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Jasmin Vuralhan-Eckert, Silke Lautner, Jörg Fromm
Electrical signalling in response to environmental stimuli is a well-known phenomenon in higher plants. For example, in maize, different stimuli, such as wounding or re-irrigation after drought, incite characteristic electrical signals which have quite particular effects on gas exchange. What is less well understood is how plants (specifically maize) respond when two different environmental stimuli are applied simultaneously. To explore this, a three-stage experiment was designed. In the first stage, drought conditions were simulated by decreasing the soil water content to 30-40 % of field capacity...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Qisong Li, Jun Chen, Linkun Wu, Xiaomian Luo, Na Li, Yasir Arafat, Sheng Lin, Wenxiong Lin
Intercropping has been widely used to control disease and improve yield in agriculture. In this study, maize and peanut were used for non-separation intercropping (NS), semi-separation intercropping (SS) using a nylon net, and complete separation intercropping (CS) using a plastic sheet. In field experiments, two-year land equivalent ratios (LERs) showed yield advantages due to belowground interactions when using NS and SS patterns as compared to monoculture. In contrast, intercropping without belowground interactions (CS) showed a yield disadvantage...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Danni Zhou, Xiaoming Wang, Guokang Chen, Suli Sun, Yang Yang, Zhendong Zhu, Canxing Duan
Fusarium verticillioides , F. proliferatum , and F. meridionale were identified as the predominant fungi among 116 Fusarium isolates causing maize ear and kernel rot, a destructive disease in Chongqing areas, China. The toxigenic capability and genotype were determined by molecular amplification and toxin assay. The results showed that the key toxigenic gene FUM1 was detected in 47 F. verticillioides and 19 F. proliferatum isolates. Among these, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum isolates mainly produced fumonisin B₁, ranging from 3...
February 22, 2018: Toxins
Tesfaye Negewo, Solomon Melaku, Bimrew Asmare, Adugna Tolera
The experiment was conducted using 20 yearling intact male Arsi-Bale sheep with a mean body weight of 20.56 ± 0.45 (mean ± SD) to investigate the performance and economic benefit of graded levels of concentrate supplementation to urea-treated maize cob (UTMC)-based diet. The experiment consisted of 7 days of digestibility trial and subsequent 90 days of feeding trial. Before the commencement of the experiment, sheep were vaccinated against common infectious diseases, dewormed, and disinfected against internal and external parasites, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Sivakumar Sukumaran, Matthew P Reynolds, Carolina Sansaloni
Understanding the genetic bases of economically important traits is fundamentally important in enhancing genetic gains in durum wheat. In this study, a durum panel of 208 lines (comprised of elite materials and exotics from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center gene bank) were subjected to genome wide association study (GWAS) using 6,211 DArTseq single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The panel was phenotyped under yield potential (YP), drought stress (DT), and heat stress (HT) conditions for 2 years...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jake C Fountain, Jin Koh, Liming Yang, Manish K Pandey, Spurthi N Nayak, Prasad Bajaj, Wei-Jian Zhuang, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Robert C Kemerait, R Dewey Lee, Sixue Chen, Rajeev K Varshney, Baozhu Guo
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of plants such as maize and peanut under conducive conditions such as drought stress resulting in significant aflatoxin production. Drought-associated oxidative stress also exacerbates aflatoxin production by A. flavus. The objectives of this study were to use proteomics to provide insights into the pathogen responses to H2 O2 -derived oxidative stress, and to identify potential biomarkers and targets for host resistance breeding. Three isolates, AF13, NRRL3357, and K54A with high, moderate, and no aflatoxin production, were cultured in medium supplemented with varying levels of H2 O2 , and examined using an iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
M J Bell, J Craigon, N Saunders, J R Goodman, P C Garnsworthy
Diet manipulation and genetic selection are two important mitigation strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock. The aim of this study was to assess whether the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from individual dairy cows changes over time when cows are fed on diets varying in forage composition. Emissions of CH4 from 36 cows were measured during milking in an automatic (robotic) milking station in three consecutive feeding periods, for a total of 84 days. In Periods 1 and 2, the 36 cows were fed a high-forage partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 75% forage, with either a high grass silage or high maize silage content...
