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Siti Nur Ezzati Yazid, Hemashangari Thanggavelu, Norlia Mahror, Jinap Selamat, Nik Iskandar Putra Samsudin
In studying the ecophysiology of fungal phytopathogens, several stages are involved (in vitro, greenhouse, in planta). Most in vitro studies extensively utilise the general growth media such as Potato Dextrose Agar and Malt Extract Agar. Although the crop components in these media serve as excellent carbon sources and yield luxuriant growth, they are not naturally contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and thus might result in under- or overestimation of its actual toxigenic potentials. Empirical data on the formulation of semi-synthetic growth medium mimicking the natural crop commonly contaminated by A...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Ana Santos Pereira, Maria Luísa Dâmaso-Rodrigues, Ana Amorim, Michiel A Daam, Maria José Cerejeira
Studies addressing the predicted effects of pesticides in combination with abiotic and biotic factors on aquatic biota in ditches associated with typical Mediterranean agroecosystems are scarce. The current study aimed to evaluate the predicted effects of pesticides along with environmental factors and biota interactions on macroinvertebrate, zooplankton and phytoplankton community compositions in ditches adjacent to Portuguese maize and tomato crop areas. Data was analysed with the variance partitioning procedure based on redundancy analysis (RDA)...
June 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Danial Roshandel, Medi Eslani, Alireza Baradaran-Rafii, Albert Y Cheung, Khaliq Kurji, Sayena Jabbehdari, Alejandra Maiz, Setareh Jalali, Ali R Djalilian, Edward J Holland
The cornea is unique because of its complete avascularity. Corneal neovascularization (CNV) can result from a variety of etiologies including contact lens wear; corneal infections; and ocular surface diseases due to inflammation, chemical injury, and limbal stem cell deficiency. Management is focused primarily on the etiology and pathophysiology causing the CNV and involves medical and surgical options. Because inflammation is a key factor in the pathophysiology of CNV, corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatory medications remain the mainstay of treatment...
June 14, 2018: Ocular Surface
Bei Wen, Ying Pan, Xiaoli Shi, Hongna Zhang, Xiaoyu Hu, Honglin Huang, Jitao Lv, Shuzhen Zhang
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) precursors have been found extensively in sewage sludge and biosolids-amended soils. The degradation of these precursors are regarded as a significant source of PFOS in the environment. In this study, the accumulation of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (N-EtFOSAA) in the plants of seven species, namely alfalfa, lettuce, maize, mung bean, radish, ryegrass, and soybean from biosolids-amended soil, and the degradation kinetics of N-EtFOSAA in soil-plant microcosms were evaluated over 60 days...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nannan Song, Zhilan Xu, Jing Wang, Qianqian Qin, Haiyang Jiang, Weina Si, Xiaoyu Li
The CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) gene has an important role both in regulation flowering through photoperiodic control and response to abiotic stress. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of maize COL gene family and identified 19 non-redundant ZmCOL genes, which were unequally distributed on ten maize chromosomes. Analysis of compound phylogenetic tree (maize, sorghum, rice and Arabidopsis) showed high bootstrap, as well as conserved domain and semblable gene structures among members within the same clade, revealing that COL genes in same clade were from the common ancestral and prior to the divergence of monocots and dicots lineages...
June 13, 2018: Gene
Yao Li, Xingang Liu, Xiaohu Wu, Fengshou Dong, Jun Xu, Xinglu Pan, Yongquan Zheng
Biochar (BC) can alter the fate and bioavailability of pesticides in soil. In this study, the effects of three types of BCs (made of crofton weed, wood chips and rice hull) on the sorption of acetochlor, a common herbicide, were investigated. The acetochlor sorption constants (Kf value) were 309.96 μg1-n Ln/ kg (biochars made of ricehull, BCR), 3.54 μg1-n Ln/ kg (biochars made of crofton weed, BCH) and 2.27 μg1-n Ln/ kg (biochars made of wood chips, BCW). The persistence of acetochlor was 8 times greater when 1% BCR was added to the soil...
