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Huijun Wu, Shun Wang, Liangmin Gao, Ling Zhang, Zengwei Yuan, Tingyu Fan, Kaiping Wei, Li Huang
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a critical role in agricultural production and cause many environmental disturbances. By combing life cycle assessment (LCA) method with the mass balance principle of substance flow analysis (SFA), this study establishes a nutrient-derived environmental impact assessment (NEIA) model to analyze the environmental impacts caused by nutrient-containing substances of agricultural production in China during 1978-2015. The agricultural production system is composed of crop farming and livestock breeding, and the environmental impacts include energy consumption, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Maria L Stewart, J Paul Zimmer
OBJECTIVES: VERSAFIBE™ 2470 resistant starch (RS) is an RS type 4 that is derived from high-amylose maize starch,70% total dietary fiber (TDF; AOAC method 2009.01). This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study to evaluate the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses of healthy adults (n = 28) after the consumption of a muffin top made with VERSAFIBE™ 2470 RS (11.6 g TDF fiber muffin top) or a control muffin top (0.9 g TDF). METHODS: The muffin tops were matched for weight, total carbohydrate, sugars, protein, and fat...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition
Lijun Sun, Michael J Gidley, Fredrick J Warren
The effects of tea polyphenols on binding of porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) with normal maize starch granules were studied through solution depletion assays, fluorescence spectroscopy and initial rate kinetics. Only polyphenols which have inhibitory activity against PPA increased the binding of PPA with starch. The results are consistent with a binding equilibrium between polyphenols, starch and PPA. The dissociation constant (Kd ) for PPA binding was decreased by tea polyphenols, with the effects greater for theaflavins than catechins and for galloylated than non-galloylated polyphenols...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Suresh Thapa, Feiyu Zhu, Harkamal Walia, Hongfeng Yu, Yufeng Ge
Recently, imaged-based approaches have developed rapidly for high-throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP). Imaging reduces a 3D plant into 2D images, which makes the retrieval of plant morphological traits challenging. We developed a novel LiDAR-based phenotyping instrument to generate 3D point clouds of single plants. The instrument combined a LiDAR scanner with a precision rotation stage on which an individual plant was placed. A LabVIEW program was developed to control the scanning and rotation motion, synchronize the measurements from both devices, and capture a 360° view point cloud...
April 13, 2018: Sensors
Naxieli Santiago-De La Rosa, Griselda González-Cardoso, José de Jesús Figueroa-Lara, Mirella Gutiérrez-Arzaluz, Claudia Octaviano-Villasana, Irma Fabiola Ramírez-Hernández, Violeta Mugica-Álvarez
Biomass burning is a common agricultural practice, because it allows elimination of post harvesting residues; nevertheless, it involves an inefficient combustion process that generates atmospheric pollutants emission, which has implications on health and climate change. This work focuses on the estimation of emission factors (EFs) of PM2.5 , PM10 , organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) of residues burning from alfalfa, barley, beans, cotton, maize, rice, sorghum and wheat, in México...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Chenqi Niu, Yuancong Xu, Chao Zhang, Pengyu Zhu, Kunlun Huang, Yunbo Luo, Wentao Xu
As genetically modified (GM) technology develops and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) become more available, GMOs face increasing regulations and pressure to adhere to strict labeling guidelines. A singleplex detection method cannot perform the high-throughput analysis necessary for optimal GMO detection. Combining the advantages of multiplex detection and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), a single universal primer-multiplex-ddPCR (SUP-M-ddPCR) strategy was proposed for accurate broad-spectrum screening and quantification...
April 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Dedi Ma, Lei Chen, Hongchao Qu, Yilin Wang, Tom Misselbrook, Rui Jiang
In order to increase crop yield in semi-arid and arid areas, plastic film mulching (PFM) is widely used in Northwestern China. To date, many studies have addressed the effects of PFM on soil physical and biochemical properties in rain-fed agriculture in Northwestern China, but the findings of different studies are often contradictory. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the impacts of PFM on soil water content, soil nutrients and food production is needed. We compiled the results of 1278 observations to evaluate the overall effects of PFM on soil water content, the distribution of nitrate and soil organic carbon, and crop yield in rain-fed agriculture in Northwestern China...