February 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Betelehem Wondwosen, Göran Birgersson, Habte Tekie, Baldwyn Torto, Rickard Ignell, Sharon R Hill
BACKGROUND: Anopheles arabiensis is a key vector for the transmission of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past 10,000 years, humans have successfully cultivated grasses and altered the landscape, creating An. arabiensis favourable environments that contain excellent habitats for both larvae and adults. Sugarcane is the most expanding agricultural system in sub-Saharan Africa, and is linked to the increased threat of malaria in rural communities. The prolific production and wind dispersal of sugarcane pollen, together with standing pools of water, often provide, as a result of irrigation, a nutrient-rich environment for the offspring of gravid malaria mosquitoes...
February 21, 2018: Malaria Journal
Weiqiang Zhang, Zhi Li, Hui Fang, Mingcai Zhang, Liusheng Duan
Ethylene (ET) is critical importance in the growth, development, and stress responses of plants. Plant hormonal stress responses have been extensively studied, however, the role of ET in plant growth, especially plant height (PH) remains unclear. Understanding the genetic control for PH in response to ET will provide insights into the regulation of maize development. To clarify the genetic basis of PH-related traits of maize in response to ET, we mapped QTLs for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of Zea mays after ET treatment and in an untreated control (CK) group...
2018: PloS One
Romina Martínez-Rubio, José Luis Acebes, Antonio Encina, Anna Kärkönen
Maize (Zea mays L.) suspension-cultured cells habituated to a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) have a modified cell wall, in which the reduction in the cellulose content is compensated by a network of highly cross-linked feruloylated arabinoxylans and the deposition of lignin-like polymers. For both arabinoxylan cross-linking and lignin polymerization, class III peroxidases (POXs) have been demonstrated to have a prominent role. For the first time, a comparative study of POX activity and isoforms in control and cellulose-impaired cells has been addressed, also taking into account their cellular distribution in different compartments...
February 21, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Hainan Zhao, Wenli Zhang, Lifen Chen, Lei Wang, Alexandre P Marand, Yufeng Wu, Jiming Jiang
Genomic regions free of nucleosomes are hypersensitive to DNase I digestion. These genomic regions are known as DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) and frequently contain cis-regulatory DNA elements. We developed high-resolution genome-wide DHS maps in maize using a modified DNase-seq technique. Maize DHSs exhibit depletion of nucleosomes and low levels of DNA methylation, and are enriched with conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs). We developed a protoplast-based transient transformation assay to validate the potential enhancer and/or promoter functions associated with DHSs...
February 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Kejun Yang, Yifei Zhang, Lianhua Zhu, Zuotong Li, Benliang Deng
Omethoate (OM) is a highly toxic organophophate insecticide, which is resistant to biodegradation in the environment and is widely used for pest control in agriculture. The effect of OM on maize seed germination was evaluated under salt stress. Salt (800mM) greatly reduced germination of maize seed and this could be reversed by OM. Additionally, H2 O2 treatment further improved the effect of OM on seed germination. Higher H2 O2 content was measured in OM treated seed compared to those with salt stress alone...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Lin Xu, Zhaowei Zhang, Qi Zhang, Wen Zhang, Li Yu, Du Wang, Hui Li, Peiwu Li
Multiple-mycotoxin contamination has been frequently found in the agro-food monitoring due to the coexistence of fungi. However, many determination methods focused on a single mycotoxin, highlighting the demand for on-site determination of multiple mycotoxins in a single run. We develop a multicolor-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS) for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin in maize- and cereal-based animal feeds. The nanoparticles with different colors are conjugated with three monoclonal antibodies, which serve as the immunoassay probes...
