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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214122/anaerobic-co-digestion-of-recalcitrant-agricultural-wastes-characterizing-of-biochemical-parameters-of-digestate-and-its-impacts-on-soil-ecosystem
#1
Adele Muscolo, Giovanna Settineri, Teresa Papalia, Emilio Attinà, Carmelo Basile, Maria Rosaria Panuccio
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes is a promising alternative to landfilling for reducing Greenhouse Gas Emission (GHG) and it is encouraged by current regulation in Europe. Biogas-AD produced, represents a useful source of green energy, while its by-product (digestate) is a waste, that needs to be safely disposal. The sustainability of anaerobic digestion plants partly depends on the management of their digestion residues. This study has been focused on the environmental and economic benefits of co-digest recalcitrant agricultural wastes such olive wastes and citrus pulp, in combination with livestock wastes, straw and cheese whey for biogas production...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213476/editing-of-mitochondrial-transcripts-nad3-and-cox2-by-dek10-is-essential-for-mitochondrial-function-and-maize-plant-development
#2
Weiwei Qi, Zhongrui Tian, Lei Lu, Xiuzu Chen, Xinze Chen, Wei Zhang, Rentao Song
Respiration, the core of mitochondrial metabolism, depends on the function of five respiratory complexes. Many respiratory chain related proteins are encoded by the mitochondrial genome and their RNAs undergo post-transcriptional modifications by nuclear genome expressed factors, including pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. Maize defective kernel 10 (dek10) is a classic mutant with small kernels and delayed development. Through positional cloning we found that Dek10 encodes an E-subgroup PPR protein localized in mitochondria...
February 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213318/efficacy-of-fungal-and-bacterial-antagonists-for-controlling-growth-fum1-gene-expression-and-fumonisin-b1-production-by-fusarium-verticillioides-on-maize-cobs-of-different-ripening-stages
#3
Nik Iskandar Putra Samsudin, Alicia Rodriguez, Angel Medina, Naresh Magan
This study was carried out to examine the efficacy of two biocontrol agents (Clonostachys rosea 016, BCA1; Gram-negative bacterium, BCA5) for control of FUM1 gene expression and fumonisin B1 (FB1) production by F. verticillioides FV1 on maize cobs of different ripening stages: R3, Milk (0.985 aw); R4, Dough (0.976 aw); R5, Dent (0.958 aw). Initially, temporal studies on FUM1 gene expression and FB1 production were performed on maize kernels for up to 14days. This revealed that day 10 was optimum for both parameters, and was used in the biocontrol studies...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211507/soil-aggregate-mediates-the-impacts-of-land-uses-on-organic-carbon-total-nitrogen-and-microbial-activity-in-a-karst-ecosystem
#4
Shuangshuang Xiao, Wei Zhang, Yingying Ye, Jie Zhao, Kelin Wang
Understanding the effect of land use on soil carbon, nitrogen, and microbial activity associated with aggregates is critical for thorough comprehension of the C and N dynamics of karst landscapes/ecosystems. We monitored soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and Cmic: Corg ratio in large macro- (>2 mm), small macro- (0.25-2 mm), and micro- (0.053-0.25 mm) aggregates to determine the changes in soil properties under different land uses in the karst area of Southwest China...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211334/adsorption-capacity-of-multiple-dna-sources-to-clay-minerals-and-environmental-soil-matrices-less-than-previously-estimated
#5
Courtney M Gardner, Claudia K Gunsch
The cultivation and consumption of transgenic crops continues to be a widely debated topic, as the potential ecological impacts are not fully understood. In particular, because antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have historically been used as selectable markers in the genetic engineering of transgenic crops, it is important to determine if the genetic constructs found in decomposing transgenic crops persist long enough in the environment and if they can be transferred horizontally to indigenous microorganisms...
