) microsomal fractions, and a subset of auxin biosynthetic proteins are localized to the ER, mainly due to transmembrane domains (TMD)...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820092/rhizobium-wenxiniae-sp-nov-an-endophytic-bacterium-isolated-from-maize-root
#4
Jun-Lian Gao, Pengbo Sun, Xu-Ming Wang, Fan-Yang Lv, Xiao-Jie Mao, Jian-Guang Sun
A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped strain designated 166T was isolated from surface-sterilized root tissue of maize planted in the Fangshan District of Beijing, PR China. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain 166T belongs to the genus Rhizobium and is closely related to Rhizobium cellulosilyticum ALA10B2T and Rhizobium yantingense H66T with sequence similarities of 98.8 and 98.3 %, respectively. According to atpD and recA sequence analysis, the highest sequence similarity between strain 166T and R...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819968/popcorn-derived-porous-carbon-flakes-with-an-ultrahigh-specific-surface-area-for-superior-performance-supercapacitors
#5
Jianhua Hou, Kun Jiang, Rui Wei, Muhammad Tahir, Xiaoge Wu, Ming Shen, Xiaozhi Wang, Chuanbao Cao
Popcorn-derived porous carbon flakes (PCFs) have been successfully fabricated from the biomass of maize. Utilizing the "puffing effect", the nubby maize grain turned into materials with interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure composed of carbon flakes. The following chemical activation method enabled the as-prepared products to possess optimized porous structure for electrochemical energy storage devices, such as multi-layer flake-like structures, ultrahigh specific surface area (SBET: 3301 m2 g-1), a high content of micropores (microporous surface area of 95%, especially the optimized sub-nanopores with the size of 0...
August 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819269/characteristic-assessment-of-diesel-degrading-bacteria-immobilized-on-natural-organic-carriers-in-marine-environment-the-degradation-activity-and-nutrient
#6
Jianliang Xue, Yanan Wu, Zhixiu Liu, Menglu Li, Xiyu Sun, Huajun Wang, Bing Liu
Oil spill has led to severe environmental and ecological problems. Due to the harsh environmental conditions, the bioremediation technology is not successfully used to remedy the oil spill in marine environment. In this study, immobilization technology was used to immobilize bacteria on natural organic carriers (i.e., wood chips and maize straw). The higher surface area of in wood chips leads to larger biomass density (0.0242 gVSS/g) than that of maize straw of 0.0097 gVSS/g carrier. Compared with biodegradation efficiency of free bacteria (44...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818369/brassinosteroid-and-gibberellin-control-of-seedling-traits-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#7
Songlin Hu, Darlene L Sanchez, Cuiling Wang, Alexander E Lipka, Yanhai Yin, Candice A C Gardner, Thomas Lübberstedt
In this study, we established two doubled haploid (DH) libraries with a total of 207 DH lines. We applied BR and GA inhibitors to all DH lines at seedling stage and measured seedling BR and GA inhibitor responses. Moreover, we evaluated field traits for each DH line (untreated). We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with 62,049 genome wide SNPs to explore the genetic control of seedling traits by BR and GA. In addition, we correlate seedling stage hormone inhibitor response with field traits. Large variation for BR and GA inhibitor response and field traits was observed across these DH lines...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818040/in-silico-prediction-and-characterization-of-secondary-metabolite-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-the-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#8
Timothy Cairns, Vera Meyer
BACKGROUND: Fungal pathogens of plants produce diverse repertoires of secondary metabolites, which have functions ranging from iron acquisition, defense against immune perturbation, to toxic assaults on the host. The wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici blotch, a foliar disease which is a significant threat to global food security. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the secondary metabolite arsenal produced by Z. tritici, which significantly restricts mechanistic understanding of infection...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817696/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-sweet-sorghum-accessions-for-bioenergy-production
#9
Michele Jorge da Silva, Maria Marta Pastina, Vander Fillipe de Souza, Robert Eugene Schaffert, Pedro Crescêncio Souza Carneiro, Roberto Willians Noda, José Eustáquio de Souza Carneiro, Cynthia Maria Borges Damasceno, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella
Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a type of cultivated sorghum characterized by the accumulation of high levels of sugar in the stems and high biomass accumulation, making this crop an important feedstock for bioenergy production. Sweet sorghum breeding programs that focus on bioenergy have two main goals: to improve quantity and quality of sugars in the juicy stem and to increase fresh biomass productivity. Genetic diversity studies are very important for the success of a breeding program, especially in the early stages, where understanding the genetic relationship between accessions is essential to identify superior parents for the development of improved breeding lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817075/discrimination-of-transgenic-maize-kernel-using-nir-hyperspectral-imaging-and-multivariate-data-analysis
#10
Xuping Feng, Yiying Zhao, Chu Zhang, Peng Cheng, Yong He
There are possible environmental risks related to gene flow from genetically engineered organisms. It is important to find accurate, fast, and inexpensive methods to detect and monitor the presence of genetically modified (GM) organisms in crops and derived crop products. In the present study, GM maize kernels containing both cry1Ab/cry2Aj-G10evo proteins and their non-GM parents were examined by using hyperspectral imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) range (874.41-1733.91 nm) combined with chemometric data analysis...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815500/nanoparticle-mediated-recombinase-delivery-into-maize
#11
Susana Martin-Ortigosa, Brian G Trewyn, Kan Wang
We describe a non-DNA-based system for delivering Cre recombinase protein into maize tissue using gold-plated mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Au-MSN). Cre protein is first loaded into the pores of Au-MSNs and then delivered using the biolistic method to immature embryos of a maize line (Lox-corn), which harbors loxP sites flanking a selection and a reporter gene. The release of the Cre recombinase protein inside the plant cell leads to recombination at the loxP sites, eliminating both genes. Visual screening is used to identify recombination events, which can be regenerated to mature and fertile plants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814759/influence-of-film-mulching-on-soil-microbial-community-in-a-rainfed-region-of-northeastern-china
#12
Wenyi Dong, Pengfei Si, Enke Liu, Changrong Yan, Zhe Zhang, Yanqing Zhang
Information about the effect of plastic film mulching (PFM) on the soil microbial communities of rainfed regions remains scarce. In the present study, Illumina Hiseq sequencer was employed to compare the soil bacterial and fungal communities under three treatments: no mulching (NM), spring mulching (SM) and autumn mulching (AM) in two layers (0-10 and, 10-20 cm). Our results demonstrated that the plastic film mulching (PFM) application had positive effects on soil physicochemical properties as compared to no-mulching (NM): higher soil temperature (ST), greater soil moisture content (SMC) and better soil nutrients...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814645/zygotic-genome-activation-occurs-shortly-after-fertilization-in-maize
#13
Junyi Chen, Nicholas Strieder, Nadia G Krohn, Philippe Cyprys, Stefanie Sprunck, Julia C Engelmann, Thomas Dresselhaus
The formation of a zygote via the fusion of an egg and sperm cell and its subsequent asymmetric division (ACD) herald the start of the plant's life cycle. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is thought to occur gradually, with the initial steps of zygote and embryo development being primarily maternally controlled, and subsequent steps being governed by the zygotic genome. Here, using maize (Zea mays) as a model plant system, we determined the timing of zygote development and generated RNA-Seq transcriptome profiles of gametes, zygotes, and apical and basal daughter cells...
August 16, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814396/consumption-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-iron-absorption-from-a-micronutrient-powder-containing-ferrous-fumarate-and-sodium-iron-edta-a-stable-isotope-study-in-kenyan-infants
#14
Daniela Paganini, Mary A Uyoga, Colin I Cercamondi, Diego Moretti, Edith Mwasi, Clarissa Schwab, Salome Bechtler, Francis M Mutuku, Valeria Galetti, Christophe Lacroix, Simon Karanja, Michael B Zimmermann
Background: Whether consumption of prebiotics increases iron absorption in infants is unclear.Objective: We set out to determine whether prebiotic consumption affects iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) containing a mixture of ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA (FeFum+NaFeEDTA) in Kenyan infants.Design: Infants (n = 50; aged 6-14 mo) consumed maize porridge that was fortified with an MNP containing FeFum+NaFeEDTA and 7.5 g galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) (Fe+GOS group, n = 22) or the same MNP without GOSs (Fe group, n = 28) each day for 3 wk...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814393/soya-maize-and-sorghum-based-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food-with-amino-acid-is-as-efficacious-as-the-standard-milk-and-peanut-paste-based-formulation-for-the-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-children-a-noninferiority-individually-randomized-controlled