February 17, 2018: Toxins
Birgit Wolters, Samuel J A Jacquiod, Søren J Sørensen, Arum Widyasari-Mehta, Tina B Bech, Robert Kreuzig, Kornelia Smalla
Organic soil fertilizers, such as livestock manure and biogas digestate, frequently contain bacteria carrying resistance genes (RGs) to antimicrobial substances and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The effects of different fertilizers (inorganic, manure, digestate) on RG and MGE abundance and microbial community composition were investigated in a field plot experiment. The relative abundances of RGs [sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W), qacEΔ1/qacE] and MGEs [intI1, intI2, IncP-1, IncP-1ε and LowGC plasmids] in total community (TC)-DNA from organic fertilizers, bulk soil and maize rhizosphere were quantified by qPCR before/after fertilization and prior to maize harvest...
February 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Charles Farber, Dmitry Kurouski
Rapid detection and identification of crop pathogens is essential for improving crop yield. Typical pathogen assaying methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are time-consuming and destructive to the sample. Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a non-invasive non-destructive analytical technique which provides insight on the chemical structure of the specimen. In this study, we demonstrate that using a handheld Raman spectrometer, in combination with chemometric analyses, we can distinguish between healthy and diseased maize (Zea mays) kernels, as well as between different diseases with 100% accuracy...
February 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Zoltán Pálinkás, Mihály Zalai, Ágnes Szénási, Zita Dorner, József Kiss, Samuel North, Guy Woodward, Adalbert Balog
Arthropods from four genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids (coleopteran resistant, coleopteran and lepidopteran resistant, lepidopteran resistant+herbicide tolerant and coleopteran resistant and herbicide tolerant) and non-GM varieties were sampled during a two-year field assessment. A total number of 363 555 arthropod individuals were collected. This represents the most comprehensive arthropod dataset from GM maize, and together with weed data, is reasonable to determine functional groups of arthropods and interactions between species...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Data
Ronggai Li, Wei Song, Baoqiang Wang, Jianghao Wang, Dongmin Zhang, Quanguo Zhang, Xinghua Li, Jianfen Wei, Zengyu Gao
Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a severe viral disease of maize that occurs worldwide, particularly in the summer maize-growing areas in China, resulting in yield losses and quality deterioration in susceptible maize varieties. An effective solution to control MRDD is to use resistance genes to improve the behavior of susceptible genotypes. Here, we employed maize F2 populations derived from a cross between susceptible line S221 and resistant line K36 for the deep sequencing of the two DNA pools containing extremely resistant and susceptible F2 individuals, and used traditional linkage analysis to locate the resistance-related genomic region...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huawei Wei, Liuhong Wang, Muhammad Hassan, Bing Xie
Illumina MiSeq sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) were applied to study the dynamic changes and effects of microbial community structures as well as the metabolic function of bacterial community in maize straw composting process. Results showed that humic acid contents in loosely combined humus (HA1) and stably combined humus (HA2) increased after composting and Staphylococcus, Cellulosimicrobium and Ochrobactrum possibly participated in the transformation of the process...
February 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Leonhard Gruber, Georg Terler, Wilhelm Knaus
Since maize silage is an important forage in cattle nutrition, it is important to know its nutritive value. Much effort is put into breeding maize, and several new varieties are introduced on the market every year. This requires periodical analyses of the nutritive value of current maize varieties for the formulation of cattle rations. The aim of this study was to examine the nutritive value of whole crop maize silage (WCMS) from nine maize varieties in 3 consecutive years. For the analysis of nutrient composition and ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) and non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC), varieties were harvested at three harvest dates (50%, 55% and 60% dry matter content in ear)...
April 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Yinghua Shu, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
In the agroecosystem, genetically engineered plants producing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) interact with non-target herbivores and other elements of the food web. Stacked Bt crops expose herbivores to multiple Cry proteins simultaneously. In this study, the direct interactions between SmartStax® Bt maize producing six different Cry proteins and two herbivores with different feeding modes were investigated. Feeding on leaves of Bt maize had no effects on development time, fecundity, or longevity of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and no effects on the egg hatching time, development time, sex ratio, fecundity, and survival of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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