April 1, 2018: Agricultural Water Management
Sandra Pérez Álvarez, Amaury Méndez Guerrero, Bernardo Nayar Débora Duarte, Marco Antonio Magallanes Tapia, Jesús Alicia Chávez Medina, Yoannis Domínguez Rodríguez
Metarhizium rileyi (Farlow) Samson is an important entomopathogenic fungus of more than 30 species of Lepidoptera larvae. The aim of this research was to characterize isolate of M. rileyi from Quivicán, Cuba on the basis of morphological and molecular approaches. The fungus was isolated from samples of S . frugiperda larvae collected from maize fields of Quivicán municipality, Mayabeque province, Cuba, and it was cultured on PDA + Ampicillin solid media for morphological characterization. The DNA was isolated using CTAB method and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, ITS4) were used as the primers for the amplification...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Wenhai Luo, Bangxi Zhang, Yanmeng Bi, Guoxue Li, Qiaoping Sun
In this study, we investigated the impact of intensive aeration pre-treatment on nutrient contents and phytotoxicity of anaerobically digested manure centrate. Activated sludge from conventional wastewater treatment plants was added to reinforce the aeration process. Results show that the addition of activated sludge did not negatively affect the nutrient contents, but significantly reduced the phytotoxicity of digested centrate, as indicated by an enhancement of seed germination index, during the aeration treatment...
March 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Maximilian Strer, Nikolai Svoboda, Antje Herrmann
Background: Understanding the abundance of adverse environmental conditions e.g. frost, drought, and heat during critical crop growth stages, which are assumed to be altered by climate change, is crucial for an accurate risk assessment for cropping systems. While a lengthening of the vegetation period may be beneficial, higher frequencies of heat or frost events and drought spells are generally regarded as harmful. The objective of the present study was to quantify shifts in maize and wheat phenology and the occurrence of adverse environmental conditions during critical growth stages for four regions located in the North German Plain...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Vinod Kumar Malik, Manjeet Singh, Karambir Singh Hooda, Naresh Kumar Yadav, Prashant Kumar Chauhan
Maize ( Zea mays L.; 2N=20) is major staple food crop grown worldwide adapted to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Maydis leaf blight (MLB) and banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) are serious foliar fungal diseases may cause up to 40% and 100% grain yield loss, respectively. The present studies were undertaken to work out the efficacy of chemicals, botanicals and bioagents for the management of MLB and BLSB under field condition for two seasons Kharif 2014 and 2015. Five molecules (propiconazole 25 EC, hexaconazole 25 EC, carbendazim 50 WP, mancozeb 75 WP and carbedazim 12 WP + mancozeb 63 WP), two bioagents i...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Kwang Yeol Baek, Hyun-Hee Lee, Geun Ju Son, Pyeong An Lee, Nazish Roy, Young-Su Seo, Seon-Woo Lee
Accurate and rapid detection of bacterial plant pathogen is the first step toward disease management and prevention of pathogen spread. Bacterial plant pathogens Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis ( Cmn ), Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii ( Pss ), and Rathayibacter tritici ( Rt ) cause Goss's bacterial wilt and blight of maize, Stewart's wilt of maize and spike blight of wheat and barley, respectively. The bacterial diseases are not globally distributed and not present in Korea. This study adopted comparative genomics approach and aimed to develop specific primer pairs to detect these three bacterial pathogens...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
R Kelly Dawe, Elizabeth G Lowry, Jonathan I Gent, Michelle C Stitzer, Kyle W Swentowsky, David M Higgins, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra, Jason G Wallace, Lisa B Kanizay, Magdy Alabady, Weihong Qiu, Kuo-Fu Tseng, Na Wang, Zhi Gao, James A Birchler, Alex E Harkess, Amy L Hodges, Evelyn N Hiatt
Maize abnormal chromosome 10 (Ab10) encodes a classic example of true meiotic drive that converts heterochromatic regions called knobs into motile neocentromeres that are preferentially transmitted to egg cells. Here, we identify a cluster of eight genes on Ab10, called the Kinesin driver (Kindr) complex, that are required for both neocentromere motility and preferential transmission. Two meiotic drive mutants that lack neocentromere activity proved to be kindr epimutants with increased DNA methylation across the entire gene cluster...