February 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210264/high-antioxidant-activity-facilitates-maintenance-of-cell-division-in-leaves-of-drought-tolerant-maize-hybrids
#6
Viktoriya Avramova, Hamada AbdElgawad, Ivanina Vasileva, Alexandra S Petrova, Anna Holek, Joachim Mariën, Han Asard, Gerrit T S Beemster
We studied the impact of drought on growth regulation in leaves of 13 maize varieties with different drought sensitivity and geographic origins (Western Europe, Egypt, South Africa) and the inbred line B73. Combining kinematic analysis of the maize leaf growth zone with biochemical measurements at a high spatial resolution allowed us to examine the correlation between the regulation of the cellular processes cell division and elongation, and the molecular redox-regulation in response to drought. Moreover, we demonstrated differences in the response of the maize lines to mild and severe levels of water deficit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207851/impact-of-levels-of-total-digestible-nutrients-on-microbiome-enzyme-profile-and-degradation-of-feeds-in-buffalo-rumen
#7
Anju Kala, D N Kamra, Avinash Kumar, Neeta Agarwal, L C Chaudhary, C G Joshi
The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206710/sucrose-transporter2-contributes-to-maize-growth-development-and-crop-yield
#8
Kristen A Leach, Thu M Tran, Thomas L Slewinski, Robert B Meeley, David M Braun
During daylight, plants produce excess photosynthates, including sucrose, which is temporarily stored in the vacuole. At night, plants remobilize sucrose to sustain metabolism and growth. Based on homology to other sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins, we hypothesized the maize (Zea mays) SUCROSE TRANSPORTER2 (ZmSUT2) protein functions as a sucrose/H(+) symporter on the vacuolar membrane to export transiently stored sucrose. To understand the biological role of ZmSut2, we examined its spatial and temporal gene expression, determined the protein subcellular localization, and characterized loss-of-function mutations...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205641/the-tiered-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-transgenic-cry1c-rice-on-cyrtorhinus-lividipennis-a-main-predator-of-nilaparvata-lugens
#9
Yu Han, Fugang Ma, Muhammad Nawaz, Yu Wang, Wanlun Cai, Jing Zhao, Yueping He, Hongxia Hua, Yulan Zou
T1C-19, a newly developed transgenic cry1C rice line, expresses cry1C under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter, and is highly resistant to lepidopteran pests of rice. Cyrtorhinus lividipennis is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of Nilaparvata lugens, which is the main non-target sap-sucking insect pest of Bt rice. C. lividipennis may be exposed to Cry1C protein, thus biosafety evaluations of transgenic cry1C rice on C. lividipennis should be conducted before the commercialization of T1C-19...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204533/non-syntenic-genes-drive-rtcs-dependent-regulation-of-the-embryo-transcriptome-during-formation-of-seminal-root-primordia-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#10
Huanhuan Tai, Nina Opitz, Andrew Lithio, Xin Lu, Dan Nettleton, Frank Hochholdinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202734/proper-division-plane-orientation-and-mitotic-progression-together-allow-normal-growth-of-maize
#11
Pablo Martinez, Anding Luo, Anne Sylvester, Carolyn G Rasmussen
How growth, microtubule dynamics, and cell-cycle progression are coordinated is one of the unsolved mysteries of cell biology. A maize mutant, tangled1, with known defects in growth and proper division plane orientation, and a recently characterized cell-cycle delay identified by time-lapse imaging, was used to clarify the relationship between growth, cell cycle, and proper division plane orientation. The tangled1 mutant was fully rescued by introduction of cortical division site localized TANGLED1-YFP. A CYCLIN1B destruction box was fused to TANGLED1-YFP to generate a line that mostly rescued the division plane defect but still showed cell-cycle delays when expressed in the tangled1 mutant...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202728/satellite-based-assessment-of-yield-variation-and-its-determinants-in-smallholder-african-systems
#12
Marshall Burke, David B Lobell
The emergence of satellite sensors that can routinely observe millions of individual smallholder farms raises possibilities for monitoring and understanding agricultural productivity in many regions of the world. Here we demonstrate the potential to track smallholder maize yield variation in western Kenya, using a combination of 1-m Terra Bella imagery and intensive field sampling on thousands of fields over 2 y. We find that agreement between satellite-based and traditional field survey-based yield estimates depends significantly on the quality of the field-based measures, with agreement highest ([Formula: see text] up to 0...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202014/defensive-changes-in-maize-leaves-induced-by-feeding-of-mediterranean-corn-borer-larvae
#13
Rogelio Santiago, Ana Cao, Ana Butrón, Ana López-Malvar, Víctor M Rodríguez, Germán V Sandoya, Rosa A Malvar
BACKGROUND: Plants can respond to insect attack via defense mechanisms that reduce insect performance. In this study, we examined the effects of several treatments applied to two maize genotypes (one resistant, one susceptible) on the subsequent growth and survival of Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. (Mediterranean corn borer, MCB) larvae. The treatments were infestation with MCB larvae, application of MCB regurgitant upon wounding, wounding alone, or exposure to methyl jasmonate, and they were applied at the V6-V8 stage of maize development...