#15
Paluku Bahwere, Peter Akomo, Mwawi Mwale, Hitoshi Murakami, Chrissy Banda, Sylvester Kathumba, Chimwemwe Banda, Solomon Jere, Kate Sadler, Steve Collins
Background: Development of more cost-effective ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is a global public health priority. To date, previous lower-cost recipes have been less effective than the standard peanut and milk (PM)-based RUTF, particularly in children aged <24 mo.Objective: We aimed to compare the efficacy of the PM-RUTF to a milk-free soya, maize, and sorghum (FSMS)-RUTF enriched with crystalline amino acids without cow milk powder and a milk, soya, maize, and sorghum (MSMS)-RUTF containing 9.3% skim cow milk powder...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813539/vectorization-by-nanoparticles-decreases-the-overall-toxicity-of-airborne-pollutants
#16
Rodolphe Carpentier, Anne Platel, Helena Maiz-Gregores, Fabrice Nesslany, Didier Betbeder
Atmospheric pollution is mainly composed of volatile pollutants and particulate matter that strongly interact. However, their specific roles in the induction of cellular toxicity, in particular the impact of the vectorization of atmospheric pollutants by ultrafine particles, remains to be fully elucidated. For this purpose, non-toxic poly-lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were synthesized and three pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) were adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles in order to evaluate the toxicity (cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and ROS induction) of these complexes to a human airway epithelial cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813093/where-is-sugarcane-cropping-expanding-in-the-brazilian-cerrado-and-why-a-case-study
#17
Murilo R DE Arruda, Ken E Giller, Maja Slingerland
Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to verify this assumption, we investigate at farm and field levels which types of land use sugarcane cropping replaced between 2005 and 2010 and the reasons for farmers shifting or not shifting to sugarcane, as a case study in two counties in the state of Goiás...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811375/temperature-increase-reduces-global-yields-of-major-crops-in-four-independent-estimates
#18
Chuang Zhao, Bing Liu, Shilong Piao, Xuhui Wang, David B Lobell, Yao Huang, Mengtian Huang, Yitong Yao, Simona Bassu, Philippe Ciais, Jean-Louis Durand, Joshua Elliott, Frank Ewert, Ivan A Janssens, Tao Li, Erda Lin, Qiang Liu, Pierre Martre, Christoph Müller, Shushi Peng, Josep Peñuelas, Alex C Ruane, Daniel Wallach, Tao Wang, Donghai Wu, Zhuo Liu, Yan Zhu, Zaichun Zhu, Senthold Asseng
Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Assessing the impact of global temperature increase on production of these crops is therefore critical to maintaining global food supply, but different studies have yielded different results. Here, we investigated the impacts of temperature on yields of the four crops by compiling extensive published results from four analytical methods: global grid-based and local point-based models, statistical regressions, and field-warming experiments...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811335/the-conserved-and-unique-genetic-architecture-of-kernel-size-and-weight-in-maize-and-rice
#19
Jie Liu, Juan Huang, Huan Guo, Liu Lan, Hongze Wang, Yuancheng Xu, Xiaohong Yang, Wenqiang Li, Hao Tong, Yingjie Xiao, Qingchun Pan, Feng Qiao, Mohammad Sharif Raihan, Haijun Liu, Xuehai Zhang, Ning Yang, Xiaqing Wang, Min Deng, Minliang Jin, Lijun Zhao, Xin Luo, Yang Zhou, Xiang Li, Wei Zhan, Nannan Liu, Hong Wang, Gengshen Chen, Qing Li, Jianbing Yan
Maize is a major staple crop. Maize kernel size and weight are important contributors to its yield. Here, we measured kernel length, kernel width, kernel thickness, hundred kernel weight and kernel test weight in 10 recombinant inbred line populations and dissected their genetic architecture using three statistical models. In total, 729 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified, many of which were identified in all three models, including 22 major QTLs that each can explain more than 10% of phenotypic variation...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811113/acrylamide-forming-potential-of-cereals-legumes-and-roots-and-tubers-analyzed-by-uplc-uv
#20
Joseph H Y Galani, Nilesh J Patel, Jayant G Talati
For directing scientists, consumers, industry and stakeholders on mitigation strategies, there is a need to understand the acrylamide-forming potential of important Indian foods. Flour obtained from total 16 varieties of 9 Indian cereals, legumes and roots and tubers was heated at 160 °C for 20 min, acrylamide was extracted and quantified by UPLC-UV. Acrylamide level was above the European Commission indicative value in potato- and cereal-based food products, it ranged from 3436.13 to 5562.56 μg/kg in roots and tubers (potato and sweet potato)...
August 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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