April 2, 2018: Cell
Nadia Saeed, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Shakeel, Misbah Ashraf
The effectiveness of Grain-Guard, an improved form of diatomaceous earth (DE), with low risk to the environment, was evaluated against the storage pests Liposcelis paeta, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Tribolium castaneum on four grain commodities, wheat, rice, maize and sorghum. The overall mortality of stored grain pests increased with the rise of application rate and exposure intervals of diatomaceous earth and decreased over 120 days of post-treatment period. Our results revealed that mortality of adults 14 days post-disclosure was > 80% on wheat at the start of post-treatment than rice, maize, and sorghum, respectively...
April 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elisabeth Tamayo, Simon A B Knight, Ascensión Valderas, Andrew Dancis, Nuria Ferrol
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can improve iron (Fe) acquisition of their host plants. Here, we report a characterization of two components of the high-affinity reductive Fe uptake system of Rhizophagus irregularis, the ferric reductase (RiFRE1) and the high affinity Fe permeases (RiFTR1-2). In the extraradical mycelia (ERM), Fe deficiency induced activation of a plasma membrane-localized ferric reductase, an enzyme that reduces Fe(III) sources to the more soluble Fe(II). Yeast mutant complementation assays showed that RiFRE1 encodes a functional ferric reductase and RiFTR1 an iron permease...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Geoffrey P Gill, Catherine J Bryant, Mikhail Fokin, Jan Huege, Karl Fraser, Chris Jones, Mingshu Cao, Marty J Faville
BACKGROUND: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites that function as feeding deterrents in a range of different plant species. In perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) the only PAs that have been identified are the thesinine-rhamnoside group, which displays significant genetic variation. Homospermidine synthase (HSS) has evolved from deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and catalyses the first step in the PA pathway, making it a key candidate for the investigation of genes influencing observed PA trait variation...
April 6, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
José Rodrigo Mendoza, Ana Rodas, Ana Oliva, Luis Sabillón, Ana Colmenares, Jennifer Clarke, Heather E Hallen-Adams, Carlos Campabadal, Andréia Bianchini
Maize ( Zea mays) is a staple in many developing countries but is known to be prone to pest (insects, birds, and rodents) and fungal infestation. In Guatemala, mycotoxin contamination of cultivated products may occur owing to such factors as environmental conditions and the use of traditional agriculture operations. To assess the current maize conditions in Guatemala, a small-scale study was performed. Mold and insect counts and mycotoxin (aflatoxin and fumonisin) concentrations were determined on 25 farms in two townships (Chiantla and Todos Santos) of the Huehuetenango Department...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Zerihun Tadele
A changing climate, a growing world population, and a reduction in arable land devoted to food production are all problems facing the world food security. The development of crops that can yield under uncertain and extreme climatic and soil growing conditions can play a key role in mitigating these problems. Major crops such as maize, rice, and wheat are responsible for a large proportion of global food production but many understudied crops (commonly known as "orphan crops") including millets, cassava, and cowpea feed millions of people in Asia, Africa, and South America and are already adapted to the local environments in which they are grown...
2018: Scientifica
Rafael A Cañas, Zhazira Yesbergenova-Cuny, Margaret Simons, Fabien Chardon, Patrick Armengaud, Isabelle Quilleré, Caroline Cukier, Yves Gibon, Anis M Limami, Stéphane D Nicolas, Lénaïg Brulé, Peter J Lea, Costas D Maranas, Bertrand Hirel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Plant Cell
Marcelo Silva Barcellos, Glenda Dias, José Lino-Neto
The corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis, which is one of the most important vectors of maize diseases, had the morphology of its spermatozoa described more than 40 years ago. However, the description is imprecise, requiring certain rectifications. Hence, we re-describe the sperm morphology of this species using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Their spermatozoa measured from 118.1 to 128.5 μm in length, this value being about three times smaller than what was previously described. The head region is formed by a small acrosome and the nucleus...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
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