February 15, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199065/rapid-characterization-of-trace-aflatoxin-b1-on-groundnuts-wheat-and-maize-by-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-followed-by-direct-electrospray-probe-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
Thiphol Satarpai, Atitaya Siripinyanond, Hung Su, Jentaie Shiea
RATIONALE: Aflatoxins are poisonous and cancer-related chemical compounds commonly existed in crops and plants. Aflatoxin B1 is the most toxic compound among aflatoxins and has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to human, especially on liver cancer. Herein, an ambient mass spectrometric method was developed for rapid characterization of trace aflatoxin B1 on peanuts. METHODS: Direct electrospray probe tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect aflatoxin B1 on peanuts...
February 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198815/enhancing-genomic-prediction-with-genome-wide-association-studies-in-multiparental-maize-populations
#15
Y Bian, J B Holland
Genome-wide association mapping using dense marker sets has identified some nucleotide variants affecting complex traits that have been validated with fine-mapping and functional analysis. However, many sequence variants associated with complex traits in maize have small effects and low repeatability. In contrast to genome-wide association study (GWAS), genomic prediction (GP) is typically based on models incorporating information from all available markers, rather than modeling effects of individual loci. We considered methods to integrate results of GWASs into GP models in the context of multiple interconnected families...
February 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198655/study-of-an-educational-hand-sorting-intervention-for-reducing-aflatoxin-b1-in-groundnuts-in-rural-gambia
#16
Y A Xu, Andrew Doel, Sinead Watson, Michael N Routledge, Christopher T Elliott, Sophie E Moore, Yun Yun Gong
Aflatoxin, a human liver carcinogen, frequently contaminates groundnuts, maize, rice, and other grains, especially in Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention that involved training rural Gambian women on how to identify and remove moldy groundnuts to reduce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination. In total, 25 women, recruited from the West Kiang region of The Gambia, were trained on how to recognize and remove moldy groundnuts. Market-purchased groundnuts were hand sorted by the women...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198510/letter-partial-diallel-crosses-for-predicting-yield-of-semiexotic-maize-populations
#17
C M Silva, J B Miranda Filho, U C Mendes, E F Reis
In Brazil, the total production of maize has increased continuously due to the advances in technology but also to the new frontiers for the maize crop, including the expansion of the second crop (safrinha; usually maize after soybean). Therefore, the exploitation of new sources of germplasm seems to be imperative to attend the actual and future demands for modern cultivars adapted to the greatly variable environments available to the maize crop. The present study was based on a partial diallel (intergroup) cross to provide quantitative information on the potential of two groups of varieties (NAP - exotics and HG - local) and their combining abilities to direct the synthesis of new populations to be used in hybrid crosses or as a base for breeding programs...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197207/maize-fungal-growth-control-with-scopoletin-of-cassava-roots-produced-in-benin
#18
Rafiatou Ba, Teou Alfa, Fernand Gbaguidi, Kosi Mawuéna Novidzro, Kokouvi Dotse, Koffi Koudouvo, Ursula Houngue, Marcel T Donou Hounsode, Kossi Honoré Koumaglo, Yaovi Ameyapoh, Lamine Baba-Moussa
The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh) was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196780/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-various-biochars-as-porous-media-for-biodiesel-synthesis-via-pseudo-catalytic-transesterification
#19
Jechan Lee, Jong-Min Jung, Jeong-Ik Oh, Yong Sik Ok, Sang-Ryong Lee, Eilhann E Kwon
This study focuses on investigating the optimized chemical composition of biochar used as porous material for biodiesel synthesis via pseudo-catalytic transesterification. To this end, six biochars from different sources were prepared and biodiesel yield obtained from pseudo-catalytic transesterification of waste cooking oil using six biochars were measured. Biodiesel yield and optimal reaction temperature for pseudo-catalytic transesterification were strongly dependent on the raw material of biochar. For example, biochar generated from maize residue exhibited the best performance, which yield was reached ∼90% at 300°C; however, the maximum biodiesel yield with pine cone biochar was 43% at 380°C...
February 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195683/evaluation-of-smartstax-and-smartstax%C3%A2-pro-maize-against-western-corn-rootworm-and-northern-corn-rootworm-efficacy-and-resistance-management
#20
Graham P Head, Matthew Carroll, Sean Evans, Dwain M Rule, Alan Willse, Thomas Clark, Nicholas Storer, Ronald Flannagan, Luke Samuel, Lance J Meinke
BACKGROUND: Cases of western corn rootworm (WCR) field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 and other corn rootworm (CRW) control traits have been reported. Pyramid products expressing multiple CRW traits can delay resistance compared to single trait products. We used field studies to assess the pyramid CRW corn products, SmartStax (expressing Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and SmartStax PRO (expressing Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and DvSnf7), at locations with high WCR densities and possible Cry3Bb1 resistance, and to assess the reduction in adult emergence attributable to DvSnf7 and other traits...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
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