June 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xiaomei Dong, Jian Chen, Tong Li, En Li, Xiangbo Zhang, Mei Zhang, Weibin Song, Haiming Zhao, Jinsheng Lai
Genomic imprinting refers to allele-specific expression of genes depending on their parental origin. Nucleosomes, the fundamental units of chromatin, play a critical role in gene transcriptional regulation. However, it remains unknown whether differential nucleosome organization is related to the allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. Here, we generated a genome-wide map of allele-specific nucleosome occupancy in maize endosperm and presented an integrated analysis of its relationship with parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression and DNA methylation...
June 14, 2018: Genome Research
Kiatkamjon Intani, Sajid Latif, Zebin Cao, Joachim Müller
Response surface methodology was used to optimise pyrolysis conditions to produce biochar from maize residues (cobs, husks, leaves and stalks). The aim was to obtain biochar with good potential as an additive for composting. Mathematical models were developed to explain the experimental responses of volatile matter content (VM), ash content (AC), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) to the operating parameters such as temperature, heating rate and holding time. The temperature had the most significant influence on biochar properties...
June 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Li Zhang, Jing Wang, Guozhan Fu, Yonggan Zhao
Soil rotational tillage is an effective measure to overcome the problems caused by long-term of a single tillage, but the effect of the interval time of rotational tillage practices is not very well understood. Therefore, we conducted a 3-year field study in a wheat-maize cropping system to evaluate the effects of rotary tillage (RT) in rotation with plowing tillage (PT) on soil properties in northern China. Four practices were designed as follows: 3 years of RT to a depth of 10-15 cm (3RT), 3 years of PT to a depth of 30-35 cm (3PT), 1 year of PT followed by 2 years of RT (PT+2RT), and 2 years of PT followed by 1 year of RT (2PT+RT)...
2018: PloS One
Ke Luo, Ki-Baek Jeong, Sang-Mook You, Da-Hee Lee, Young-Rok Kim
Herein, we report a fairly simple and environmentally friendly approach for the fabrication of starch-based magnetic polymer beads (SMPBs) with uniform shape and size through spontaneous rearrangement of short chain glucan (SCG) produced by enzymatic debranching of waxy maize starch. The paramagnetic materials, dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Dex@IONPs), were readily incorporated into the starch microstructure and rendered a superparamagnetic property to the SMPBs. The morphology and size of resulting SMPBs turned out to be modulated by Dex@IONPs in concentration dependent manner, of which Dex@IONPs was assumed to be acting as a seed inducing the epitaxial crystallization of SCG and further transforming it into homogeneous microparticles...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Manaki Mimura, Toru Kudo, Shan Wu, Donald R McCarty, Masaharu Suzuki
In plants, establishment of the basic body plan during embryogenesis involves complex processes of axis formation, cell fate specification and organ differentiation. While molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis have been well studied in the eudicot Arabidopsis, only a small number of genes regulating embryogenesis has been identified in grass species. Here, we show that a RKD-type RWP-RK transcription factor encoded by Shohai1 (Shai1) is indispensable for embryo and endosperm development in maize. Loss of Shai1 function causes variable morphological defects in the embryo including small scutellum, shoot axis bifurcation and arrest during early organogenesis...
June 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Peng Zhu, Zhenong Jin, Qianlai Zhuang, Philippe Ciais, Carl Bernacchi, Xuhui Wang, David Makowski, David Lobell
A better understanding of recent crop yield trends is necessary for improving the yield and maintaining food security. Several possible mechanisms have been investigated recently in order to explain the steady growth in maize yield over the US Corn-Belt, but a substantial fraction of the increasing trend remains elusive. In this study, trends in grain filling period (GFP) were identified and their relations with maize yield increase were further analyzed. By using satellite data from 2000 to 2015, an average lengthening of GFP of 0...
