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Munir Ahmad, Adel R A Usman, Abdullah S Al-Faraj, Mahtab Ahmad, Abdelazeem Sallam, Mohammad I Al-Wabel
Biochar (BC) was produced by pyrolyzing the date palm leaf waste at 600 °C and then loaded with phosphorus (P) via sorption process. Greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the application effects of BC and P-loaded biochar (BCP) on growth and availability of P and heavy metals to maize (Zea mays L.) plants grown in contaminated mining soil. The treatments consisted of BC and BCP (at application rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 g kg-1 of soil), recommended NK and NPK, and a control (no amendment)...
November 28, 2017: Chemosphere
Lei Sheng, Haiyang Jiang, Hanwei Yan, Xiaoyu Li, Yongxiang Lin, Hui Ye, Beijiu Cheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Mingnan Qu, James A Bunce, Richard C Sicher, Xiaocen Zhu, Bo Gao, Genyun Chen
Detached leaves at top canopy structures always experience higher solar irradiance and leaf temperature under natural conditions. The ability of tolerance to high temperature represents thermotolerance potential of whole-plants, but was less of concern. In this study, we used a heat-tolerant (B76) and a heat-susceptible (B106) maize inbred line to assess the possible mitigation of sudden heat shock (SHS) effects on photosynthesis (PN) and C4 assimilation pathway by elevated [CO2]. Two maize lines were grown in field-based open top chambers (OTCs) at ambient and elevated (+180 ppm) [CO2]...
2017: PloS One
Eugenia Cendoya, María Del Pilar Monge, Stella Maris Chiacchiera, María Cecilia Farnochi, María Laura Ramirez
Wheat is the most important cereal consumed by the Argentine population. In previous studies performed in durum and common wheat grains in this country it has been observed fumonisin contamination as well as high incidence of Fusarium proliferatum. Fumonisins are toxic fungal metabolites, and consumption of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been epidemiologically associated with oesophageal cancer and neural tube defects in some human populations. Using irradiated wheat-grains, the effects of abiotic factors, temperature (15, 25, and 30°C) and water activity (aW; 0...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Yali Lei, Zhenxing Shen, Tian Zhang, Qian Zhang, Qiyuan Wang, Jian Sun, Xuesong Gong, Junji Cao, Hongmei Xu, Suixin Liu, Liu Yang
In this study, both PM2.5 and size-resolved source samples were collected from a "heated kang" and an advanced stove to investigate the optical properties of brown carbon (BrC). The light-absorption coefficient (babs), the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE), and the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of both water and methanol-extracted BrC were investigated. The methanol-extracted BrC (BrCmethanol) had higher light absorption than water-extracted BrC (BrCwater). The value of PM2.5 babs of BrCmethanol at 365nm (babs365,methanol) dramatically decreased from 64,669...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nivedita Dube, Purna Chandra Mashurabad, Firoz Hossain, Raghu Pullakhandam, Longvah Thingnganing, Dinesh Kumar Bharatraj
Biofortification of maize with provitamin A (pro-VA) carotenoids has been successful, but the bioavailability of carotenoids needs to be explored. In the present study, we investigated the carotenoid content, micellarization and intestinal cell uptake of carotenoids from 10 maize hybrids [normal maize, quality protein maize (QPM), pro-VA carotenoid and double biofortified QPM + pro-VA maize hybrids] using a simulated in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. The pro-VA carotenoid content of biofortified maize hybrids is 2-10 fold higher compared to that of normal maize...
December 7, 2017: Food & Function
Eva Knoch, Satoko Sugawara, Tetsuya Mori, Ryo Nakabayashi, Kazuki Saito, Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara
UGT79B31 encodes flavonol 3- O -glycoside: 2″- O -glucosyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for the terminal modification of pollen-specific flavonols in Petunia hybrida. Flavonoids are known to be involved in pollen fertility in petunia (P. hybrida) and maize (Zea mays). As a first step toward elucidating the role of flavonoids in pollen, we have identified a glycosyltransferase that is responsible for the terminal modification of petunia pollen-specific flavonoids. An in silico search of the petunia transcriptome database revealed four candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes...
December 6, 2017: Planta
Chelsea R Johnson, Reginald J Millwood, Yuhong Tang, Jiqing Gou, Robert W Sykes, Geoffrey B Turner, Mark F Davis, Yi Sang, Zeng-Yu Wang, C Neal Stewart
Background: Genetic engineering has been effective in altering cell walls for biofuel production in the bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). However, regulatory issues arising from gene flow may prevent commercialization of engineered switchgrass in the eastern United States where the species is native. Depending on its expression level, microRNA156 (miR156) can reduce, delay, or eliminate flowering, which may serve to decrease transgene flow. In this unique field study of transgenic switchgrass that was permitted to flower, two low (T14 and T35) and two medium (T27 and T37) miR156-overexpressing 'Alamo' lines with the transgene under the control of the constitutive maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin 1 promoter, along with nontransgenic control plants, were grown in eastern Tennessee over two seasons...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
B V Deepthi, Rakesh Somashekaraiah, K Poornachandra Rao, N Deepa, N K Dharanesha, K S Girish, M Y Sreenivasa
Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species is a predominant Group 2B carcinogen occurring in maize and maize-based poultry feeds. It is shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, and immunosuppressing in animals. In this study, we report the ameliorating effects of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 on FB1-induced toxicity and oxidative damage in broilers. A 6-week dietary experiment consisting of 48 broilers was performed in six treatment groups. Probiotic treatment (109 cells/mL) involved pre-colonization of broilers with L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bryan Delaney, Richard E Goodman, Greg S Ladics
The first genetically engineered (GE) food crop (tomato) was introduced in 1995, followed by the successful development and commercial release of maize, soybeans, cotton, canola, potatoes, papaya, alfalfa, squash, and sugar beets with specific new genetic traits. Even though the safety of every new GE crop has been evaluated by various regulatory authorities throughout the world prior to its commercial release, the ongoing public debate about the safety of food and feed derived from GE plants has not abated...