June 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Ana L C Soares, Christoph-Martin Geilfus, Sebastien C Carpentier
Salt stress in plants triggers complex physiological responses that are genotype specific. Many of these responses are either not yet described or not fully understood or both. In this work, we phenotyped three maize genotypes of the CIMMYT gene bank alongside the reference B73 genotype (NCRPIS - United States) under both control and salt-stressed conditions. We have ranked their growth potential and we observed significant differences in Na+ and Cl- ion accumulation. Genotype CML421 showed the slowest growth, while CML451 had the lowest accumulation of ions in its leaves...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kabita Kharel, Linda J Mason, Scott B Williams, Larry L Murdock, Ibrahim B Baoua, Dieudonne Baributsa
Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags were designed to reduce grain storage losses on smallholder farms. The bag consists of three layers: two high-density polyethylene liners fitted inside a woven polypropylene bag. Recently, farmer groups, development relief programs, and government food security agencies have shown interest in PICS bags for large-scale use. PICS bags are conventionally closed by a twist-tie (TT) method, which involves twisting, folding, and tying the lip of each layer individually with a cord...
June 2018: Journal of Stored Products Research
Man Wang, Zhibin Chen, Huairen Zhang, Huabang Chen, Xiquan Gao
In maize ( Zea mays L.), unilateral cross-incompatibility (UCI) is controlled by Gametophyte factors ( Ga ), including Ga1 , Ga2 , and Tcb1 ; however, the molecular mechanisms underpinning this process remain unexplored. Here, we report the pollination phenotype of an inbred line, 511L, which carries a near-dominant Ga2 - S allele. We performed a high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of the compatible and incompatible crosses between 511L and B73, to identify the transcriptomic differences associated with Ga2 -mediated UCI...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Abebe D Chukalla, Maarten S Krol, Arjen Y Hoekstra
In irrigated crop production, nitrogen (N) is often applied at high rates in order to maximize crop yield. With such high rates, the blue water footprint (WF) per unit of crop is low, but the N-related grey WF per unit of crop yield is relatively high. This study explores the trade-off between blue and grey WF at different N-application rates (from 25 to 300 kg N ha-1  y-1 ) under various field management practices. We first analyse this trade-off under a reference management package (applying inorganic-N, conventional tillage, full irrigation)...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tino Colombi, Lorena Chagas Torres, Achim Walter, Thomas Keller
Water is the most limiting resource for global crop production. The projected increase of dry spells due to climate change will further increase the problem of water limited crop yields. Besides low water abundance and availability, water limitations also occur due to restricted water accessibility. Soil penetration resistance, which is largely influenced by soil moisture, is the major soil property regulating root elongation and water accessibility. Until now the interactions between soil penetration resistance, root system properties, water uptake and crop productivity are rarely investigated...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Glaucia B Cabral, Vera T C Carneiro, Ana Cristina M M Gomes, Ana Luiza Lacerda, Adriana P Martinelli, Diva M A Dusi
Brachiaria brizantha is a forage grass well adapted to tropical areas and cultivated in millions of hectares in Brazil. The apomictic mode of reproduction in this species, in addition to differences in ploidy between sexual and apomictic plants, impairs crossbreeding. The development of a methodology to transform apomictic cultivars will provide an option to introduce agronomic important traits to B. brizantha cv. Marandu. In addition, it will open the possibility to study in vivo the function of candidate genes involved in the apomictic reproduction...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Michelle A Coelho, Roberta Fusconi, Liliane Pinheiro, Ionara C Ramos, Adão S Ferreira
The addition of organic residues to agricultural soils has been used as a practical alternative to improve crop quality and health. The objective of this work was to evaluate maize physiological and nutritional responses to the application of compost and biochar combined with urea (N) and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). The experiment was performed in plastic pots with 3 kg of soil under greenhouse conditions for 30 days. The compost and biochar were applied at the rate of 0.3 ton ha-1, using an amount of nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) demanded by crop growth...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Sina Krombach, Stefanie Reissmann, Saskia Kreibich, Florian Bochen, Regine Kahmann
The peroxisomal sterol carrier protein 2 (Scp2) of the biotrophic maize pathogen Ustilago maydis was detected in apoplastic fluid, suggesting that it might function as a secreted effector protein. Here we analyze the role of the scp2 gene during plant colonization. We used reverse genetics approaches to delete the scp2 gene, determined stress sensitivity and fatty acid utilization of mutants, demonstrated secretion of Scp2, used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for expression analysis and expressed GFP-Scp2 fusion proteins for protein localization...
June 13, 2018: New Phytologist
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