December 4, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Fernanda G Santos, Camilly Fratelli, Denise G Muniz, Vanessa D Capriles
The aim of the study was utilized chickpea to create appealing, nutritious, and palatable gluten-free bread (GFB). The performance of chickpea flour (CF) in single and composite GFB formulations was studied with a mixture design and response surface methodology. Six simplex-centroid designs for 3 ingredients were used to identify the ideal proportions of CF in various blends with cassava starch (CS), maize starch (MS), potato starch (PS), and rice flour (RF) achieving the best physical properties. For each design, 3 single, 3 binary, and 3 ternary formulations were prepared...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Xiaohuan Mu, Qinwu Chen, Fanjun Chen, Lixing Yuan, Guohua Mi
Nitrogen is a major limiting factor for crop productivity. The relationship between photosynthesis and nitrogen nutrition has been widely studied. However, the molecular response of leaf photosynthesis to low nitrogen supply in crops is less clear. In this study, RNA sequencing technology (RNA-Seq) was used to investigate the gene expressions related to photosynthesis in maize in response to low nitrogen supply. It was found that low nitrogen supply down-regulated the expression of genes involved in photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qianqian Feng, Jing Xu, Yayun Zhang, Xiaosha Li, Jiaojiao Xu, Huifang Han, Tangyuan Ning, Rattal Lal, Zengjia Li
This study was conducted to quantify the potential for CO2 fixation in the above-ground biomass of summer maize (Zea mays L.) under different tillage and residue retention treatments. The treatments were paired and included conventional tillage with straw removed (CT0), conventional tillage with straw retained (CTS), no-till with straw removed (NT0), no-till with straw retention (NTS), subsoiling with straw removed (SS0), and subsoiling with straw retained (SSS). The results indicated that NTS and SSS can enhance translocation of photosynthates to grains during the post-anthesis stage...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Huijin Shi, Xiujun Wang, Minggang Xu, Haibo Zhang, Yongming Luo
To better understand the characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM) in the North China Plain, we evaluate the large scale variations of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio and stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) in SOC over 0-100 cm. To assess the influence of the Yellow River, 31 sites are selected from the wheat-maize double cropping system, and grouped into two: 10 sites near and 21 sites far from the river. Our data show that mean soil C:N ratio is low (7...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rajiv K Parvathaneni, Victoria L DeLeo, John J Spiekerman, Debkanta Chakraborty, Katrien M Devos
BACKGROUND: The presence of non-coding introns is a characteristic feature of most eukaryotic genes. While the size of the introns, number of introns per gene and the number of intron-containing genes can vary greatly between sequenced eukaryotic genomes, the structure of a gene with reference to intron presence and positions is typically conserved in closely related species. Unexpectedly, the ABCB1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1) gene which encodes a P-glycoprotein and underlies dwarfing traits in maize (br2), sorghum (dw3) and pearl millet (d2) displayed considerable variation in intron composition...
December 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Fangfang Yang, Xinhua Ding, Jing Chen, Yanting Shen, Lingguang Kong, Ning Li, Zhaohui Chu
BACKGROUND: Banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB), caused by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani, is a highly devastating disease in most maize and rice growing areas of the world. However, the molecular mechanisms of perceiving pathogen signals are poorly understood in hosts. RESULTS: Here, we identified a Rhizoctonia solani-inducible promoter pGRMZM2G174449 in maize. Deletion analysis showed that the -574 to -455 fragment was necessary for pGRMZM2G174449 in responding to R...
December 4, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Jian Chen, EnLi, Jinsheng Lai
Nucleosomes are the fundamental units of eukaryotic chromatin and can modulate the DNA accessibility for transcriptional regulatory elements. Many studies have demonstrated the effect of nucleosome organization on gene transcription level and transcriptional plasticity upon different conditions. Our recent study showed that nucleosome organization also plays an important role in modulating the plasticity of gene transcriptional status in maize. Here, we integrated our findings with previous studies on the role of nucleosome organization in regulation of gene transcription...
December 5, 2017: Nucleus
Tanja Osthushenrich, Matthias Frisch, Eva Herzog
In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize...
2017: PloS One
Pepukai Manjeru, Angeline Van Biljon, Maryke Labuschagne
Micronutrient deficiencies have been identified as major public health problems affecting a large part of the world's population. Biofortification of staple crops like maize has been proposed as one of the most cost effective and feasible approaches to combat micronutrient deficiencies. Studies have shown that provitamin A from biofortified crops is highly bioavailable and has the capacity to improve vitamin A status of vulnerable groups. Most people in sub-Saharan Africa subsist on maize and many people may benefit from consumption of provitamin A carotenoid biofortified maize, especially women and children...
December 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Naholi D Alejandri-Ramírez, Elva C Chávez-Hernández, Jose L Contreras-Guerra, Jose L Reyes, Tzvetanka D Dinkova
Somatic embryogenesis represents an alternative developmental process used to achieve genetic transformation and to approach key questions in maize development. It is known that embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration are accompanied by microRNA expression changes. However, small RNA (sRNA) populations have not been explored during the proliferative callus subculture establishment and their impact on maintaining the dedifferentiated status and embryogenic potential is far from being completely understood...
November 30, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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